Skip to main content

Full text of "Jaina Yoga"

See other formats





ACCESSION NO. 3746£__ 

CALL No. 2.94 ■ 4-Z Wj 

ra t ?? 1 



London Oriental Series 
Volume 14 







/W Xi'v 

* i B DelJaiira 



t w* *1$ ■ 

</g a ,\W'- 

US 4- 42. 



" Wot 



I 963 

^ Na * &acak, LtI£LHl ^ 

Oxford University Press , Amen House , lo^on £.0.4 


© R> Williams , 19 6 3 


r f, AtPCi 1 • 

U - 

A**. HeS-7 H..&2 

Date . 1 A , t r. . £. • 

Cal Mo A 












The work here presented is an attempt to examine the contents 
of the principal Jaina sravakacaras . As these texts are not well 
known and often not easily accessible, some information about 
their authors has also been given and a few excerpts, designed to 
show the extent to which one writer depends on another, have 
been included in an appendix. 

It will be noted that, to avoid confusion, all technical terms em- 
ployed have been given in Sanskrit even in cases where an original 
Prakrit form has been falsely sanskritized. 

A certain amount of repetition has been imposed by the plan 
of the work, and it can only be hoped that this has been kept to 
a minimum. 

I should like to express my gratitude to Professor W. Schubring, 
who very kindly lent me his own copy of the Sravaka-prajnapti , the 
basic Svetambara text on bavakacara , when he learned that I was 
unable to procure the work from any other source. 

Finally I wish to acknowledge the generous assistance pro- 
vided by the authorities of the School of Oriental and African 
Studies who have included this book in the London Oriental 
Series and met the full cost of its publication. 








Authors — Svetambara sampradaya 


Authors — Digambara sampradaya 


The Ratna-traya 


Categories of dravakas 


Categories of food 


Samyaktva and mithyatva 


The Mula-gunas 


The Vratas 


The Ahimsa-vrata 


The Satya-vrata 


The Asteya-vrata 


The Brahma-vrata 


The Aparigraha-yrata 


The Dig-vrata 


The Bhogopabhoga-parimana-vrata 




The Abhaksyas 


The Ananta-kayas 


The Professions 

1 17 

The Anartha-danda-vrata 



The Samayika-vrata 


The Desavakasika-vrata 

r 39 

The Posadhopavasa-vrata 


The Dana-vrata 


The Sallekhana-vrata 


The Pratimas 


The Dina-carya 


The Necessary Duties 


The Namaskara 


The Caitya-vandana 


The Vandanaka 


Pratikramana and Alocana 




The Kayotsarga 


The Puja 


The Asatanas 




The Yatra 


The Caitya 








Vinaya and Vaiyavrttya 


The Anupreksas 


The Bhavanas 


The Kaias 




The Seven Vyasanas 


The Gatis 


The Sravaka-gunas 


The Kriyas 





When Hemacandra gave to his treatise on the rules of conduct 
for laymen and ascetics the name of Yoga-sastra he intended to 
convey that it covered the whole religious striving — what in Wes- 
tern terms might be rendered as a walking in righteousness all the 
days of one’s life. Though he may have chosen this title in order 
to stimulate the interest of his royal patron, who appears to have 
been attached to yogic practices, it is normal Svetambara usage to 
equate the term yoga with the ratna-traya , that combination of 
right belief, right knowledge, and right conduct on which the 
practice of Jainism is based. It is to a consideration of havaka- 
dharma or fravakacara, the corpus of rules which have been 
elaborated to regulate the daily life of a layman, that this survey 
will be restricted. 

The term sravakacara , current among the Digambaras but un- 
known, it would seem, to the Svetambaras, serves both as a general 
name for the topic and as a title for individual expositions designed 
to serve as breviaries for the householder and composed on parallel 
lines to the yaty-acaras which explain the duties of monks. These 
treatises though to some extent they form a counterpart to the 
Hindu dharma-iastras do not embrace as wide a range of contents. 
For sravakacara the Digambaras also employ the synonym upasakd- 
dhyayana , which is their name for the lost anga corresponding to 
the 3vetambara Updsaka-dasah . According to the Sat-khandagama 1 
this dealt with the eleven pratimas , the conferment of the vratas , 
and the proper way of carrying them out. A later account 2 of the 
lost angas expands this enumeration and includes in the subject- 
matter the pratimas , dana, puja, sangha-seva, vrata , guna f iila , and 
kriya: in view of the ambivalence of some of these terms the 
delimitation remains imprecise. Sravaka, upasaka , sramanopasa- 
ka } grhin, sagdra , desa-samyamin , desa-virata, sraddha (this last a 
purely 3vetambara usage) are amongst the names applied indiffer- 
ently, at least in the mediaeval period, to the lay disciple whose 
partial or limited vows of good conduct form the subject of the 

1 Vol. i, p. loz. 

2 Anga-prajnapti of &ubhacandra, pp. 44-46. 


The term mediaeval is purely one of convenience, for Jaina 
history may usefully be separated into three divisions. To the early 
period — the dark age covering the first millennium — belong the 
whole of the Svetambara canon and such fundamental Digambara 
works as the Prabhrtas of Kundakunda and the Tattvartha-sutra. 
The middle, or mediaeval, period extending from the fifth to the 
end of the thirteenth century is the most important historically 
and sees the greatest achievements in art and literature. Jaina 
groups and individuals in various parts of western and southern 
India are found exerting at times considerable influence on 
political developments, until the renaissance of Saivism (especially 
in the form of Vira^aivism) in the south and the expansion of 
Islam in the north shatter the flourishing Jaina communities. 
The fourteenth century is the great divide. From then on Jainism 
is on the defensive, and its adherents having lost access to the 
sources of power are relegated to the role of a scattered minority, 
no longer proselytizing, and increasingly identified with certain 
narrow social groups. This modern period is therefore, by com- 
parison with the past, an age of decadence. 

The h-avakacdras are not the only, nor indeed the best, source 
of information on the lay life. Clearly their authors, who for the 
mediaeval period seem all, except ASadhara, to have been monks, 
have not portrayed society as it existed but rather as they would 
have wished to see it, so that this survey may be said to be con- 
cerned in a sense with theory rather than with reality. Like the 
Hindu dharma-iastras these treatises present a one-sided view but 
in them it is the idealized figure of the muni and not of the brahmin 
that occupies the centre of the stage. The rich and varied katha 
literature, however artificial and shackled by convention it may be, 
can add much to complete the picture whilst the epigraphical 
evidence remains still largely unexploited. 

Though less voluminous than the treatises devoted to the monas- 
tic life the sravakacar as are still sufficiently numerous to make it 
difficult to cover their contents within a reasonable compass, even 
allowing for the fact that many have never been published or, even 
if printed, are not accessible in Europe. It was therefore decided 
to exclude all works in Tamil and Kanarese and to limit the scope 
of this survey to writings in Sanskrit and Prakrit. The very exten- 
sive literature in Hindi and Gujarati belongs in any event to the 
modern period. If therefore the relatively small number of texts 



surveyed is taken into consideration the generalizations may seem 
at times too categoric and any conclusions reached are bound to 
rest on incomplete evidence. 

This survey then is an attempt to describe the contents of the 
mediaeval sravakacaras including also the three asvasas from 
Somadeva’s Yasastilaka which are often collectively referred to as 
an upasakadhyayana and the three parvans from Jinasena’s Adi - 
purana which describe the kriyas or ceremonies marking the stages 
of progress in the lay and monastic life: in view of the esteem 
which they enjoy in the Digambara tradition it would have been 
impossible to omit these. On the other hand, with works such as 
the Dharma-bindu , Caritra-sara , Yoga-sastra, and Dharmamrta 
which treat of both the lay and the monastic life, only the sections 
relevant to the former have been taken into consideration. Nor are 
all the actual contents of the sravakacaras suitable for inclusion. 
The epitomes of the tattvas or padarthas , the basic dogmas of 
Jainism, prefixed by certain writers to their treatises offer, for 
example, no material that is not easily available elsewhere. The 
refutations of doctrines regarded as forms of mithydtva or false 
belief, though of intrinsic interest, are not germane to this survey: 
in general they are directed against the nastikas (with whom the 
Jainas are at great pains not to be confused), the Buddhists, or the 
Saivas, no attention being devoted to the Vaisnavas. Other excur- 
sions from the main theme are the heterogeneous items of informa- 
tion on topics as remote, for example, as stena-sastra which are 
to be found in the Svetambara commentaries and the technical 
instructions for the building of temples and fashioning of images. 

It might be desirable in a study of this kind to concentrate on 
a fixed point in time and it may be objected that the period covered 
by the survey — eight centuries — is too long to permit of any 
cohesion of treatment. In fact three-quarters of the works con- 
sidered belong to the eleventh and twelfth centuries. If any one 
book is to be taken as a standard it must be the YogaAastra , the 
general plan of which has moreover been followed in deciding the 
sequence of the contents, which, following the Jaina pattern, have 
been arranged by numerical categories. No other religion has been 
so obsessed by the hallucination of numbers and any description 
which failed to take account of this unprepossessing presentation 
would not be faithful. For some aspects of Jaina practice in which 
there have been considerable innovations such as the yatra, where 



the mediaeval texts do not offer sufficient material, works sub- 
sequent to a.d. 1300 have been drawn on for supplementary in- 

Before discussing certain points which arise from the survey it 
would perhaps be desirable to note how far the subject of sravakd- 
cara has attracted attention in the past. Weber touched on it in 
the course of his researches into the Jaina canon but the earliest 
attempt to produce an edition of a relevant text seems to have been 
t made by Windisch when he published the first iour prakasas of the 
Yoga-sastra; in the absence of the commentary his translation was 
naturally, at that stage, often speculative and sometimes wide of 
the mark. On the other hand, Hoernle’s edition of the Updsaka- 
daiah included Abhayadeva’s commentary and his renderings of 
text and commentary are still in the main valid. Jacobi’s edition of 
the Tattvartha-mtra 1 made that fundamental work available with 
translation, but the section of it devoted to srdvakacara — the 
seventh adhydya — is a small and relatively unimportant part of the 
whole. Ernst Leumann’s researches into the Avaiyaka literature 
were of relevance to the lay doctrine by the light which they 
threw on the Svetambara and Digambara liturgy. The two best 
general works on Jainism — Der Jainismus by H. von Glasenapp 
and Die'Lehre der Jainas by W. Schubring — are not concerned to 
a very great extent with the srdvakacara . The former dealt mainly 
with the contemporary scene; the latter covered the subject as far 
as it figures in the canonical literature with his usual masterly con- 
cision and impeccable scholarship. 

There was in Italy during the early years of this century a very 
great interest in Jaina and Middle Indian studies as the names of 
Tessitori, Pulle, Pavolini, Ballini, Belloni-Filippi, and Suali bear 
witness. Suali in particular, in his edition of the Dharma-bindu 
in the Giornale Asiatico, unhappily never continued beyond the 
fourth adhydya, offered one of the most successful translations of a 
Sanskrit text into a European language, a version in which elegance 
and poetical felicity of style are matched by the author’s mastery of 
his subject. With the text and translation are included an intro- 
duction and a commentary, based on that of Municandra, which 
together give a good idea of the classical $vetambara Srdvakacara 
doctrine. Belloni-Filippi, in the same periodical, embarked on an 
1 H. Jacobi, ‘Eine Jaina Dogmatic, ZDMG lx (1906), pp. 387-335 and 5 13-55. 



edition and translation of the Yoga-sastra which did not progress 
very far. 

In India in the twenties and thirties a group of Digambara pro- 
pagandists headed by Jagmandarlal Jaini and Champat Ray Jain 
produced in the Bibliotheca Jainica editions of works such as the 
Ratna-karanda and the Purusartha-siddhy-upaya, coupling them 
with English translations of no high merit in which a modern in- 
terpretation often disfigures the sense of the original. The same 
objection applies to the pamphlets on the lay doctrine compiled 
by Champat Ray Jain and others. They belong rather with the 
voluminous ethical literature which issues so freely from the 
presses in Hindi and Gujarati. 

Whilst in Svetambara circles no great attention seems to have 
been devoted to the study of the older sravakacara treatises there is 
a small body of work done by scholars, all Digambaras, that cannot 
be ignored. In particular from Nathuram PremI, Jugalkisor 
Mukhtar, and Hlralal Jain have come a number of contributions 
of significance written in Hindi and for the most part scattered 
over periodicals or incorporated in introductions to texts. Premf s 
essays, mainly drawn from the Jaina Hitaishi , have been reprinted 
in book form under the title Jaina sdhitya aur itihas and provide a 
mine of information, always cautious, always accurate, on a multi- 
plicity of Jaina and mainly Digambara themes including that of 
the layman’s duties. Hlralal Jain has prefaced his edition of the 
Vasunandi-sravakacara by an introduction which is, in effect, the 
first monograph on sravakacara in any language though limited 
to Digambara sources. Jugalkisor Mukhtar, who in an early pub- 
lication, Grantha pariksa, had discussed the spurious sravakacaras 
current in Digambara milieux, has more recently assembled in the 
introduction to the Puratana Jaina- vakya-suci much information 
on the chronology of Jaina writers. A. N. Upadhye, who writes in 
English, has lately dealt with the subject in the admirable intro- 
duction to his edition of the Dvadaianupreksa. Another very recent 
work is the translation of the Sarvartha-siddhi commentary by 
S. A. Jain, who has made a remarkably successful rendering of 
a difficult subject. A sociological study, the Jaina Community of 
V. Sangave, contains much of interest on the sravakacara ; its value 
would have been higher had the author gone to the original sources 
instead of relying on such unsure guides as Mrs. Stevenson. 

Though Hindi or Gujarati or, in a few cases, English translations 

0 787 b 



exist for a number of the works which form the subject of this sur- 
vey, only three of these are of sufficient quality to be utilizable 
without reference to the text. These are Suali’s version of the 
Dharma-bindu, S. A. Jain’s version of the Sarvartha-siddhi, and 
the admirable Yaiastilaka and Indian Culture of K. K. Handiqui; 
this last might well serve as a prototype for similar studies of other 
classical works. It is not a translation, but all passages of significance 
in the original are so accurately rendered and clearly commented 
that recourse to the text can be avoided. 

The traditional distinction between the code of behaviour for the 
householder, the hdvakdcara, and that for the monk, the yaty- 
acara , is a fundamental one. Initially the lay estate was admitted 
by the Jina only in deference to human frailty and was regarded in 
theory as a stage of preparation for the ascetic life. In the early 
period of Jainism the sravakacara was therefore of minimal im- 
portance, and as it has grown progressively in significance various 
expedients have had to be adopted to make up for the silence of the 
canonical texts. The corpus of the lay doctrine is in fact a creation 
of the mediaeval period. The Upasaka-dasah supplied the frame- 
work of the vratas , each with its five typical aticaras or infractions, 
and the pratimas . Though the notion that these aticaras were 
intended only as examples 1 is familiar to the older iSvetambara 
deary as, they soon became, in practice, the basis of a complete moral 
code. The Avalyaka literature gave the details of the necessary 
duties which are obligatory on the layman as well as on the monk, 
and, doubtless because some practices belong at the same time to 
several categories — the samayika , which is both vrata, pratima , 
and avasyaka, is a case in point — and because in some of them 
the ascetic is assimilated temporarily to the position of a monk, 
the transference to the lay life of rules originally intended for the 
community of monks was facilitated. This process of adaptation 
was developed on a wide scale and contributed notably to the 
building up of the vast edifice of the temple ritual. An expanding 
tradition of sacred legends such as those which under the appella- 
tion of purdnas have been fashioned by the Digambaras into the 
shape of a scripture helped to lend authority to innovations in 
practice as when the name of Krsna Yasudeva is invoked as the 

1 See, for example, Abhayadeva’s remarks on UD i, 55. 



originator of the dvadasavarta-vandanaka. 1 A similar purpose was 
achieved by the conferment of a quasi-canonical authority on 
famous purvacaryas\ an example is the use of the phrase iti 
Haribhadra-suri-ma tam . 2 The Digambaras, who by not admitting 
the authenticity of the extant canon have to some extent rejected 
the servitudes of tradition, have not hesitated before a conscious 
rationalization of the texts : this is true notably of the Tattvartha- 
sutra and the Ratna-karanda. Local usage or customary law, 
the desacara , though accorded no mandatory force, has always been 
admitted as a guide wherever there is no conflict with Jaina doctrine 
and more particularly in the modern period has been increasingly 
incorporated in the sravakacara. An extreme instance of this pro- 
cess would be the sanctification of the arka-vivaha in the seven- 
teenth-century Traivarnikacdra. At all times the building up of 
the sravakacara has been assisted by the polyvalence of certain 
terms and by the habit, widespread among the commentators, 
of arbitrarily treating words or phrases as upalaksanas — symbols or 
examples of wider categories : and again and again the word adi is 
inserted by the commentators in places where the text offers no 
justification for it. The methods used in constructing the sravaka- 
cara have their analogies elsewhere: it is with rather similar 
exiguous resources that the Christian and Moslem exegetes raised 
their elaborate edifices of morality. 

In the presentation of the iravakacara the original pattern, 
Digambara as well as iSvetambara, seems to have been a descrip- 
tion of samyaktva and the twelve vratas followed by a sketch of the 
ritual and incorporating miscellaneous injunctions that cannot 
be brought under the head of any particular vow. Hemacandra, 
drawing on ideas to be found in the Dharma-bindu , introduced the 
concept of the dina-carya as a device for describing the avasyakas 
and prefaced his discussion of the vratas by a delineation of the 
thirty-five sravaka-gunas. Both of these devices served as models 
for later srdvakdcdras : treatises like the Sraddha-dina-krtya and 
Sraddha-vidhi are based on a description of the day’s ritual duties 
into which are inserted, under no very orderly arrangement, the 
moral precepts of the creed; whilst the more popular, discursive 
pattern of the sravaka-gunas , embodying the qualities of the ideal 
layman, is adopted in the Sraddha-guna-vivarana. The Digam- 
baras have often chosen a framework in which the essential 
1 Y& iii. 130 (p. 679). * PS v. 277. 


divisions are furnished by th & pratimas, the vratas being treated 
under the second pratima\ or, less commonly, they have pre- 
ferred a schema based on the categories of paksa (favourable 
inclination to the doctrine), nisfha (performance of the pratimas), 
and sadhana (completion of one’s life by ritual suicide). In 
general they have given only a perfunctory treatment of the 
avaiyakas , esteeming them to belong rather to the province of 

Perhaps because they disclaim the continuity of tradition the 
Digambaras seem to have felt more keenly than the &vetambaras 
the need to concretize and systematize the lay doctrine, and, in 
attempting a more logical presentation of the creed, they have 
effaced more than one discrepancy. It is basically this fact which 
has made it impossible to accept the same ascription for the 
Sravaka-praj napti and for the Tattvartha- sutra, which from the 
angle of fravakacara is a wholly Digambara text. Ordinarily in any 
conflict of usage between the two sects, except in the practice of 
ascetic nudity, the Digambaras appear in the position of innovators, 
and it is precisely because they have largely jettisoned the dead- 
wood of an earlier age that their testimony is of greater value for 
the conditions of the mediaeval period. Fidelity to tradition has 
meant that while much valuable material lies embedded in the 
Svetambara commentaries the precise dating of any passage is very 
difficult since whole sections are handed on from one writer to 
another until, when all relevance to the contemporary scene has 
been lost, they are tacitly dropped, to risk being resurrected by 
some learned reformer like Ya&mjaya in a later age. From the 
religious angle a more serious handicap has been the over- 
subtilization of the exegesis of the vratas. Syadvada logic has been 
pressed into service to determine the exact nature of each bhanga 
and aticara but the niceties of calculation have weakened the com- 
pulsive force of moral commandments and ethical principles. For 
this reason probably, the Svetambaras in their later sravakacaras 
abandoned the framework of the vratas. 

Jaina writers have shown a quite remarkable aptitude for the 
subtle handling of words evidenced by such achievements as the 
Jaina version of the Megha-duta. The polyvalence of certain expres- 
sions even within the limits of the same text is often disconcerting : 
gutta in particular is greatly overworked and so are kriya and karman. 
Indeed one is led to wonder whether the double meanings given to 



many words and their formal identity with Hindu terms may not 
be voluntary. Examples of such coincidences (with the Jaina 
meanings noted in parenthesis) are : siva (moksa), linga (the monk’s 
symbols such as the rajo-harana), guna-traya (the ratna-traya), 
pasupati (the Jina)> maha-deva (the Jina) whilst on the other hand 
the word Digambara itself can be an epithet of Siva. It may be 
that such resemblances were intended to render Jaina doctrines 
attractive to Saivas or that a Saiva persecution made it desirable 
to give to certain Jaina texts an innocuous aspect. Certainly the 
Jainas’s concept of asatya would make it easy for them to adopt an 
attitude similar to that of those Shiite sectarians who in the early 
days of Islam maintained an outward conformity by concealing 
their real beliefs under forms of words. 

Two aspects of Jainism have been overstressed in most descrip- 
tions: the negative formulation of the creed and the absence of 
change in its history. In the last resort every moral code rests, like 
the Christian decalogue, on prohibitions; but even in Jainism 
each anuvrata has its positive as well as its negative aspect, ahimsa 
can be reformulated as daya , active compassion for all living beings. 
If Jainism has never challenged the constituted order of society, 
it has essayed to permeate it with the spirit of compassion but 
because human beings are actuated by self-interest it has pointed 
out to them the lower motives for doing good. Merit may be re- 
warded at any of three levels : by fortune in this life, by an auspi- 
cious reincarnation in the deva-loka or in a bhoga-bhumi , and by 
release from the cycle of existence. In popular Jainism where the 
second aim rates as high as the third it becomes as important to 
build up a good karma (which is not in harmony with the creed) 
as to destroy all karma. 

The changelessness of Jainismisno more than a myth. Admittedly 
there have been no spectacular changes in basic assumptions such 
as there were, for example, in Mahayana Buddhism. At most there 
have been variations in emphasis. Had Jainism, as at one time must 
have seemed possible, become a majority religion in southern 
India something akin to a Digambara Mahayana might, with con- 
tinuing favourable circumstances, have emerged. But all that can' 
be detected today are the traces of aborted developments : thus in 
the Ratna-karanda the devadhideva is apostrophized as the annihila- 
tor of Kamadeva who seems from the context cast for the role of 
the Buddhist Mara. But whilst the dogma remains strikingly firm 



the ritual changes and assumes an astonishing complexity and 
richness of symbolism. From implying merely the feeding of 
religious mendicants the duty of dana comes to mean the provision 
of rich ecclesiastical endowments and, amongst the $vetambaras, 
the monk is no longer, except in theory, a homeless wanderer. It is 
recognized that he needs comfort, shelter, warmth to enable him 
to concentrate on study. Th cyatra ceases to be a mere promenading 
of the idols through the city on a festival day and comes to denote 
an organized convoy going on pilgrimage to distant sacred places. 
And all the time more and more stress is being laid on the indi- 
vidual's duties to the community. 

The Jaina religion is a tirtha , a way of progress through life, and 
whilst th eyaty-acara teaches the individual how to organize his own 
salvation the aim of sravakacara is to ensure that an environment is 
created in which the ascetic may be able to travel the road of 
moksa. It must therefore be concerned with the community as well 
as with the individual and if the right people — the bhavyas — are to 
be attracted to the right tirtha missionary efforts are necessary. 
Jainism welcomes the like-minded even if they do not outwardly 
profess its beliefs, and relies very much on the force of examples: 
a whole chapter of the Dharma-bindu is devoted to the need to 
cultivate those qualities in a person which are susceptible of en- 
couraging respect for his beliefs in the community. 

However, the essential change in Jainism during the mediaeval 
period is its transformation from a philosophy, a darsana , to a 
religion. All the new trends are in one sense or another movements 
towards a fuller way of life. One of the most important of these is 
that of which Jinasena is the chosen exponent. The kriyas or 
ceremonies listed in the Adi-purana are the principal expression of 
a religion adapted to a ksatriya concept of society. Most striking is 
the prominence given to the upanayana or initiation rite which, like 
the monastic diksa , is described as a second birth. This and other 
imitations of Hinduism are decked with a certain external Jaina 
symbolism. However contrary the sanctification of marriage may 
be to the dictates of reason a religion that disdains such aid can with 
difficulty achieve a hold on the masses. An elaborate wedding cere- 
monial, again patterned on Hindu models, is therefore presented 
m the Adi-purana. Apart from this there is barely a mention of 
marriage in the sravakacaras except for a recapitulation of the eight 
forms recorded in the Hindu dharma-sastras. Some of these, such 



as the gandharva-vimha , are, as A^adhara notes, directly contrary 
to the tenets of Jainism. 

If this metamorphosis from a darsana to a religion is slowly 
taking place the rites continue to be no more than an elaborate 
apparatus of symbolism designed to enable the worshipper the 
better to concentrate on pious meditation. Jinasena admits the 
utility of a Jaina brahmin or ksullaka for the performance of certain 
kriyas but no professional ministrants are needed to officiate in the 
temple. When even the garbha-grha , the inner sanctuary, conceals 
no sacred mystery each man has the right to remain his own priest. 
That role cannot belong to the monk who by his very vocation is 
restricted to the position of a passive witness. Certain avaiyakas 
— pratikramana, alocana , pratyakhyana — are best performed before 
him but even there his presence is not essential for like the Jina, 
now for ever absent in the euphory of his perfection but portrayed 
in the image, the monk too may be symbolically represented (by 
the sthapanacarya). His one duty (if this term maybe used) towards 
the layman is to instruct him in the sacred doctrine on which he 
remains the unchallengeable authority. 

The polarity of householder and ascetic is indeed one of the most 
characteristic features of the Jaina structure. The layman has the 
obligation to cherish his family, the monk must sever all ties with 
them. The layman is enjoined to perform dravya-puja: not only 
does he offer fruits and flowers and sweetmeats but he cleans the 
image, and if he has skill in music and dancing (accomplishments 
which when put to any other use are regarded as undesirable and 
indeed harmful) he should display it ; the monk on the other hand 
may offer only mental praise. Even if the tradition provides that as 
little water as possible should be used, the householder must still 
bathe frequently, but in theory at least the ascetic should never 
bathe. The monk — the Digambara monk — should be naked but the 
layman has to be decently clad, and for all religious ceremonies 
must wear at least two pieces of cloth. This antithesis of the partial 
and the complete vows disappears to some extent in some of the 
dvasyaka rites where the layman is assimilated to the ascetic but in 
general it may be said that where the monk is excessive, since his 
life is the negation of compromise, moderation must be the key- 
note of existence for the householder whose life is rooted in com- 

In his every action the householder is beset by the unintentional 


evil which he provokes in his daily work. As a desa-virata , one 
whose gaze is only half averted from the sensual world, he must 
always be on his guard, apprehensive of sin. As the sravaka-gunas 
portray him he works hard, conforms to conventions, obeys con- 
stituted authority, leads a frugal and unostentatious life, and 
carefully calculates the consequences of every step he takes. This 
conception of the lay life which follows logically from the dogmas 
of the creed is assuredly the main factor responsible for the close 
association, so often noted, of Jainism with the middle-class trading 
community. Such a conclusion is very far from the view 1 which, 
falsifying the picture of its origins, regards it as tailor-made for the 
bourgeoisie. Agriculture, India’s basic occupation, has never been 
reckoned among the forbidden callings though various restrictions 
on its practice have been introduced on the basis of the ahimsa - 
vrata and commerce, medicine, astrology, and administration have 
all been recognized as licit. Some Digambaras like Jinasena and 
Camundaraya have even legislated for a ksatriya society. Not all 
Jainas are merchants but many merchants happen to be Jainas 
because the qualities highlighted in the ideal layman are also those 
which generally contribute to success in business, and so a creed of 
complete otherworldliness has offered a background for the suc- 
cessfully worldly . 2 3 

The differences which separate Jainism from Hinduism and 
Buddhism, the other two religions which India has given to the 
world, are largely differences of emphasis for all have built from 
common material. Ahimsa. , for example, is preponderant in, but 
not peculiar to, Jainism: it is extolled even in such Hindu texts as 
the Manu-smrti (which Hemacandras stigmatizes as a himsa-sdstra) 
but it is the central position and pervading character of ahimsa that 
separate the Jaina ethic sharply from Hinduism as well as from 
Islam and Christianity. 

Resemblances to Christianity are of course no more than the 
fortuitous result of a common ascetic ideology, but the question 
may be raised whether Moslem influence may not at certain points 
during the mediaeval period have touched Jaina practice. A clear 
answer is hard to give but some developments which cannot be 
traced back to an early date have possibly been stimulated, if not 

1 Such as that in effect taken by W. Ruben in Einfiihrung in die Indienkunde. 

3 A European parallel might be found in the history of the Quakers. 

3 YS ii. 35. 



originated, by Islamic contacts. The wide extension of the category 
of the afatanas — the activities that are unfitting or indecent in a 
temple — if, on the one hand, it is evidence of an epoch when reli- 
gious observance had grown weak, also reveals a notion of the 
sanctity of the physical edifice which is more evocative of Moslem 
barakah than of any traditional Jaina attitude. Ratnasekhara’s 
picture 1 of a pilgrim caravan making its way to Satrunjaya bears 
less resemblance to any Hindu pilgrimage than to the hajj> the 
example of which may have contributed to the spectacular develop- 
ment of what seems once to have been a mere variant of the yatra 
or religious festival. Similarly, when Medhavin* proclaims that the 
essence of Jainism lies in the conviction that ‘there is no deva but 
the Jina’ it is difficult to believe that he was unacquainted with the 
Moslem profession of faith. But such likenesses are few and un- 
important, and the only evidence for them comes from very late 

The interaction of Buddhism and Jainism dates from the very 
beginning of their history and lies largely outside the scope of this 
work though throughout the mediaeval period the two communities 
must have been in constant contact as the recurring references to 
Buddhism as the principal form of mithyatva attest. It, however, 
might be noted that some Sanskrit Buddhist texts show curious 
similarities of terminology with the Jaina sravakacaras in the dis- 
cussion of the layman’s duties. 

Hindu influences are at work throughout Jaina history though 
the Digambaras are significantly affected by them at an earlier 
date than the $vetambaras. The main line of hinduization tuns 
through Jinasena, Camundaraya, and ASadhara. On the basis of the 
Hindu samskaras an ambitious fabric of Jaina kriyas was set up and 
at the same time mantras intruded more and more into the con- 
tinually enriched ritual, yogic techniques were adopted and, as the 
quotations from such works as the Manu-smrti , the Vatsyayana - 
kama-sutra , and the Ayurvedic texts show, Hindu sastras gained 
wider currency. In the case of the ^vetambara community the 
opening up of new and wider horizons was largely the work of 

Earlier Jainism had relegated to the desacara all aspects of 
human activity not specifically covered by the traditional literature 
and had tacitly admitted non-Jaina practices provided that they 
1 iSraddha-vidhi, p. 1236. 2 Jar (M) iv. 29. 



were not in blatant conflict with its principles. Even the Kali-kala - 
sarvajna himself is content to say that where the religious law is 
silent the desacara should prevail . 1 It is in fact only with the close 
of the mediaeval period that come the great inroads of Hinduism 
which completely reverse this attitude, and that elements contrary 
to the spirit of the religion are incorporated into the practice . 2 
Above all, the characteristic of the latest phase of Jainism is that 
what was once regarded as optional comes to be expounded as 

It has already been noted that the early Jainism showed no con- 
cern with the rites de passage. Though an abundant literature is 
devoted to ritual suicide it is difficult to detect any reference to 
funeral customs or again to sutaka before the fifteenth century. 
Marriage remained a question of regional usage at least until Jina- 
sena prescribed a ceremony based on the Hindu fire ritual and the 
earliest Svetambara work to deal in detail with this subject seems 
to have been the Acara-dinakara. But the immemorial usage of 
Hindu neighbours must at all times have coloured the individual 
Jaina’s life. Though only very late texts enjoin the use of cow’s 
urine for purification, a chance statement, repeated by the com- 
mentators in explaining the brahma-vrata> attests the importance 
attached to it in ordinary custom. The general validity of the 
menstruation taboo is nowhere alluded to, but is attested by 
Devendra’s casual reference to the story of a woman who brought 
on herself an evil reincarnation by making the Jina-puja whilst in 
a state of ritual impurity. Against the formal denial of attachment 
to loved ones the family reasserts its rights and the begetting of 
a son, recommended already by Aiadhara, becomes a duty in the 
late texts. Early Jainism knows no rules for eating, for bathing, for 
excretion save those which are designed to avoid destruction of 
life, and none at all for copulation, which theoretically should not 
take place, but the late srdvakdcdras take over from Hinduism 
minute instructions on these points. Pujd, which initially has little 
importance because it does not affect the survival of the Jaina 
religion as such, comes to be given a greater significance than dana, 
which is essential since without it the monks could not live. Of all 
late accretions from Hinduism, however, the most striking is the 
introduction of sraddha ox pitr-tarpana, condemned in the classical 
sravakdcdras as a regrettable form of mithydtva. 

1 Y& ii. 49. 2 See Jugalkisor Mukhtar, Grantha Parlksa, pp. 99-118. 



Parallel with the phenomenon of hinduization goes that of 
sanskrltization. Maharastrl Prakrit, though long a dead language, 
was, in the mediaeval period, largely used by the Svetambaras with 
whom it had replaced another dead language, the Ardhamagadhi 
of the canon, both for ornate kavyas in prose and verse and for 
scientific exposition. It is possible that its use was favoured by 
certain gacchas whilst others preferred Sanskrit but in any event, as 
treatises like Yasodeva’s Pa ncaiaka- curni show, Haribhadra’s inno- 
vation in writing commentaries on the sacred texts in Sanskrit was 
very far from dealing it a fatal blow. Hemacandra, however, though 
he wrote a grammar of Prakrit and himself composed a kavya to 
illustrate its rules, virtually put an end to its use by spreading 
Sanskrit culture in Jaina circles, and within a century of his death 
it had ceased to be adopted except for the composition of skeleton 
verses on which, as in the case of the Sraddha-vidhi of RatnaSe- 
khara, a prose treatise could be draped. With the Digambaras the 
linguistic situation is less clear. Sanskrit had come into general 
use at an earlier date, but from time to time works were still written 
in Prakrit, perhaps again in particular milieux. As with the £vet- 
ambaras, however, the end of the mediaeval period seems to mark 
the final limit of its utilization. 



Amitagati: Sravakacara (Anantakirti Digambara Jaina 

Granthamala, no. 2). Bombay, 1922. £r (A) 

‘Subhasita-ratna-sandoha’, edited with translation by 

R. Schmidt in ZDMG lix. 61. 

Amrtacandra : Purusartha-siddhy-upaya (Rayacandra 

Jaina Sastramala). Bombay, 1905. PASU 

Agadhara : Sagara-dharmamrta (Manikacandra Digambara 

Jaina Granthamala, no. 2). Bombay, 1917. SDhA 

Anagara-dharmamrta (Manikacandra Digambara 

Jaina Granthamala, no. 14). Bombay, 1919. 

AvaSyaka-sutra with commentary of Haribhadra (Agamo- 

daya Samiti Siddhanta Samgraha, no. 1). Bombay, 1916. Av (H) 
Avasyaka-sutra with CurnI (R.sabhadeva Ke^arlmala Jaina 

Svetambara Samstha). Ratlam, 1929. Av Cu. 

Camundaraya: Caritra-sara (Manikacandra Digambara 
Jaina Granthamala, no. 9). Bombay, 1917. CS 

Caritrasundara : Acaropade^a. Ahmedabad, 1925. AU 

Devagupta : Nava-pada-prakarana with Laghu-vrtti (Deva- 
candra Lalabha! Jaina Pustakoddhara, no. 68). Bombay, 

1926. NPP 

Devasena : Bhava-samgraha in Bhava-samgrahadi (Mani- 
kacandra Digambara Jaina Granthamala, no. 20). 

Bombay, 1922. BhS (D) 

Devendra: Sraddha-dina-krtya (Rsabhadeva Kesarlmala 

Jaina Svetambara Samstha). Ratlam, 1937. SrDK 

Bhasya-traya (Atmananda Grantha-ratna-mala, no. 

IS). Bhavnagar, 1912. 

Caitya-vandana-bhasya with Sanghacara-vrtti. Surat, 

1938. * CVBh 

Gunabhu^ana: Sravakacara. Surat, 1925* 

Haribhadra: Sravaka-dharma-pancagaka with CurnI of 
YaSodeva (Devacandra Lalabhai Jaina Pustakod- 
dhara, no. 102). 1952. P (Y) 

PancaSaka with commentary of Abhayadeva 

(Rsabhadeva Kesarlmala Jaina Svetambara Sainstha). 

Ratlam, 1941. 

1 The symbols on the right indicate the abbreviations used in the footnotes. 


Haribhadra: Abhayadeva’s commentary on the gravaka- 
dharma-pancaSaka is quoted as 
and the text of the individual Pancasakas as : 

Dharma-bindu, edited with translation by L. Suali in 

GSAIxxi (1908), 324-90. 

. Dharma-bindu with commentary of Municandra 

(Agamodaya Samiti). Bombay, 1924. 

Lalita-vistara commentary on Caitya-vandana- 

sutra (D evacandra Lalabhal J ainaPustako ddhara, no . 29) . 
Bombay, 1915. 

Hemacandra: Yoga-Sastra (Bibliotheca Indica, no. 172). 
Calcutta, 1907-21. 

Jinadatta: Caitya-vandana-kulaka (Jinadatta Suri Praclna 
Pustakoddhara, no. 11). Bombay, 1920. 

Jinaman^ana : graddha-guna-vivarana (Atmananda Gran- 
tha-ratna-mala, no. 29). Bhavnagar, 1914. 

Jinasena: Adi-purana (Jnanapitha Murtidevi Jaina 
Granthamala, no. 9). Benares, 1951. 

Karttikeya: Dvada^anupreksa, ed. by A. N. Upadhye. Bom- 
bay, i960. 

Kundakunda: Caritra-prabhrta in §at-prabhrtadi- 

samgraha (Manikacandra Digambara Jaina Granthamala, 
no. 17). Bombay, 1920. 

Manavijaya: Dharma-sarpgraha with commentary of 
YaSovijaya (Devacandra Lalabhal Jaina Pustakoddhara, 
no. 26), Bombay, 1915. 

Medhavin : gravakacara Dharma-samgraha-sravakacara. 
Benares, 1910. 

Nemicandra: Pravacana-saro ddhara (Devacandra Lalabhal 
Jaina Pustakoddhara, nos. 58, 64). Bombay, 1922-6. 

Padmanandin: Dharma-rasayana in Siddhanta-saradi- 
samgraha (Manikacandra Digambara Jaina Grantha- 
mala, no. 21). Bombay, 1922. 

gravakacara. Belgaum, 1911. 

Puja-prakarana in Tattvartha-sutra (Bibliotheca Indica, 
no. 1 59). Calcutta, 1903-5. 

Rajamalla: Lati-sarphita (Manikacandra Digambara Jaina 
Granthamala, no. 26). Bombay, 1927. 

Ratna-sara or Rayana-sara ascribed to Kundakunda, ed. 
Jnanasagara. Calcutta, 1934. 

Ratnaiekhara : graddha-vidhi (Atmananda Grantha-ratna- 
mala, no. 48). Bhavnagar, 1917. 

Sakalaklrti: Prasnottara-sravakacara. Surat, 1927. 

P (A) 

P (grDh) 

P (Vandana) 
P Puja) 

P (Yatra) 

P (grUP) 







gr (M) 



Samantabhadra: Ratna-karanda-sravakacara with com- 
mentary of Prabhacandra (Manikacandra Digambara 
Jaina Granthamala, no. 24). Bombay, 1926. RK 

<§anti Suri: Dharma-ratna-pralcarana (Atmananda Gran- 
tha-ratna-mala, no. 30). Bhavnagar, 1913. DhRP 

Sivakoti : Ratna-malainSiddhanta-saradi-samgraha(Mani- 
kacandra Digambara Jaina Granthamala, no. 21). Bom- 
bay, 1922. 

Somadeva: YaSastilalca (Kavya-mala, no'. 70). Bombay, 

1 901-3. 

References to this work are quoted from : 

K. K. Handiqui : YaSastilaka and Indian Culture ( Jlvaraja 
Jaina Granthamala, no. 2). Sholapur, 1949. Handiqui 

Somasena: Traivarnilcacara, ed. by Pannalal Son!. Bombay, 

1925. TrA 

Sraddha-pratilcramana-sutra with V andaru-vrtti of Deven- 
dra (Devacandra Lalabhai Jaina Pustalcoddhara, no. 8). 

Bombay, 1912. 

Sraddha-pratilcramana-sutra with commentary of Ratna- 
Selchara (Devacandra Lalabhai Jaina Pustalcoddhara, 
no. 48). Bombay, 1919. 

&ravaka-dharma-dohaka(or Savaya-dhamma-doha), ed. by 

Hiralal Jain (Karanja Jain Series, no. 2). Karanja, 1932. Doha 
Umasvamin: Tattvartha-sutra with Sarvartha-siddhi of 
Pujyapada (Jnanapitha MurtidevI Jaina Granthamala, 
no. 13). Benares, 1955. T (P) 

Reality : an English translation of the Sarvartha-siddhi, 

by S. A. Jain (Vira^asana Sangha). Calcutta, i960. 

Tattvartha-sutra with commentary of Siddhasena 

(Devacandra Lalabhai Jaina Pustalcoddhara, no. 76). 

Bombay, 1930. T (S) 

Umasvati: Sravaka-prajnapti. Bombay, 1905. SrPr 

Vamadeva : Bhava-samgraha in Bhava-samgrahadi (Mani- 
kacandra Digambara Jaina Granthamala, no. 20). 

Bombay, 1922. BhS (V) 

Vardhamana: Acara-dinakara (Kharatara Gaccha Gran- 
thamala, no. 2). Bombay, 1923. ADK 

Vasunandin: Sravakacara, ed. by Hiralal Jain (Jnanapitha 

MurtidevI Jaina Granthamala, Prakrit series, no. 3). Sr (V) 

Upasalca-daSah with commentary of Abhayadeva, ed. with 
trans. by Hoernle, (Bibliotheca Indica, no. 105). 

Calcutta, 1890. UD 


F. Belloni-Filippi : Yoga-fastra in GSAI xxi (1908). 

G. K. Bruhn: Sllahlcas Cauppannamahapurisacariya (Alt- und Neu- 
Indische Studien, no. 8). Hamburg, 1954. 


G. BUhler: t)ber das Leben des Jaina-Monches Hemacandra, Vienna, 

M. B. Desai: Jaina sahitya no itihas. Bombay, 1927. 

H, von Glasenapp: Der Jainismus. Berlin, 1925. 

H. Jacobi: Samarazcca Kaha (Bibliotheca Indica, no. 169). Calcutta, 
x 908-26. 

Jagdish Chandra Jain: Life in Ancient India. Bombay, 1947. 
Jagmandarlal Jaini: Outlines of Jainism. Cambridge, 1940. 

Jinavijaya Muni : Haribhadra Suri ka samaya-nirnaya in Jaina Sahitya 
Sainiodhaha , Part I. 

P. V. Kane: History of DharmaSastra. Bombay, 1930-58. 

K. von Kamptz: Uber die vom Sterbefasten handelnden alteren Painna 
des Jaina-Kanons. Hamburg, 1929. 

W. Kirfel: Symbolik des Hinduismus und des Jinismus. Stuttgart, 1959. 

and L. Hilgenberg: Gbersetzung von Astarxgahrdaya. Leiden, 


J. Klatt: Specimen of a Literary-Bibliographical Jaina-Onomasticon. 
Leipzig, 1892. 

J, F. Kohl: Pflanzen mit gemeinsamen Korper in Zeitschrift fiir Ethno- 
logie , Bd. 78/1 (1953)- 

Einige Bemerkungen zur Zahlensymbolik und zum Animismus im 

botanischen System des Jaina-Kanon in Studia Indologica, pp. 125-35. 
Bonn, 1955. 

E. Leumann: t)bersicht iiber die AvaSyaka-Literatur. Hamburg, 1934. 
J. J. Meyer: Trilogie altindischer Machte und Feste der Vegetation. 
Zurich, 1937. 

Jugalkisor Mukhtar: Grantha-parlksa. Bombay, 1917. 

Puratana Jaina vakyasuci (Vira Seva Mandira Granthamala, no. 5). 

Sarsawa, 1950. 

Nathuram Premi: Jaina sahitya aur itihas. Bombay, 1942. 

J. Przyluski: La Grande D6esse. Paris, 1950. 

V. A. Sangave: Jaina Community. Bombay, 1959. 

W. Schubring: Die Lehre der Jainas. Berlin, 1935. 

Kundakunda echt und unecht in ZD MG cvii (1957), pp. 554—74. 

Das Mahanisiha-Sutta (Abh. d. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss., Berlin, 


M. N. Srinivas: Marriage and Family in Mysore. Bombay, 1942, 

H. D. Velankar: Jina-ratna-koSa. Poona, 1944. 

E. Windisch: Yoga-sastra in ZDMG xxviii (1874), pp. 185-262. 

M. Winternitz: History of Indian Literature, vol. ii. Buddhist and Jaina 
Literature. Calcutta, 1933. 



Sravaka-praj napti 

5 th century (?) 

Haribhadra Virahanka 


ob. 529 (?) 

Haribhadra Yakim-putra 


c. 750 



» „ 

AvaSyaka commentary 

Siddhasena Ganin 

Tattvartha-sutra commen- 

9th century (?) 




c. 970 


Nava-pada-prakarana with 



Santi Suri 


ob. 1040 


Upasaka-daSah commen- 




PancaSaka commentary 




nth century (?) 


Dharma-bindu commentary 

ob. 1132 (?) 


Panca^aka commentary 





Siddhasena Suri 






ob. 1270 

Vandaru-vrtti commentary 

T>1- — — 





c. 1270 



c . 1300 


14th century (?) 



14th century (? ) 















Dharma-samgraha com- 




Amongst the works usually ascribed to Umasvati the Vacaka at 
least three have a bearing on the sravakacara : the Tattvartha-sutra, 

1 The chronology here, and still more in the Digambara sampradaya, is often 
uncertain, and all that has been attempted in this list is to establish rather 
hesitantly the sequence of the authors. 

0 737 



the &rftvaka~praj hapti, and the Ptijd-prakarana. The last-named 
is patently spurious and need not concern us here: it will be dis- 
cussed in its proper place in the chronological sequence; and there 
is equally convincing internal evidence that the 3 rav aka-praj iiapti 
cannot be by the same hand as the famous Siltra. 

Consider first the seventh adhyaya of the Tattvartha-sutra, the 
only section devoted — and that only in part — to the lay life. Here 
the Svetambara and Digambara recensions do not differ except in 
the numbering, as siitras 4 to 8 , which are missing from the 
iSvetambara version, have in fact been transferred to the bhasya . 1 
Yet the text as accepted by the Svetambaras shows some curious 
features. First, in siitra 18 it is specified that the layman, before he 
can take the vratas, must be devoid of the three salyas ; elsewhere 
this condition is only laid down in the Digambara sravakacaras , in- 
deed the term does not seem to find a mention in Svetambara texts. 
Secondly, the sequence of the vratas in sutra 21 does not follow the 
model of the Upasaka-dasah which is rigidly observed in the 
&vetambara tradition and, by making the desavakasika-vrata fol- 
low the dig-vrata, violates the principle by which practices of brief 
duration repeated at intervals are confined to the category of the 
siksa-vratas. Thirdly, in sutra 24 the term sila is used in a sense, 
normal in Digambara works but not elsewhere admitted by the 
Svetambaras, to designate the guna-vratas and siksa-vratas. 
Fourthly, for the satya -, bhogopabhoga -, anartha-danda-, posadho- 
pavasa-, and sallekhand-vratas the aticaras listed diverge markedly 
from the schema of the &vetambara texts, which, apart from the 
Dharma-bindu, adhere unvaryingly to the Upas aka- dasah pattern 
until the time of Hemacandra. Fifthly, the information supple- 
mentary to the vratas is limited to a couple of siitras (38 and 39) 
emphasizing the importance of dana, no mention at all being made 
of th Qdvasyakas, which are given very extensive treatment in all the 
Svetambara sravakacaras. As the vratas and their aticaras represent 
the nucleus of the whole lay doctrine any variation in their pre- 
sentation must be of considerable significance; and for these 
reasons the Tattvdrtha-siitra cannot, from the point of view of the 
srdvakacara, be regarded as a Svetambara work. 

The 3 rdvaka-prajnapti, z on the contrary, is a typically Svetam- 

1 The bha$ya, which is markedly Svetambara in tone, is considered by that 
sect to have been written by Umasvati himself. 

2 There is, incidentally, a reference to a Savaga-pcinnatti in the Vasudevci - 
hindi (p. 185). 


bara production, in style and content very closely related to the 
Pancasakas: its treatment of the watas is exactly in accord with 
that of the Upasaka-dasah, and it deals extensively with the avasya - 
kas. When the text was published in 1905 the editor, Keshavlal 
Premchand, in a brief introduction in Sanskrit, discussed whether 
the work should be attributed to Haribhadra, to Umasvati the 
Vacaka, or to some other Umasvati. In support of the first hypo- 
thesis he cited two rather ambiguous passages, one of them drawn 
from Abhayadeva’s commentary on the Pancasakas . 1 However, in 
another quotation from the same work Umasvati is described as 
the author of the Sravaka-prajnapti , and the assertion is repeated 
by Municandra in his commentary on the Dharma-bindu , and at 
a much later date by Ya^ovijaya in the Dharma-samgraha. More 
striking is an explanation by Yasodeva, 3 in his commentary on the 
Sravaka-dharma-pancasaka , of the reasons which prompted Hari- 
bhadra to compose his treatise when Umasvati had already written 
the basic text on the subject, from which it is not unreasonable 
to infer that the Sravaka-prajnapti was already regarded by the 
Svetambaras as the first compilation exclusively devoted to sravaka- 
cara. That Haribhadra was the author of the work seems excluded 
by this evidence, though certain of its verses are in fact found 
repeated in the Puja-paiicdsaka 3 

It may well be that the shared ascription of the Tattvartha-siitra 
and the Sravaka-prajiiapti results from a confusion of name (the 
use by the 3 vetambaras of the form Umasvati when the Digam- 
baras prefer Umasvamin lends added probability to the hypo- 
thesis 4 ) and that there in fact existed a Svetambara acarya named 
Umasvati to whom the Tattvartha-siitra, when it had already 
acquired general fame as an exposition of the doctrine, came also 
to be attributed. In any event the two works are incontestably of 
different authorship, and it may be added that the development 
of the iravakacara is only understandable if the Tattvartha-siitra 
is regarded as belonging originally to the Digambaras. 

The Sravaka-prajnapti is written in Prakrit and runs to some 
400 verses. It contains a brief exposition of certain Jaina doctrines, 

1 I am unable to trace any of these quotations. 

2 P (Y) 1 (p. a). ^ , 

3 In fact SrPr 345 — P (Puj'a) 41 ; £rPr 348 = P (Puja) 44, SrPr 349 = P 

(Puja) 45. . 

4 I have adopted the form Umasvati for the author of the Sravaka -p raj nap ti 
and the form Umasvamin for the author of the Tattvartha-sutra. 


particularly the nature of jiva and karman; a description of samya- 
ktva and its aticaras; a fairly lengthy analysis and refutation of 
arguments commonly advanced by opponents of ahimsa ; a list of 
the twelve vratas and their aticaras with particular attention to the 
sdmayika ; a summary of the ritual of puja and caitya-vandana with 
an indication of the dina-carya, 1 the ideal pattern for each day’s 
life; a description of sallekhana; and a final exordium on the 
attainment of moksa. If the anteriority of this work to the Panca- 
iakas is taken as established it cannot be held to be later than the 
fifth century. Printed with the text is the Sanskrit commentary of 
Haribhadra, large sections of which, in particular those dealing 
with the aticaras of the vratas , are identical with the corresponding 
passages of his Avasyaka commentary. 

Haribhadra Virahaisika 

It was in 1919 that Muni Jinavijayaji, in a paper read to the First 
All-India Oriental Conference in Poona, showed that certain works 
ascribed to Haribhadra Suri must, because of the authors quoted 
and the views expressed in them, be subsequent to the year 529 in 
whichthe most commonly accepted Jaina tradition places his death. 2 
Further arguments in support of a later date were to be drawn 
from Muni Kalyanavijaya’s introduction to the Dharma-samgra- 
hanu and the conclusions were reviewed and confirmed by Jacobi 
in his introduction to the Samar dicca-kaha, published in 1926. 
In all this there was a tacit assumption that the whole of the literary 
production ascribed to Haribhadra was the work of one man, 
although already, much earlier, Klatt had noted the existence 
of several authors of that name. 3 

Amongst the writings attributed to Haribhadra there are a 
number which are concerned with sravakdcara, notably the 
Dharma-bindu, the Paiicdsakas, and the commentaries on the 
Avasyaka , the Srdvaka-prajnapti , and the Caitya-vandana- sutra. 
As a commentator is always to some extent limited by his text it 

1 In the present study I have generalized the use of this convenient term em- 

ployed by Hemacandra (Y§ Hi. 122,). 

3 See Muni Jinavijaya, Haribhadra Suri ha satnaya-nirnaya in Jaina Sahitya 
Sayisodhaka , pt. i, and for a summary of the arguments about Haribhadra’s date 
Winternitz, History of Indian Literature, ii. 479. 

3 Klatt, Specimen of a Literary-Bibliographical Jaina- Onomasticon, pp. 5, 8. 


will be preferable to take a look at the first two, which are original 
works. They show differences as considerable as those which were 
apparent between the Tattvartha-sutra and the Sravaka-prajnapti. 
In the first place whilst the Sravaka-dharma-pancasaka is indis- 
tinguishable from the Sravaka-prajnapti in its rigid adherence to 
the 3vetambara tradition of reproducing the vratas and their 
aticaras, the Dharma-bindu follows for the satya-, bhogopabhoga 
anartha-danda and posadhopavasa-vratas (the sallekhana-vrata 
is not treated in the sravakacara section of this work) the model 
of the Tattvdrtha-siitra , except that for the third aticara of the 
satya-vrata the form sva-dara-mantra-bheda is preferred to sakdra- 
mantra-bheda. 1 However, the more logical Svetambara sequence 
of guna-vratas and siksd-vratas is followed. At the same time there 
are indications in the Dharma-bindu that its author had access to 
a much wider Sanskrit culture than is shown by the writer of the 
Pancasakas , whose outlook seems bounded by Jaina tradition. Like 
the Tattvartha-sutra the Dharma-bindu is written in siitra style 
whilst the Pancasakas are composed in Prakrit verses that appear 
perceptibly archaic when compared, for example, with the Dhur- 
takhydna , another Prakrit work attributed to Haribhadra. 

If we examine the legends associated with the life of Haribhadra 
as they are recounted by various writers all separated from the 
period in which he is held to have lived by very considerable in- 
tervals of time, these are seen to centre around two incidents : that 
he was converted to Jainism because he was impressed by the 
superior knowledge of the nun Yakini Mahattara, and that he was 
afflicted by remorse because he had provoked the death of certain 
Buddhists who had murdered his two nephews. With the second 
legend is associated the figure of 1,400 or 1,444 — both are familiar 
round numbers in Jainism — given as the total of the works he is 
supposed to have written, as well as the use of the word viraha as 
an ahka in the concluding verses of his works ; and there is a remi- 
niscence of the former in the colophon sometimes found : krtir iyam 
Sitamharacaryasya Jinabhatta-nigadanusdrino Ydkini-mahattara - 
siinor Haribhadrasya. It would not then seem unreasonable to sug- 
gest that the works bearing this colophon may belong to one writer 
of the name of Haribhadra and those signed with the ahka to 
another. Of course the wide currency of the colourful narrative 

1 Haribhadra’s avoidance of the Tattvartha-sutra variant seems to confirm the 
supposition that this may have been originally a textual corruption. 


by which the anka is explained, and the ease with which terminal 
verses can be manufactured by a copyist for a prose treatise will 
have made it not unlikely that the anka may in some cases be 
spurious; at any rate by its nature it is peculiarly susceptible of 
being forged. 

If we examine from this angle the texts under discussion, the 
printed editions of the Lalita-vistara, Avasyaka, and Sravdka - 
prajfiapti commentaries are all seen to have colophons basically 
identical with the specimen just given. (So too has the Prakrit 
Dhurtdkhydna.) Each Pancasaka, on the other hand, shows in 
its concluding verse the anka. These short treatises of approxi- 
mately, but not always, exactly fifty verses are all written in a rather 
archaic Maharastrl Prakrit which, particularly in the occurrence of 
particles which are said to be merely pada-puranas and in the use of 
the cases, confronts the commentators with problems which they 
can only answer by the phrase prakrta-sailatvat. The language con- 
trasts markedly with the conventional Maharastrl of the Dhurtd- 
khydna. The verses have clearly an essentially mnemonic value 
and are designed to be studied with the aid of a commentary : in- 
deed without it they are often unintelligible. Nothing in them 
suggests acquaintance with non-Jaina milieux. On the other hand 
the three commentaries in Sanskrit give evidence of a very wide 
and not purely Jaina erudition. It is of particular interest to note in 
the Avasyaka commentary the treatment of the aticaras of those 
vratas for which the Tattvartha-sutra has introduced innovations. 
These are interpreted on conventional Svetambara lines except for 
the explanation of the third aticara of the bhogopabhoga-wata : 
apakvausadhi where a variant reading ( pathantara ) sacitta-sammi- 
srahdra is noted. Admittedly the text is undeviatingly traditional, 
but that is no reason for supposing that the authorship of the 
commentary is different from that of the Dharma-bindu. Yet the 
Dharma-bindu , as printed, has no colophon but, on the contrary, 
a concluding verse with the anka which must therefore here be 
assumed to be spurious. 

What, then, I would here suggest is that the revised dating of 
Haribhadra (a.d. 750) introduced by Muni Jinavijaya should be 
assumed only for that Haribhadra who is, inter alia , the author of the 
three commentaries mentioned, the Dharma-bindu , and the Dhur- 
takhyana, and that for works written in archaic Maharastrl and 
bearing the anka the Jaina tradition that he died in 529 should be 


retained. 1 On this basis the Pancaiakas would belong to the 
beginning of the sixth century A.D. 

Something has already been said to indicate their characteristic 
peculiarities. In the printed edition they are nineteen in number, 
the first ten of them relating to the lay life. Of these the most im- 
portant for the sravakacara are the sravaka-dharma vandana - 
vidhana -, puja-vidhana-, stava-vidhi ~, yatra-vidhi and sramano - 


Apart from the concise bhasya which by the Svetambaras is said 
to be the work of Umasvati himself but which must, if the 
Tattvartha-sutrais Digambara, be by another hand, the best-known 
Svetambara commentary on the Tattvdrtha-sutra is that of Sid- 
dhasena Ganin. This author, who is distinct from the more cele- 
brated Siddhasena Divakara and the much later Siddhasena Suri 
who wrote the commentary on the Pravacana-saroddhara , records 
•in his colophon that his guru was Bhasvamin and his guru’s guru 
Simhasura, pupil himself of Dinna Ganin, but these details offer no 
secure basis for dating. Reference is made in the vyakhyd to certain 
other works and if the Dharmaklrti author of the Pramana- 
viniscaya mentioned is the Buddhist writer of the seventh century, 
Siddhasena cannot well be much earlier than a.d. 800. 2 In numerous 
passages there is an identity of phraseology in the discussion of 
the aticaras of the vratas between the Tattvartha-sutra-vyakhya 
and Haribhadra’s Av asy aka- vrtti, 3 so striking that it seems almost 
inevitable that one must have borrowed from the other : it would 
seem that Siddhasena was the borrower. 

Haribhadra Yakini-putra 

If we accept the existence of two major figures of the name of 
Haribhadra it is to the second, whose date was fixed by Jinavijaya 

1 An exhaustive study of all works attributed to Haribhadra could confirm or 

invalidate this hypothesis. Only a few of them are available in good editions and 
the overall picture is very confused. Thus verses 1-2 and 78-120 of the work 
published under ' 1 ^7 T . •; • ‘ with verses 1-2 

and 8-50 of the . . y be found that 

the appellation Haribhadra embraces more than the two authors distinguished 
above. One fact seems certain: that the Dharma-bindu and the Pancaiakas cannot 
be by the same hand. 

2 See T (S), vol. ii, Introduction, p. 63, and ABORI xiii. 335. 

3 See Appendix, 


at circa a.d. 750, that belong the Dharma-bindu and the Sravaka- 
prajnapti, Avasyaka, and Caitya-vandana-sutra. commentaries. 

The Dharma-bindu is a compilation of rules of conduct both for 
the layman and the ascetic, written, in evident imitation of the 
Tattvartha-sutra , in Sanskrit stitras clearer and more elegant than 
those of its prototype. Only the first three adhyayas are relevant to 
the sravakacara. The first draws a picture of the ideal layman by 
listing the qualities which should enter into his make-up : though 
the term is not used these represent in effect the earliest traceable 
enumeration of what Hemacandra calls the sravaka-gunas. The 
second adhyaya deals with methods of expounding the dharma , both 
by precept and example, and is clear evidence that Jainism was still 
a proselytizing religion. The third adhyaya is in itself a sravakacara 
in miniature from which nothing essential is omitted. The 
exposition of samyaktva and the vratas and their aticaras is followed 
by a picture of the daily round of life from dawn to dusk which pro- 
vides a framework in which to include dana and puja and the six 
avaiyakas . This section offers in brief compass an example of the 
dina-carya which was later taken as a model for srdvakaedras of the 
type of the £raddha-dina-krtya. As has already been noted Hari- 
bhadra follows the Tattvartha-sutra in his delineation of the vratas 
and their aticaras ; whilst for the avasyakas and other daily duties 
his pattern is the Sravaka-praj napti. 


This compiler of a short Prakrit verse treatise on the lay life, the 
Sravaka-vidhi) is presumably to be identified with the author of 
the Tilaka-manjari and the Rsabha-pahcasaka , who flourished about 

A.D. 970 . 1 


Devagupta, a suri of the Upakesa Gaccha, pupil of Kakka 
Acarya, and known as Jinacandra Ganin before his diksd, tells us 
that, although the sravaka-dharma has been expounded in many 
ways by the dcaryas of old, his Nava-pada-prakarana is the first 
attempt to present it by treating samyaktva , mithyatva, and the 
vratas each from nine angles. 2 These are : the nature of the vrata 

1 Wmternitz, op. cit., pp. 534, 553. The text of the Smvaka-vidhi was not 

accessible to me. . NPP 137 (p. 61&), 


(yadrg bhuta ) ; the varieties of it ( bheda ) ; how it comes into existence 
( yathajayate ); the evil arising from neglecting it ( dosa ); the good 
arising from carrying it out (guna ) ; the striving to be mad e(yatana ) ; 
its aticaras ; its bhangas ; and the themes of meditation on it 
(bhavana). 1 The subject-matter can only with difficulty be accom- 
modated to this strait jacket and it is open to doubt if Devagupta 
was successful in his innovation. To explain his text, written in 
rather crabbed Prakrit verse, the author himself composed a 
Sanskrit commentary, the Laghu-vrtti, completed in samvat 1073. 
There is another, much more extensive, commentary composed in 
samvat 1165 by Yasodeva, whose identity with the author of the 
commentary on the Sravaka-dharma-pancasaka 2 cannot be ex- 
cluded. Devagupta himself is also the author of the Nava-tattva - 
prakarana, and is said to have written a commentary on the 
Tattvartha sutra . 

Santi Suri 

Santi Suri of the Candrakula Gaccha, who is said to have died in 
A.D. 1040, was the author of the Sira-vicara and of the Dharma - 
ratna-prakarana, a Prakrit verse tract on the qualities of the ideal 
layman and the ideal monk, which is of interest primarily as the 
earliest literary source for the 21 sravaka-gunas. These, together 
with the six types of bhava-sravaka , are described in the first 
77 stanzas whilst the remaining 68 are devoted to the delineation of 
the bhava-sadhu. 

The Sanskrit vrtti, printed with the text and attributed on the 
title-page to Santi Suri himself, is stated by Schubring 3 to be by 
Devendra. Commentaries both by Santi Suri and by Devendra are 
mentioned as existing in manuscript. 4 


Abhayadeva, a suri of the Candrakula Gaccha, was a very cele- 
brated commentator on the canon. Both his vivarana on the 
Upasaka-dasah in samvat 1117 s an d his Pancai aka- vrtti in samvat 

1 NPP 3. 

2 Thus Yasodeva, in his Pancasaka commentary, quotes not only verses from 
the Nava-pada-prakarana but a large number of otherwise unidentified verses 
which are found in Devagupta’s Laghu-vrtti. 

3 See Schubring, Die Lehre der Jainas, p. 223. 

4 Velankar, Jina-ratna-koia, p. 191. 5 Ibid., p. 55. 


1124 1 cover the field of sravakacara. Older works utilized by him 
include the Sravaka-praj nap ti^ the commentaries of Haribhadra, 
and the Nava-pada-prakarana. 


Nemicandra, pupil of Amradeva, pupil of Jinabhadra, is distinct 
from the other Nemicandra, author of the vrtti on the XJttaradhy- 
ayana-sutra , who before diksa was called Devendra Ganin. z His 
Pravacana-sdroddhara is a Prakrit verse compendium of Jaina 
philosophy, ethics, and ritual set out as far as possible in the form 
of numerical apothegms. Some of these, such as the lists of 
abhaksyas and ananta-kayas , are of considerable importance for 
the development of the iramkacara. In a compendium of this kind 
much will certainly have been borrowed and the fact that one of the 
verses on the ananta-kayas is quoted by Abhayadeva in his com- 
mentary on the Sramka-dharma-paiicasaka is without significance 
as Nemicandra has quoted them from an earlier source. It is of 
more interest that the verses on the twenty-one sravaka-gunas have 
been incorporated in the text of the Pravacana-sdroddhara as this 
would show that Nemicandra is not at any rate earlier than Santi 
Suri unless the latter had taken them over ready-made from 
another writer. It is difficult therefore to give more than a vague 
approximation of the author’s date. He is not later than the twelfth 
century, as the commentary by Siddhasena Suri was completed in 
samvat 1242,3 and he may well be considerably earlier. He men- 
tions in verse 470 a Candra Suri, who cannot be the acarya who 
wrote a commentary on the Avasyaka-siitra in a.d. 1165,4 but may 
be the same as the author of a Munisuvrata-caritra. 


Nothing seems to be known with certainty of the author of the 
commentary on the Dharma-bindu. According to Weber he died 
in a.d. 1122. He may or may not be identical with the author of a 
Prakrit Gatha-kosa and a Ratna-traya-kalaka or with the fortieth 
acarya in Klatt’s list of the Tapa Gaccha.* 


Ya^odeva, of the Candrakula 

1 Velankar , Jina-ratna-kosa, p. 231. 

* Winternitz, op. cit., p. 496. 

Gaccha — his guru was Candra 

* Ibid,, p. 271. 3 ibid ., p. 272. 

5 Suali in GSAI xxi (1908), 232. 


Suri and his guru’s guru Vira Ganin — completed his curni on the 
first three Pancasakas, only the first of which has been published, 
in sarnvat 1172. 1 This commentary is of special interest because it 
is written in Prakrit (a very clear Maharastrl prose), and because 
though the author is careful to say that he has followed Abhayadeva 
in his interpretation of the text 2 he has in fact given much addi- 
tional information derived from earlier sources. He also composed 
in 1 180 a vrtti on the Paksika-sutra and is perhaps identical with the 
author of the Brhad-vrtti on the Nava-pada-prakarana* 


The Kali-kala-sarvaj na, as this remarkable man was even in his 
lifetime styled, though he lacked perhaps the originality of mind 
of Haribhadra Yakim-putra, surpassed him in the range of his 
knowledge. There was scarcely a branch of literature or science as 
then known to which he did not contribute, and his influence both 
on his contemporaries and on the whole subsequent history of 
Svetambara Jainism and through A^adhara to some extent even 
on the Digambaras can scarcely be overestimated. It may reason- 
ably be suggested that as a poet he overrated himself but he wrote 
excellent Sanskrit prose, only slightly tinged with peculiarities that 
are sometimes described as Jaina but might with more propriety 
be regarded as characteristic of Gujarat. To a greater degree than 
any other Jaina writer he had a gift for the marshalling of facts and 
for clear and orderly exposition. 

By birth a Gujarati and a member of a merchant caste he played 
a prominent role in the politics of his homeland and for this 
reason perhaps the facts of his long life (a.d. 1089-1172) are fairly 
well documented: as they can be found in Biihler’s narrative, 4 
it would be superfluous to go into them here. 

His main contribution to sravakacara is to be found in the Yoga- 
tastra, or Adhyatmopanisad , an encyclopedic compilation on the 
duties of laymen and ascetics of which only the first three prakasas 
are here of relevance. The substance of the work lies less in the text, 
which, written apparently in obedience to the fashion of the day in 
verse, serves only as an outline, than in the commentary. This is 
easy to read, rich in facts, and supported by quotations from the 

1 P (Y), p. 158. 2 P (Y), p. 1. 

3 P (Y), Upodghata, pp. 11-13. 

4 Biihler, Vber das Leben des Jaina-Monches Hemacandra , Vienna, 1889. 


most diverse sources. It is only to be regretted that, except when 
citing from other works of his own composition, Hemacandra rarely 
names his sources, but it is clear that he made extensive use of the 
Sravaka-prajnapti , the Pancasakas with Abhayadeva’s commen- 
taries, the Dharma-bindu, and Siddhasena’s commentary on the 
Tattvartha-sutra. The Yoga-iastra belongs to the close of his life, 
having been written about 1160. 

The first prakasa of the work evokes certain general principles of 
Jainism and sets forth the thirty-five sravaka-gunas. The second 
prakasa discusses samyaktva , its gunas and aticaras (i— 17) ; con- 
demning animal sacrifices, extols the virtues of ahimsa (18-49); 
and outlines the nature of the other four ann-vratas. The third 
prakasa begins by explaining the guna-vratas (including under the 
bhogopabhoga-vrata such topics as ratri-bhojana and all that the 
Digambaras would understand by the mula-gunas) and siksa-vratas 
(1-88); and then goes on to list the aticaras of the twelve matas 
(89-119), and to inculcate the necessity of dana (1 19-21). Verses 
122-30, covered by a commentary of over a hundred pages, portray 
a typical day in the life of a maha-sravaka , thereby affording an 
opportunity for a detailed treatment of the six avasyakas and the 
puja; subjects of meditation for sleepless nights are given in verses 
131-47; and the remaining six verses are given over to a description 
of sallekhana. 

In view of its very full picture of the life of a layman in twelfth- 
century Gujarat it is unfortunate that no translation of the work 
in a western language exists. Windisch attempted a rendering with 
his editio princeps of the first four adhyayas 1 but this suffered from 
the handicap that his manuscript contained only the verses without 
the commentary. For the commencement of the work there is a 
full translation of text and commentary by Belloni-Filippi in an 
Italian periodical 2 but its publication was soon abandoned. Nor 
does a satisfactory edition of the complete text exist, since that 
which was published in the Bibliotheca Indica has remained un- 


Little is known of this dcarya, author also of a Padmaprabha - 
cantra. His exhaustive commentary on the Pravacaiia-sdroddhar a is 

1 2 DMG 28. 

a GSAI XXI. 122-232 (1908). 


dated a.d. 1185. 1 The sections dealing with the vratas and their 
aticaras have been borrowed with scarcely any changes in phraseo- 
logy from the Yoga-sastra , written only a quarter of a century 


For the medieval period the last major work on sravakacara is 
the Sraddh a-dina-krtya of Devendra, a suri of the Tapa Gaccha 
and pupil of Jagaccandra Suri, who is said to have died at Malwa in 
A.D. 1 270. 2 The text consists of 342 verses in conventional Maha- 
rastri Prakrit and is divided into eight prastavas. On this frame- 
work the author has constructed his own voluminous Sanskrit 
commentary, in bulk largely made up of illustrative stories. The 
pattern is that of the dina-carya , the duties of a Jaina layman being 
outlined first for the day and then for the fortnight, the month, and 
the year, so that the main emphasis is on the avasyakas , the piijd , 
and the individual’s obligations to the community. The vratas and 
their aticaras are covered by Devendra’s own commentary — the 
V andaru-vrtti — on the Pratikramana-sutra , which he has incor- 
porated into the Sraddha-dina-krtya. He has also treated certain 
elements of the ritual separately in the Prakrit bhasya-traya. 

Devendra quotes from the Sravaka-praj iiapti, the Pancasakas , 
the Nava-pada-prakarana , and the Dharma-ratna-prakarana. His 
treatment of the vratas and their aticaras is in accordance with the 
orthodox Svetambara tradition and shows no trace of the innova- 
tions made by Haribhadra and Hemacandra, but it is difficult to 
believe that he was not acquainted with the Yoga-sastra and not 
indebted to it for the general plan of his work. Like almost all 
Jaina writers subsequent to Hemacandra, he shows by his references 
to such works as the Manu-smrti and the Vatsyayana-kama-siitra 3 
that he was open to the general currents of Sanskrit culture. 


This suri of the Tapa Gaccha, the pupil and successor of 
Devendra, is often known by the name of Dharmaklrti, which was 
his prior to diksaA He is the author of a Prakrit Sraddha-jita-kalpa in 
141 verses conceived as a sort of appendix to th e Jita-kalpa-siitra , 5 

1 PS: Upodghata, p. s&. 4 Winternitz, op. cit., p. 591. 

2 J§rDK, pt. ii, p. 95. 5 Velankar, op. cit., p. iz6. 

3 Schubring, Die Lehre der Jainas, p. 181. 


and of the Sanghacdra commentary on the Caitya-vandana - 
bhasya of his master Devendra. This latter work is stated to be not 
later than samvat 1327. 1 


Jinadatta Suri of the Kharatara Gaccha, who would seem to 
belong to the thirteenth century a.d., wrote a Caitya-vandana- 
kulaka in Prakrit verse on which, in samvat 1383, Jinakusala of the 
same gaccha composed a voluminous Sanskrit commentary con- 
sisting mainly of illustrative stories. 2 

The PujA-prakaraua 

This twenty- verse Sanskrit tract on the piijd , which has been 
fathered on Umasvati, is quoted in extenso in the fifteenth-century 
&raddha-'vidhi of Ratnasekhara. However, there is no mention of 
it in the Sraddha-dina-krtya of Devendra although these two 
works cover the same topics and use largely the same sources. It 
might not be unreasonable therefore to infer that its date lies some- 
where between them. In view of the constant development of the 
ritual it is to be expected that endeavours should be made to give 
to innovations a spurious veneer of antiquity. Whether this tract 
is excerpted from, or older than, the Viveka-vilasa is not clear. 


The Viveka-vilasay a Sanskrit verse manual constructed on the 
dina-carya pattern and permeated with accretions from Hinduism, 
has sometimes been ascribed to the thirteenth century and may 
be later. 3 Fifteen verses from it* are found also in the Puja- 
prakarana. In any event it cannot be the work of the Jinadatta 
Suri who wrote the Caitya-vandana-kidaka. Jugalkisor Mukhtar 
has shown that with the addition of some introductory verses and 
a false colophon it circulates among Digambaras under the name 
of the Kundakunda-sravakacara. 5 

Its contents include elaborate rules for eating and drinking and 
for excretion, bathing, and sleeping, some general principles of 

1 Velankar, op. cit„ p. 126. 2 Ibid., p. 124. 

3 It is quoted by Jinamandana in the Sraddha-guna-vivarana, by Ratnasekhara 
in the Sraddha-vidhi (p. 46 b), and by Yasovijaya in the Dharma-samgraha 
(pt. 1, p. 1266). 

4 Viveka-vilasa, i. 85-97 

5 Mukhtar, Grantha-parikfa, pp. 26-45. 


niti, a list of the laksanas or lucky marks of men and women, 
some remarks on the technique of yoga, and a long description of 
remedies for snakebite. 


This suri of the Kharatara Gaccha composed an Acara-dinakara 
which, owing apparently to a confusion of the author with an 
earlier namesake, has been falsely ascribed to the eleventh century. 
This Sanskrit prose treatise on the kriyas or samskaras appropriate 
to the various phases of life, both lay and monastic, seems to have 
been the first Svetambara work of its kind, but from the fact that 
the author quotes from Hemacandra’s Yoga-sastra 1 and because 
the details, for example, of the piija, show a very developed stage, 2 
an early date is impossible. Although the ceremonies noticed in 
the Acara-dinakara are very different from the fifty-three kriyas of 
the Adi-pnrana it seems impossible that these latter were com- 
pletely unknown to Vardhamana. Nathuram PremI 3 had already 
noted that the work could not be as old as was supposed (he 
suggested samvat 1500), and a recent writer in fact gives its date 
of compilation as samvat 1468. 4 


Caritrasundara Ganin, pupil of Ratnasimha, composed the 
Acaropadesa , a rather brief metrical srdvakacara in six adhyayas , in 
samvat 1487. 5 It has enjoyed considerable popularity but offers 
little of interest except in its details of the piija. The writer is pre- 
sumably to be identified with the author of an elaborate allegorical 
duta-kavya, the Sila-duta , dated a.d. 1420. 6 


Jinamandana Ganin was a pupil of Somasundara Suri of the 
Tapa Gaccha. He completed his ^ 7 7 ” . , ■ : ■ "■ 1 " . ^ 

correctly styled, it would seem, the ■ ■ ■■ • 

in samvat 1498 in the town of Anahilapattana in Gujarat. 7 

1 ADK, p. 43a. 

3 e.g. the description of the twenty-one snapanas required for the pratistha 

ritual (ADK, pp. 153-5). 3 Premi, Jaina sahitya aur itihas, p. 561. 

4 V. A. Sangave, Jaina Community , p. 367. 

5 Velankar, op. cit. } p. 25. 6 Winternitz, op. cit., p. 574. 

7 SsrGuV : prastavana , p. 2. 


This Sanskrit prose composition on the thirty-five sravaka-gunas 
is remarkable both for the author’s erudition and for the many 
curious details from Jaina tradition which he preserves. At the 
same time he displays great familiarity with Hindu sources. 


Certain details of the life of this deary a of the Tapa Gaccha are 
available. Born in samvat 1452, ordained in 1463, and elevated to 
the dignity of suri in 1502, he died in 1517. 1 His writings — the 
Acara-pradipa ( 1516), the Sraddha-vidhi ( 1506), and the commen- 
tary on the Sraddha-pratikramana-sutra (1496) — are among the 
best productions of an age of decadence and show his familiarity 
with the canon and with the works of Hemacandra and Devendra, 
though traces of increasing hinduization are everywhere apparent. 

The Sraddha-vidhi preserves the fiction of a metrical composi- 
tion by its framework of seventeen Prakrit gathas divided into six 
prakasas, but these are manifestly only a peg on which to hang a 
vast Sanskrit prose treatise which imitates in its general outlines 
the Sraddha-dina-krtya. It might even be described as an adapta- 
tion of this work to contemporary conditions. Similarly the Prati- 
kramana commentary represents a more extensive version of 
Devendra’s Vandaru-vrtti. 


Of the extensive literature on sravakacara surviving from the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries only one work will retain our 
attention. In a.d. 1681 Manavijaya wrote a Dharm a-samgraha in 
Sanskrit verses apparently designed to serve as a vehicle for the 
comprehensive prose commentary of Yasovijaya. This great re- 
former, who lived from 1624 to 1688, sought to regenerate his 
age by a return to the teachings of the canon and had probably a 
better command of the whole range of Jaina literature than any 
man since Hemacandra. In his commentary, modelled on the Yoga- 
fastra, which he quotes repeatedly, but as only one of many sources, 
he has shown an extraordinary sureness of touch in rejecting the 
non-Jaina elements which had invaded the writings of predecessors 
like Ratnasekhara. 

1 Sraddhci-vidhi: upodghata, p. 4 a. 

C I 7 ) 




2nd century (?) 



3rd century ( ? ) 



4th century (?) 



c. 450 (?) 


S arvartha-siddhi 

6th century ( ? ) 


8th century (?) 



late 9th century 



early 10th century 










c. IOOO 



nth century 

Sravaka-dharma- dohaka 

nth century ( ? ) 






12th century (?) 


Sagara- dharmamrta 




c. 1260 



c. 1300 (?) 



15th century (?) 



15th century (?) 



15th century 






c. 1530 






17th century (?) 





Amongst the many works attributed to Kundakunda two are of 
some relevance to the iravakacara . The summary of the rules of 
right conduct given in the Caritra-prabhrta devotes a few verses 
to the lay life, listing, inter alia , the twelve vratas. The Ratna-sara in 
view of some of its contents is best ascribed to a considerably later 

Much has been written on the date of Kundakunda but to little 
result. The tradition of the DigambarajpaZjfaflfl/fs places him in the 

C 737 C 


first century a.d. 1 It is noteworthy that all the works ascribed to 
him are in Prakrit. Upadhye has placed him in the second century. 3 


Since Jacobi’s 3 edition and translation at the end of last century 
the Tattvartha-sutra , the most authoritative exposition of Jaina 
doctrine, regarded even by the Svetambaras with a veneration 
scarcely less than that accorded to the canon has been too well 
known to need description. Only the seventh adhyaya is concerned 
with the lay life. 4 Umasvamin 5 s date remains uncertain; according 
to the Digambara tradition he lived between 135 and 219. 

The reasons which have led me to regard, from the aspect of 
fravakacara , the Tattvartha-sutra as a purely Digambara work have 
been noted above. 


About a hundred verses (302 to 391 in the printed edition) of the 
Dvadasanupreksa or Dharma-bhavana of Karttikeya are devoted, 
as part of the dharmanupreksa , to a brief consideration of the lay 
life ; they cover the topics of samyaktva, the twelve vratas (without 
any indication of the aticaras ), sallekhana , and the pratimas. 

The dating of Karttikeya presents considerable difficulties. 
Upadhye 2 would put him later than Yogindu and Pujyapada, 
somewhere between the sixth and thirteenth centuries in fact. 
Jugalkisor Mukhtar 5 rejects the arguments on which this view is 
based and regards Karttikeya as much nearer Umasvamin in date. 
The special eulogy of those tirthaiikaras who were said to have 
been kumara-sramanas would also suggest for him that Karttikeya, 
too, had taken the monastic initiation whilst still a boy, whilst cer- 
tain other points such as the general use of the title svami with his 
name would lead to the belief that he belonged to south India. 

1 Wintemitz, op. cit., p. 476. 

2 Upadhye, Introduction to KA, pp. 67-70. 

3 ZDMG k (1906), 387 ff., 512 ff, 

* Mukhtar has pointed out that there exists a spurious Umasvdmi-fravakacara 
which is no more than a haphazard assemblage of didactic verses for laymen, 
taken from Svetambara as well as Digambara sources (see Grantha-parlksa 
pp. 1-25). 

See Mukhtar, Purdtana Jaina-vakya suci: prastavana , pp. 22—27, for a 
general summary of these arguments. 


The Ratna-karanda-sravakacara of Samantabhadra would ap- 
pear to be the earliest Digambara work devoted exclusively to the 
exposition of the rules of conduct for a layman. It is divided 
into five paricchedas , the first of which deals with sainyag-darsana, 
the second with samyag-jnana , the third with the anu-vratas and 
guna-vratas, the fourth with the siksa-vratas, and the fifth with 
sallekhana and the pratimas. Like Umasvamin Samantabhadra has 
been responsible for many innovations in the fravakacara doctrine 
and, to an even greater extent, he has rationalized the aticaras of the 
vratas and given them a more universal content. Even the change 
in the designation of the last mat a ( vaiyamttya for atithi-samvi - 
bhagd) is an indication of his attitude. Many of his alterations have 
been rejected by almost all his successors but this notwithstanding, 
his influence has been far-reaching and whenever the term Svami 
is used alone it is to Samantabhadra that reference is made. 

Many legends attach to his life but little can be said of it with 
certainty. He would seem to have been a native of the Tamil land 
and to have belonged to a ksatriya family . 1 It seems difficult to 
assert with Hiralal Jain that the Ratna-karanda is based on the 
Tattvartha-stitra, the Dvadasanupreksa, and the Darsana-prabhrta 
of Kundakunda : 2 at the most it may be stated that in the develop- 
ment of the sravakacara doctrine it would seem to be posterior to 
Karttikeya’s work. Widely differing figures are given for Saman- 
tabhadra’s date. An ancient tradition puts him as early as the 
second century ; 3 equally it has been conjectured that he flourished 
in the first half of the eighth century 4 which would seem to be too 
late a date, if only because of the extreme veneration with which 
he was regarded already in Jinasena’s time. Mukhtar, after an 
exhaustive study of all available evidence, would go no further than 
to suggest somewhere between the first and fifth centuries a.d. s 
Arbitrarily the present writer has accepted the upper limit — circa 
a.d. 450 — as a probable date. 


One of the oldest and probably the most authoritative of the 
commentaries on the Tattvartha- siitra is Pujyapada’s Sarvartha- 

1 RK: prakkathan , pp. 4-15. 2 £r (V) : prastavana, p. 45. 

3 RK: prakkathan , p. 115. 4 See Winternitz, op. cit., p. 580. 

5 RK: prakkathan, p. 196. 


siddhi. Pujyapada, or Devanandin, who again, it seems, belonged 
to south India, was also the author of a Jainendra-vyakarana in 
which, unless as is sometimes held this name is merely fictitious, 
mention is made of Samantabhadra, who must therefore be anterior 
to him in date. 1 On the faith of epigraphical evidence Mukhtar 
would place Pujyapada in the second half of the fifth century, 2 and 
this view is accepted by the editor of the Sarvartha-siddhi. Winter- 
nitz assumed that he lived before Samantabhadra and placed him 
between the fifth and the seventh centuries. 5 

There is in existence also a sravakacara ascribed to Pujyapada. 
The Ratna-sara 

Many doubts exist on the authenticity of the attribution of this 
work to Kundakunda and both Schubring 4 and J ugalkisor Mukhtar 5 
have expressed the opinion that the text in its present form cannot 
be as old as that. This little Prakrit verse tract on the ratna-traya 
contains at least one verse— that which refers to the fifty-three 
kriyas — of considerable interest for the development of th zsrdvaka- 
cara . 


The Maha-purana , one of the most ambitious productions of 
Digambara Jainism, is composed of the Adi-purana and the 
Uttara-purana, The first forty-two parvans of the former were 
written by Jinasena, whose guru was Yirasena of the Sena Sahgha, 
and the rest of the work was completed by his pupil Gunabhadra. 
Both enjoyed the patronage of the Rastrakuta kings and the date 
of termination of this epic — a.d. 897 — has been recorded. 6 Like the 
Maha-bharata , which it was designed to rival, it includes many 
digressions of an edifying character and parvans 38, 39, and 40 are 
often regarded as constituting a havakacara in their own right. 
They are mainly devoted to a description of the fifty-three kriyas 
or ceremonies which mark the stages in a man’s life both as lay- 
man and ascetic and furnish the only extant description of these 

1 Mukhtar, op. cit., pp. 150-3. 

2 Phulcandra Siddhanta Sastri in T (P) Prastavana, pp. 94-96. 

3 Winternitz, op. cit., p. 478, 

4 Schubring, Kundakunda echt und unecht , p. 568. 

5 Mukhtar, op. cit., p. 15. 

6 Winternitz, op. cit., pp. 497-9. 


which can pretend to any antiquity. Jinasena’s views have been 
held in especial reverence by all succeeding Digambara writers. 1 


The Yasas-tilaka of Somadeva is in fact a ca?npu, a romance 
partly in verse, partly in prose, written in 959 at Gangadhara near 
the modern Dharwar in the territory of the Rastrakuta kings.* 
Little is known of the author’s life except that he belonged to the 
Deva Sahgha, and his influence on later writers apart from 
Asadhara is not very marked. The narrative of the Yasas-tilaka does 
not run through the whole work: the sixth, seventh, and eighth 
books together constitute an excursus on the sravakacara which is 
often referred to as Somadeva’s Upasakadhyayana. This covers 
samyaktva , the twelve matas — for the five anu-vratas illustrative 
stories are given — and sallekhana. The section dealing with the 
samayika contains an exhaustive treatment of dhyana, and numerous 
hymns and verses on the anupreksas are included. Somadeva differs 
from other Jaina acaryas in not adhering strictly to the figure of 
five aticaras for each vrata and by his often very personal contribu-- 
tions to the sravakacara such as the introduction of the four 
categories of truth and falsehood or of the five classes of persons 
entitled to maintenance by the faithful. He is noteworthy, too, 
for the extent to which he is permeated by Vedantist concepts. 


There are good grounds for assuming, as is usually done, that 
the Bhava-samgraha and the Darsana-sara are by the same hand. 
Now the latter is clearly stated to have been written in the temple 
of Parsvanatha at Dhara in samvat 990, and since the author 
strongly condemns all other sects as heretical he would appear to 
have belonged to the Mula Sangha. The Bhava-samgraha may 
then be dated in the first half of the tenth century a.d . 3 

This work — in Prakrit verse — gives a description of the fourteen 
guna-sthanas. The sravakacara section is contained in verses 350- 

1 It is for this reason, doubtless, that his name has been attached to a strongly 
hinduized compilation on the layman’s duties known as the Trivarndcara of 
Jinasena. Mukhtar has characterized this work as a blatant forgery of quite 
recent date. See Grantha-pariksa , pp. 46 if. 

2 Handiqui, p. 4. 

3 Mukhtar, Puratana Jaina-vakya suci , pp. 59-61. 


599> which describe the fifth guna-sthana : after a brief summary of 
the vratas and tnula-gunas , dhyana , piijd , and dana are described in 
detail. The main emphasis is on the amassing of punya and the 
performance of pdja and , ; and, as in other srdvahacaras of a 
popular type, it is on the joys of the deva-loka and the bhoga- 
bhumis rather than on moksa that stress is laid. 

The Sravaka-dharma-dohaka 
When he edited this anonymous Apabhramsa text Hiralal Jain, 1 
after eliminating Yogindradeva as a possible author, proposed its 
ascription to Devasena and listed a number of parallels between 
this work and the Bhava-samgraha. Mukhtar 2 is reluctant to 
accept this view and it is possible that the editor himself would no 
longer uphold it. The passages selected for comparison offer in 
fact little more than recurrences of certain cliches common in 
Jaina writings. On the other hand the description of the various 
forms of piija and results to be achieved by each of them differs 
considerably in the two works. If this Apabhramsa work does not 
then belong to Devasena it might well be a century or so later than 
Hiralal Jain suggests, for its enumeration of the abhaksyas seems 
to be more fully developed than that of Amitagati while it appears 
strange that its author should be the only writer before Vasunandin 
to mention the two divisions of the eleventh pratima. Srutasagara, in 
his commentary on the Sai-prabhrta, quotes eight verses from this 
work, which he ascribes to Laksmlcandra. 3 

The Sravaka-dharma-dohaka is a compilation in some 200 
Apabhramsa dohas , giving in summarized form an account of the 
pratimas, the miila-gunas, the vratas , dana, vinaya , vaiyavrttya , and 


The Camundaraya who wrote the Caritra-sdra is, according to 
Winternitz,* distinct from the minister and general of the Ganga 
king Racamalla ( samvat 1032-41) at whose instance the Gommata - 
$ 3 ra was composed. This other Camundaraya had also, however, 
followed the active life of a soldier before becoming a monk but 
nothing more seems to be known of him. 

1 Doha, Bhiimika , pp. 9-19. 

2 Mukhtar, Purdtana Jaina-vdkya suci, pp. 59-61. 

3 Velankar, op. cit., p. 394, 4 Winternitz, op. cit., p. 587. 


The Caritra-sara is a work which has received less than its due: 
Hiralal Jain does not even mention it in his survey of the Digam- 
bara sravakacaras. It is an admirably concise exposition of both the 
sravakacara and the yaty-acara (about a quarter only of the con- 
tents being devoted to the former), written in clear and elegant 
Sanskrit prose. The arrangement is by pratimas] and the vratas , 
with their aticaras and adequate explanations of these, are given 
under the second pratima. For the aticaras Camundaraya follows 
closely Pujyapada’s commentary on the Tattvdrtha-sutra, often 
retaining his exact wording ; as a model he has evidently preferred 
it to Samantabhadra’s Ratna-karanda though his familiarity with 
this work is evident from the very striking division of the papo- 
padesa category of anartha-danda into four types, and from the 
listing of the bhogas , which should be avoided, into five classes. 
Though not mentioned by name the mula-gunas are in fact dis- 
cussed after the vratas. Ratri-bhojana is held to be the sixth anu- 
vrata. After the pratimas comes a description of the sixteen 
bhavanas (for which again the author is heavily indebted to 
Pujyapada) and, by way of appendix, an account of the sallekhana 
ritual. Many topics normally included in & sravakacara, for example, 
the avasy alias, and, under the head of dhyana the anupreksas, are 
relegated to the yaty-acara section. 

Camundaraya is clearly very close to Jinasena (from whose 
Adi-purana he quotes) in his affiliations. He notes the four Jaina 
asramas , the third of which, the vanaprastha , is equated with the 
status of the layman in the eleventh pratima. Like Jinasena he is 
very open to Plindu influences and in fact quotes from the Manu- 
smrti. 1 


Amitagati, pupil of Madhavasena, was an deary a of the Mathura 
Sangha, a branch of the Kastha Sangha. 2 Munj and Sindhul are 
mentioned in his works and accordingly it is suggested he belonged 
to the literary school of Munj. 3 His Subha§ita-ratnasandoha 
was composed in samvat 1050 and his commentary on the Panca - 
samgraha in samvat 1073 3 so that his Sravakacara may well be dated 
within the first quarter of the eleventh century A.D. 

It is an extensive and comprehensive work, in Sanskrit verse, the 

1 Manu-smrti , v. 55. * PremI, op. cit,, p. 172. 

3 PremI, op. cit., pp. 176-7. 


first pariccheda of which is devoted to the praise of the dharma, the 
second to samyaktva and its opposite, mithydtva , the third to an 
explanation of the seven tattvas, and the fourth to a refutation of 
Buddhists, nastikas, and other heterodox sects. The fifth pariccheda 
begins the sravakacara proper with a discussion of the mula-gunas 
(this actual designation is not, however, employed), the sixth and 
seventh are devoted to the twelve vratas and their aticdras and to 
sallekhand and the pratmas, the eighth to the six avasyakas , and the 
ninth, tenth, and eleventh to the topic of dana. Puja and the seven 
vyasanas are covered in the twelfth, vinaya , vaiydvrttya , and 
svadhydya in the thirteenth, the anupreksas in the fourteenth, and 
dhyana in the fifteenth paricchedas. It is only in the case of the puja 
that the details are surprisingly exiguous. Amitagati’s treatise does 
not seem to bear a specially close relation to any earlier work. 

In another poem, the Subhasita-ratna-sandoha, he touched on 
similar subjects. The whole of pariccheda XXXI of this work is 
devoted to the basic vows of the layman and the interdictions of 
the mula-gunas are covered in paricchedas XX, XXI, and XXII. 
The Sanskrit style of both poems is characterized by a conspicuous 
preference for recondite grammatical forms. 


Nothing at all is known of the life of this deary a. On the faith of a 
Digambara paftdvali quoted in Peterson’s eighteenth report it had 
been accepted— by Nathuram Premi 1 in his edition of the Puru- 
sartha-siddhy-upaya and by Winternitz 2 — that Amrtacandra was 
alive in a.d. 904. Upadhye,* in his introduction to the Pravacana - 
sdra y placed him somewhere between 800 and 1100 but Nathuram 
Premi, 4 in a later article, suggested that his date must lie between 
1000 and 1350, the upper limit being given by the year of compila- 
tion of the Sugar a-dharmamrta in which he is quoted. Premi has 
also noted that in this commentary Amrtacandra is twice referred 
to as thakkura , a title that is usually given to the people of Raia- 
gharana. 5 J 

In its outward form the Purusartha-siddhy-upaya is a sravakacara 
like so many others: after a short introduction giving certain basic 

3 V £ BlJ :prastavana p. 4. 2 *Winternitz, op. cit., p. S 6r 

frwacema-sara, ed. by A. N. Upadhye, p. 101. ’ P 5 ’ 

Hitaklht'iQzo Cit> P ' 458 ‘ ThlS 3rticle WaS original h published in the Jaina 
* * 5 See Premi, op. cit., p. 457, 


principles of Jainism it discusses the ratna-traya , the twelve vratas 
and sallehhana with their aticaras , and tapas and the parisahas 
(from its position in the text a-ratri-bhojana would appear to be 
considered the sixth anu-vrata though it is not given this designa- 
tion). It is in the spirit that animates it that the work differs from 
all others of its kind. In rather harsh verse Amrtacandra sings the 
praises of ahimsd with the fervour of a mystic, always stressing his 
theme that all the evil man can do is in some sense an expression 
of himsa. The only other writer who at all approaches him in this 
singlemindedness is Amitagati. 


Again of this author really nothing is known. Several dcaryas of 
this name are recorded but it seems safe to say that the same man 
composed the Sravakdcdra and the Pratisthd-sara-samgraha as well 
as the Acara-vrtti commentary on the Miildcdra . This commen- 
tary quotes Amitagati, and for this reason and because Vasunandin 
himself is quoted in the Sagara-dharmdmrta commentary Nathu- 
ram Premi 1 and JugalkiSor Mukhtar 2 agree in placing him some- 
where between a.d. 1050 and 1200. Hiralal Jain is prepared to 
situate him — more precisely — in the second half of the eleventh 
century since his guru’s guru, Nayanandin, would seem to be 
identical with the author of the Apabhramsa Sudarsana-carita , 
composed in samvat 1 100. 3 

The Sravakacdra or, as it is sometimes called, Upasakadhydyana 
of Vasunandin in Prakrit verse is based on th epratimd framework 
which allows for a description under the first pratimd of the seven 
vy asanas and of the misfortunes of the jiva in the four gatis, and, 
under the second pratimd , of tjie twelve vratas. The vratas are 
given rather anomalously — they do not include sdutayika and 
posadhopavasa , which are treated only as pratimas — and without any 
indication of the aticaras. The two phases of the eleventh pratimd 
are noted, After the pratimas follow miscellaneous topics: ratri- 
bhojana , vinaya } vaiyavrttya, puja , and dhyana , and the work con- 
cludes with a panegyric of the monk’s life. It has been shown that 
Vasunandin used Devasena’s Bhava-samgraha and it is probable 
that he was familiar with Amitagati’s Sravahacara.* 

1 See Premi, op. cit., p. 457* 

2 See Mukhtar, Puratana Jaina-vakya sad, p. 100. 

3 See Sr (V): prastavana , pp. 18-19. 4 See Sr (V): prastamnd, p. 41* 



The name of the author of the Dharma-rasayana , a short verse 
tract in Prakrit on the four gatis, is given as Padmanandin, who can- 
not be identical with the writer of the Sravakacara. Of Jaina lay- 
doctrine it gives little more than the twelve vratas and is unusual 
in replacing ahimsa as the first anu-mata by ‘the non-killing of 
animals for sacrifice 5 . Such a formulation is not met with in any 
other text surveyed here but is found in the V arahga-carita of 
Jatila. 1 The Dharma-rasayana , which may be as old as the eleventh 
or twelfth century (though the use of Prakrit does not necessarily 
imply this), has some verses on the sufferings of the jiva in hell 
which are written with considerable verve. 


The author of the Sagara-dliarmamrta is a very much less 
shadowy figure for he has given considerable information about 
himself and his writings in his prasastis , and on the basis of these 
Nathuram PremI has reconstructed his life. Born about samvat 
1235, he belonged to the Bagheravala jati one of the most im- 
portant vaisyajatis of Rajputana, and members of his family held 
appointments under the rulers of Dhara, then a considerable 
centre of learning, whither they had moved from Mandalgarh 
(Mewar) after the conquest of Delhi by Shihab al-Dln Ghori in 
samvat 1249. He subsequently lived for thirty-five years at 
Nalacha. Though later writers sometimes call him sun, he remained, 
according to Premi till his death — he was still alive and writing 
in samvat 1300— -a layman (perhaps at its close a ksullaka ). z In the 
course of a life devoted, it would seem, to the promotion of his 
religion, 3 he did not hesitate to criticize and admonish the monks, 
as witness the verse :4 

panditair bhrasta-caritrair batharaii ca tapo-dhanaih 
sdsanam jina-candrasya nirmalam malinl-krtam 

Adadhara s erudition is remarkable, perhaps as comprehensive 
as that of the Kali-kala-sarvajna : he lacked only Hemacandra’s 
capacity to present his rich material in clear and orderly fashion. 
Yet, more than any other writer considered here, he possessed the 

3 Varana-carita, xv 106. * PremI> cit 

Jina-dhamodayarthmri yo Nalakacchapure 'vasat is the phrase used in the 

V7 QSQStt*. 4 . r> 

* Premi, op. cit., p. 131. 


temperament and habits of a scholar. Wherever he has discerned 
differences of opinion between the acaryas of old he has noted 
whatever he felt to be of importance, carefully indicating his sources* 
Thus he cites Samantabhadra (‘the Svami’), 1 Jinasena, Camunda- 
raya, Somadeva, Amitagati, Amrtacandra, and Vasunandin, often 
affording, as we have seen, valuable indications for dating them. 
But he did not confine himself to Digambara sources ; in fact on 
many points, particularly on the aticaras of the vratas, he trans- 
cribed whole passages from the Yoga-sdstra 2 Hemacandra is not 
mentioned by name but the phrase ‘ Sitambardcarya ' 2 nearly always 
refers to him. 

In this readiness to use Svetambara writings he may have been 
showing the same catholicity of outlook that in a later age animated 
Yasovijaya in his attempts to reconcile the two sects ; but it cannot 
be left out of account that, although he belonged to the Mula 
Sangha, he may also have been the inheritor of a Yapanlya tradition. 
Amongst his surviving works there is a commentary on the BJiaga- 
vati Aradhana , which, as Premi 4 has shown, may well have been 
a Yapanlya production (its most important commentator certainly 
belonged to that sect). It is particularly in the section on sallekhana , 
to which Asadhara attaches a quite special importance, that the 
influence of the Bhagavati Aradhana on the Sagara-dharmamrta is 
apparent. Many of the topics discussed in this work figure in no 
other Digambara srdvakdcara save that of Medhavin, who, as we 
shall see, belonged to the same sampradaya’. the mention of sthula - 
himsd and siiksma-himsa, the distinction of aticdra and bhahga; the 
tabulation of the aticaras of the brahma-vrata that may be com- 
mitted by women ; the catalogue of the fifteen forbidden callings ; 
the notation of the kumari-go-bhu classification of satya ; the refer- 
ence to the harming of vayu-kayas and ap-kayas under anartha- 
danda ; and the description of the dina-carya , the ideal daily round 
for the layman. All these have their analogies in the generality of 
Svetambara works, and though some may be direct borrowings 
from Hemacandra — the dina~carya is a case in point — others may 
stem from an earlier tradition. More significant from the angle 
of possible Yapanlya affiliations is the description of the rite of 
sallekhana when performed by women for whom nudity is then 

1 SDhAiv. 64. 2 See Appendix. 3 SDhAv. 23. 

4 Premi, op. cit., pp. 3 i“ 33 - 5 SDhA viii. 38. 


The list of Asadhara’s works as given by him in his prasastis is a 
long one but many of those mentioned seem to have disappeared 
completely. Apart from some short kavyas and a number of commen- 
taries they include writings on logic, on ayurvedic medicine, on the 
technique of yoga, and on various elements of the Jaina ritual such 
as the piija. 1 But the most important extant works are the Sagara- 
dhamamrta and Anagara-dharmamrta, which are conceived on 
exactly parallel lines and together form a complete manual of the 
secular and the monastic life. The metrical text is amplified by a 
prose commentary which in both cases bears the name Bhavya~ 
kumuda-candrika . 

The Sagara-dharmdmrta , which alone concerns us here, was com- 
pleted in samvat 1296 and its commentary three years later. The 
plan of the work rests on the division into the three stages through 
which the sravaka should pursue his spiritual progress : paksika, 
naisthika , and sadhaka . The first two adhyayas are concerned with 
the paksika stage, the next five with the naisthika, and the last with 
the sadhaka . The first adhyaya is taken up with a consideration of 
samyaktm and with definitions of a number of terms, mentioning 
incidentally the sravaka-gunas. The second lists the mula-gunas 
(noting the divergent interpretations of other acaryas) and then 
deals in detail with puja and dana (including marriage, which is 
regarded as kanya-dana ). As is made clear later these terms have a 
different meaning for the paksika and for the naisthika. With the 
third adhyaya begins the consideration of the pratimas; and this 
chapter is in fact taken up by a condemnation of the seven vy asanas 
and ancillary vyasanas , which must be eschewed before the first 
pratima is attained. The next two adhyayas cover the twelve mat as 
and their aticaras , the sixth is devoted to the dina-carya , and the 
seventh delineates the remaining pratimas, culminating in the final 
stage with its divisions into ksullaka and ailaka. The last adhyaya 
prescribes how the sadhaka is to terminate his earthly existence by 
the rite of sallekhana. 


This acarya, pupil of Kumudacandra, was the author of a Srava- 
kacara in Sanskrit and of other works in Kannada: he belongs to 
circa a.d. 1260. 2 

1 See PremI, op. cit., pp, 134-7. 

2 Premi, Introduction to Siddhanta-saradi-mnigrciha, p. 23. This Smvakacara 
does not appear to have been published. 


The date of this author is very uncertain. The upper iimit is 
furnished by the date of the manuscript on which the printed 
edition of the work is based — samvat 1526. 1 At the same time he 
must be at least later than Vasunandin for, as Hiralal Jain 2 
has shown, very many of his verses are no more than para- 
phrases of the Prakrit gathas of Vasunandin’s text. The editor of the 
Gunabhusana-sravakacdra hazards a conjecture that it may have 
been written in the fourteenth-century samvat .* In view of its in- 
debtedness to Vasunandin the importance of this work is not very 


The author of the Dharma-rasayana is distinct from the Pad- 
manandin to whom a brief metrical Srdvakacara in Sanskrit is 
ascribed. The contents of this latter work suggest that is not likely 
to be later than the fourteenth or fifteenth century. 


Vamadeva, pupil of Laksmicandra of the Mula Sangha and a 
kayastha by caste, is the author of the Bhava-samgraha, a Sanskrit 
metrical treatise covering the same themes as Devasena’s work of 
the same name. He quotes from the Jina-samhita, so that if this is 
the Jina-samhita of Ekasandhi, who belongs to the fourteenth- 
century samvat , he must be later than a.d. 1350. 3 

The lay doctrine is covered in verses 441-619, which deal with 
the fifth guna-sthana. The topics treated include the pratimas, the 
mula-gunas, the vratas> puja, dana and, very summarily, the ava- 
yakas. Nathuram Premi, in his introduction to the text, is perhaps 
rather unjust to the author whose work he characterizes as a mere 
paraphrase of Devasena, 3 when in fact it contains many original 


The Dharma-prasnottara or Prasnottara-sravakacara of Sakala- 
kirti is an extremely voluminous verse srdvakaedra treatise in 
twenty-four sargas in the form of question and answer. It is a 

1 Prastavana , p. 3. 

2 He records these parallels in the footnotes to his edition of the lor (V). 

3 BhS (V): Bhumikd , p. 7. 


humdrum composition mainly consisting of longwinded narratives : 
for the details of the vratas the author slavishly follows Samanta- 

Sakalaklrti is supposed to have died in a.d. 1464 1 but, to judge 
from style and contents, a date considerably later might more 
easily have been conjectured. Winternitz, 1 however, accepts the 
ascription of this sravakacara to the fifteenth century. 


The author of the Dharma-samgraha-sravakacara tells us in his 
prasasti that Pandita Mlha, a ksullaka living at Hlsarapura and a 
pupil of Jinacandra Muni, commenced this work during the reign 
of Firuz Khan of Nagpur and that he, Medhavin, also a native of 
Hlsarapura, completed it in samvat 1561, basing it on the writings 
of Samantabhadra, Vasunandin, and A&idhara. 2 It might have 
been better had he dwelt more on his debt to Asadhara, to whose 
sampradaya he evidently belongs, for many of the ^vetambara 
features, such as the kumari-go-bhii classification and the picture 
of the dina-carya, not found in other Digambara works reappear in 
Medhavin and his treatment of sallekhana is exactly parallel. 

The Dharma-samgraha , which, according to the author, contains 
exactly 1,440 verses, is divided into ten adhikaras, the first three of 
which describe the Jina’s samavasarana. These have been pub- 
lished separately under the title of the Samavasarafia-darpanaJ 
The rest of the work follows exactly the arrangement of the 
Sagara-dharmamrta and differs from it only in certain passages 
that reflect increasing hinduization such as the differentiation of 
touchable and untouchable siidras* or new external influences such 
as the passage in which the author is concerned to justify the 
worship of images. 5 


A Dhanna-piyusa-sravakacara 6 in four adhyayas was composed 
by Brahmanemidatta, who also wrote a &ripcila-carita(kJD. 1528) 
and an Arddhmia-katha-kofa (1530). 7 

1 &r (M), p p. 327-8. 

1 Winternitz, op. cit., p. 592. 

3 Schubring, Die Lehr e derjainas , p. 210 

*Sr (M)ix a 3 3. s Sr (M) ix. 38. 

“ V™* was not accessible to me and in fact does not seem to have been 
pubhshed ’ 7 Winternitz, op. cit., p. 544. 




The Lati-samhita , a Sanskrit verse treatise on iravakacarU 
written by Rajamalla Kavi at Vairat, which was part of the Mogul 
empire, in samvat 1641, opens with a panegyric of Akbar and his 
dynasty. In seven sargas it treats the mula-gimas, samyaktva, the 
pratimas, and the vratas , the last-named being defined by quotations 
from the Tattvartha-siitra . It is important in the Digambara 
tradition as the first work to use the terms ailaka and ksullaka 1 in 
their modern sense and to treat of the bhoga-patni and dharma - 
patni . 2 


The j Ratna-mala of Sivakoti is a short verse tract on sravakacara 
of little importance and only noticed here because its author has 
sometimes been confused with the author of the Bhagavatl 
Aradhana. Premi 3 * suggests that it is modern ; it may belong to the 
seventeenth century. 


The Traivarnikdcara , an extensive Sanskrit metrical treatise in 
thirteen adhyayas , composed by Somasena in a.d. 1610, is of 
particular interest for its picture of a very hinduized Jaina com- 
munity in the Kannada country in the early seventeenth century. 
It advocates many practices which in Jugalkisor MukhtarV 
definition are contrary to Jainism. In scope it goes very much be- 
yond the limits of other havakacaras and contains a considerable 
amount of information on the Jaina law of personal status. 5 

1 Lati-sainhita , vii. 55. 2 Ibid. ii. 178-83. 

3 Siddhanta-saradi-samgraha ; nivedan y pp. 22-33. 

4 See Mukhtar, Grantha-pariksa, pp. 98 ff. 

5 Extracts from it were published by Champat Ray Jain in Jaina Law , Arrah, 


( 32 ) 


The Jaina religion, the dharma , which leads to release from the 
cycle of transmigration, is made up of right belief ( samyag-drsti , 
samyaktvd), right knowledge {samyag-j nand) , and right conduct 
(samyak-caritra), which together constitute the ratna-traya or 
three gems, 1 sometimes also called the guna-traya . 

As samyag-drsti implies faith in the dogmas of the religion and 
samyag-jnana accurate knowledge of those dogmas, many writers, 
especially among the Digambaras, have found it desirable to pre- 
face to their sravakacaras a more or less extensive summary of 
Jaina doctrine, particularly of the nature of jiva and karman. Thus, 
for example, Somadeva, 2 Amitagati ,3 and Vasunandin 4 commence 
their treatises by a discussion of the seven tattvas or padarthas, the 
basicsubjects ofbelief. More thoroughly treated in other works, these 
may be left out of account here as of no direct relevance to the 
practical aspects of the sravakacara y but a few categories to which 
reference is frequently made in the exposition of the matas are 
worth listing: 

Thus there are nine ‘matrices of the doctrine’ (pravacana-matr), 
consisting of three forms of self-control (gnpti) : 

(1) curbing of activity of speech ( vag-gupti ); 

(2) curbing of activity of body {kaya-gupti ) ; 

(3) curbing of activity of mind (mano-gupti); 

and five rules of conduct ( samiti ) : 

(1) care in walking (irya-samiti ) ; 

(2) care in speaking (bhasa-samiti) ; 

(3) care in accepting alms {esana-samiti ) ; 

(4) care in taking up and setting down {ddana-niksepa-samiti) ; 

(5) care in excreting (utsarga-samiti). 

Of the many complex and sometimes highly artificial divisions 
conceived for the category of jiva, two are commonly used: 

4 ' Handi< J ui . PP- 346-52. 3 Sr (A) iii. 



The six jiva-nikayas (the first five of which are collectively styled 
sthdvara-jivas) are: 

(1) earth bodies (prthvi-kaya) ; 

(2) water bodies ( ap-kaya ); 

(3) fire bodies ( tejah-kaya ) ; 

(4) wind bodies ( vayu-kaya ) ; 

(5) plant bodies ( vanaspati-kaya ) which may be either sadharana 
or pratyeka ; 

(6) bodies with the power of movement ( trasa-kdya ). 

The nine jivas are: 

(1) with one sense organ (ekendriy a prthvi-kaya) \ 

(2) „ „ ,, (ekendriy a ap-kaya); 

(3) „ „ „ (ekendriy a tejah-kaya); 

(4) ,, „ „ (ekendriy a vayu-kaya); 

(5) ,, ,, ,, (ekendriy a vanaspati-kaya); 

(6) with two sense organs (dvindriya) ; 

(7) with three sense organs (trindriya) ; 

(8) with four sense organs (caturindriya) ; 

(9) with five sense organs (pancendriya). 

There are four passions (kasaya) : 

( 1 ) anger (krodha) ; 

(2) pride (mana) ; 

(3) deceit (maya) ; 

(4) greed (lobha) ; 

and nine quasi-passions (akasaya, no-kasaya) : 

(1) laughter (hasya); 

(2) liking (rati) ; 

(3) disliking (arati) ; 

(4) sorrow (ioka) ; 

(5) fear (bhaya) ; 

(6) disgust (jugupsa) ; 

(7) male sex urge (putn-veda) ; 

(8) female sex urge (stri-veda) ; 

(9) androgyne sex urge (napumsaka-veda). 

Most of these recur again in the category of the papa-sthdnas or 
occasions of sin. 

0 787 




On the road to liberation from karman fourteen stages or guna- 
sthanas are counted of which the fifth is that of the Jaina layman. 
This desa-virati-guna-sthana sometimes gives occasion, in works 
devoted to the guna-sthanas, for an exposition of the sravakacara. 

For the Digambaras sravakacara belongs to a division of their 
substitute canon or catur-veda which they term carananuyoga 
covering works on moral conduct and religious duties. Such 
treatises are therefore mainly concerned with the third ratna : 
samyag-caritra. This varies according to whether it applies to the 
monastic lif c(yaty-acara) or the lay life [sravakacara) . Amrtacandra 1 
characterizes the former as the complete, and the latter as the 
partial, abstinence from himsa. The lay life represents, in effect, 
a compromise expressed originally in the imposition of twelve 
vratas defining the householder’s samyag-caritra , and for each of 
these the XJpasaka-da&dh cited five typical offences. 

Samyaktva has in a sense, by the Svetambaras as well as by the 
Digambaras, been assimilated to the status of a vrata and fitted 
with an apparatus of five infractions or aticaras which, absent from 
the canon, are found enumerated at least as early as the Tattvartha- 
sutra-* and in fact a discussion of samyaktva comes to be an essen- 
tial element of any work devoted to the lay life. 

The word dharma is interpreted ‘as that which puts the soul in 
the place of salvation' (atmanam mukti-sthane dhatte) or ‘that which 
sustains beings in the cycle of transmigration' (samsdra-sihane 
pranino dharate ). 3 There are two dharmas or rules of conduct, one 
applicable to the monk’s and the other to the layman’s life. The 
latter is defined by Camundaraya* as the successive attainment of 
the eleven pratimas. 

The Tattvartha-sutra 5 had laid down the monk’s dharma to 
consist of ten elements, in the main, abstract virtues : 

(1) forbearance (k§amd ) ; 

(2) humility (mardava ) ; 

(3) uprightness ( drjava ) ; 

(4) desirelessness ( kauca ) ; 

(5) truthfulness [satya ) ; 

(6) self-discipline {samyama ) ; 

(7) self-mortification (tapas ) ; 

5 c _ * T vii - 23. 3 CS, p. 3 . 

l ix. 7. See Schubring, Die Lehre der Jainas> pp. 193-3, 

RK i. 3. 



(8) renunciation ( tyaga ) ; 

(9) poverty ( akincanya ) ; 

(10) celibacy (< brahmacarya ). 

The elements of this tenfold ascetic dharma are sometimes trans- 
ferred, not always appropriately, to the lay life; 1 but more generally 
the layman’s dharma is said to consist of four elements : 2 

(1) almsgiving (dana ) ; 

(2) virtue (sila) ; 

(3) ascetic practices (tapas ) ; 

(4) spiritual attitude ( bhava ). 

The word sila is often ambiguous : here it would seem to mean the 
maintenance of all the vratas , 3 There is a slight variation in the 
four elements of dharma as defined by Asadhara : 4 

(1) dana\ 

(2) sila ; 

(3) upavasa (this is equivalent to tapas , which in practice means 
‘fasting 5 ) ; 

(4) Pm- 

e.g. Padmanandi-sravakacara, 59. 
3 Sr(A)xii, 41. 

z e.g. AU vi. 3. 
4 SDhA vii. 39. 


V arious etymologies are given for this, the commonest term used 
to designate a layman. The sravaka is one who listens ( irnoti ), or 
one who has recourse to faith (sraddhalutam srati ), or one whose 
sins flow away from him (sravanti yasya pcipani ). 1 With the noma , 
sthapana y dravya, bhava category we find: 2 

(i) nama-sravaka — one who is a Jaina in name only, just as a 
poor slave may bear the appellation of a god ; 

(ii) sthdpana-sramka — the statue of a layman; 

(iii) dravya-sravaka — one who carries out the rites obligatory 
for a Jaina but who is empty of spirituality; 

(iv) bhava-sravaka — a believing Jaina. 

Amongst the Digambaras Camundaraya 3 has taken over the 
Hindu concept of the four asramas, which, following Jinasena,* he 
terms brahnacarin, , grhastha , vanaprastha , and bhtksu. 

i. The brahmacarin may be: 5 

(i) upanaya-brahmacarin— the young student who after the 
upanayana ceremony studies the agama before entry into the 
household life ; 

(ii) avalamba-brahmacarin — one who passes a novitiate as a 
monk studying the agama in the ksullaka stage but then goes 
back to the household life; 

(iii) adiksa-brahmacarin— one who studies the agama without 
taking orders or wearing the monk’s garb, but adheres to the 
household life; 

(iv) gudha-brahmacarin — one who becomes a boy ascetic 
(kumcira-sramana) but later abandons this higher ideal for 
the household life either of his own volition or owing to 
pressure from a ruler or from relatives or because of 

(v) naisfhika-brahmacarin — a man who begs his food, wears a 
red or white loincloth and the sacred thread on his chest, 
and has his hair shaven save for a top-knot. 

<Mf“l P - 334 ' DliRP 32. acs.p.zo. 

J 5 Cb, pp. ZQ-Z 1 . 


All of these are pledged to continence but all save the last (who is 
what in later times is called a ksullaka , a layman in the eleventh 
pratima) may later marry. 

2. The grhastha may belong to the :* 

(i) jati-ksatriya — i.e. brahmins, ksatriyas , vaisyas, and sudras ; 

(ii) tirtha-ksatriya — who are of various kinds according to the 
way of their life. 

3. The vanaprastha 2 is one who has not taken the vow of nudity 
but wears one piece of cloth and engages in moderate asceticism. 
(This would perhaps correspond to the ailaka layman of later times.) 

4. The bhiksu may be : 2 

(i) anagara — an ordinary monk ; 

(ii) yati — a monk who has already begun to ascend the spiritual 
ladder ; 

(iii) muni — a monk who possesses supernatural knowledge 
(( avadhi -, manah-paryaya and kevala-jnana)\ 

(iv) rsi — a monk who has attained to divine powers ( rddhi ). 

According to Medhavin (fifteenth century) the vanaprastha — here 
equivalent to a ksullaka — is also styled apavcida- li hgin and the 
bhiksu utsarga-lihgin . 2 

These classifications cannot be taken to be representative of any 
works except those of the school of Jinasena and the definitions of 
terms like muni have no relevance in a normal Jaina context. Even 
the word bhiksu 4 is commonly used by the Digambaras to describe 
a layman in the eleventh pratima ; but some Svetambaras employ 
it as a designation for an ordinary Jaina monk 5 whilst for others 
again it means a Buddhist, 6 as opposed to a Jaina, ascetic. 

Some Digambaras, Asadhara, 7 and Medhavin, for example, 8 have 
a threefold division of the sravaka and on this their expositions 
of the doctrine are based : 

(i) paksika — a layman who has an inclination (■ paksa ) towards 
ahimsa. He possesses samyaktva and practises the mula- 
gunas and the anu-vratas and is assiduous in performing 
th epuja; 

1 CS, p. 21 . 2 CS, p. 22 . 

3 £>r (M) ix. 280 . 4 e.g. by Somadeva, 

5 e.g. Haribhadra Yakinl-putra. 6 e.g. in the commentary of DhRP 21 . 

7 SDhA i. 19-ao. 8 Sr (M) v. 1-8. 


(ii) naisthika 1 — one who pursues his path upwards through the 
pratimas till he reaches the eleventh. At this culminating 
point (nistha) he quits the household life and practises the 
tenfold dharma of the ascetic. It would seem that if he back- 
slides he is down-graded to the state of a paksika: 2 

(iii) sadhaka — one who concludes ( sadhayati ) his human incar- 
nation in a final purification of the self by carrying out 

A^adhara, who repeats Camundaraya’s categories of brahmacarins 3 
and the list of the four asramas , also gives a classification of the 
sravaka based on his progress through the pratimas : 4 

(i) least satisfactory (jaghanya) — first to sixth pratimas— grhin ; 

(ii) next best (madhyama) — seventh to ninth pratimas — varmn ; 

(iii) best ( attama or utkrsta) — tenth and eleventh pratimas — 

This is based on a similar grouping by Somadeva, who calls the 
varnin a brahmacdrin. 

1 Is in fact equivalent to a naitfhika-brahmacarin and to what is later called a 

bfullaka. 2 SDhA iii. 4. 3 SDhA vii. 19-30, 

< SDhA iii. 2-3, y 


The descriptions of th e posadhopavasa and of the forms of pratya- 
khyana are not intelligible without an explanation of the classifica- 
tions of what may be eaten or drunk. Prohibited foods ( abhaksyas ) 
are discussed separately elsewhere. 

In the first place there are the fourfold aliments ( caturvidhahara ) : 1 

1 . asana — all that is swallowed : grains and pulses of all kinds, 
particularly the staple, boiled rice. Forbidden foods falling under 
this head include meat and the tuberous vegetables, which are 
condemned as ananta-kayas. Dairy products are also sometimes 
covered by this designation. 

2. pana — all that is drunk: water, milk, the juice of fruits such as 
grapes and tamarinds, and the water in which rice or barley or 
other cereals have been boiled, particularly rice-gruel {kahjika or 
saumra). Prohibited under this head are alcohol and the liquid from 

3. khadima — all that is chewed or nibbled: fruits and nuts such 
as mangoes, dates, almonds and coconuts, dairy products, sugar 
and molasses, and various cakes and sweetmeats. Abhaksyas com- 
ing into this category include honey and the udumbara fruits. 

4. svadima — all that is tasted or serves as a relish: pepper, 
cumin seeds, myrobalans, ginger, herbs such as basil, and betel. 
Sugar-cane, molasses, and honey are also sometimes put into this 
category. More surprisingly toothpicks ( dantavana ) are covered 
by this designation. 

There is another classification of food — or rather of certain 
articles of food — into ten vikrtis: 2 

(1) ksira — milk, which may be of five kinds according to whether 
it comes from the cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, or camel; 

(2) dadhi — curds \ 

(3) navanita — butter I these may be from cow s, buffalo s, 

j goat’s or sheep’s milk, but not from 

(4) ghrta — ghee J camel’s milk; 



(5) taila — oil, which may be of four kinds: sesamum, flax 
(atasi), mustard, and saffron ( kusumbha ). Other oils are not 
for consumption as food but are used for preparing plaster 
or for sticking; 

(6) guda — molasses; 

(7) madya — alcohol, which may be of two kinds: from sugar- 
cane juice or from the fermentation of grain ; 

(8) madhu — honey, which may be of three kinds ; made by bees 
(bhramara), by flies ( maksika ), or by kuttiya; 1 

(9) mamsa — meat, which again is said to be of three kinds : of 
birds, beasts or fishes; sometimes, however, this threefold 
division is explained as skin, meat, and blood. 

(10) avagahima — the term is difficult to translate: it is the pro- 
duct which results from cooking rice in a pan filled with 
ghee or oil; after the third cooking in the oil there is no 
further production of avagahima and the rice cooked will 
be nirvikrtika . 

Food is also distinguished by four flavours or rasas\ z 

(1) go-rasa — milk flavour comprising ghee, butter, and curds; 

(2) iksu-rasa — sugar flavour including molasses and honey; 

(3) phala-rasa — fruit flavour covering fruits such as mangoes; 

(4) dhanya-rasa — cereal flavour comprising oil and rice-gruel. 

The essential idea of a vikrti seems to be that of a foodstuff that has 
changed its nature owing to a process of cooking or to bacterio- 
logical action. In the conventional interpretation of the commenta- 
tors it is ‘that by which tongue and mind are perverted.’ 2 

The expression acamamla deserves a special mention. This is a 
sanskritization of the Prakrit which is also rendered as ayamamla 
and acamla . It consists of grain or pulses cooked only in water with 
a sour flavouring (amla-rasa). 

* No satisfactory explanation of this word (the enumeration 
Sthananga-sutra ) seems to have been eiven 
’SDhAv. 35. * 

goes back to the 


Samyaktva or samyagdrsti , in the translation generally used: ‘right 
belief’ , is defined by Pujyapada and Camundaraya as ‘faith in the 
path to final liberation indicated by the JinaY Other Digambaras 
such as Samantabhadra, Somadeva, and Yasunandin describe it 
with greater precision as faith in the three articles of belief : 2 
apta (the Jina), agama (the scriptures), and padartha or tattva (the 
dogmas). Others again prefer to visualize it from the negative angle 
as the absence of twenty-five blemishes ( drg-dosas ) generally held to 
be the eight madas, the three mudhatas , the six anayatanas , and the 
eight dosas . These blemishes are carried to a higher total in some 
works such as the Ratnasara , which adds to the above list the seven 
bhayas or types of fear, the five aticaras , and the seven vices 
or vy asanas. For the Svetambaras from the Pancasakas 3 onwards 
samyaktva means faith in the truths enunciated by the Tlrthan- 
kara. Hemacandra 4 calls it ‘faith in the right deva , the right guru, 
and the right dharma\ 

The subject of samyaktva is too vast and too imprecise to lend 
itself readily to numerical categorization and there is considerable 
confusion and overlapping in the lists of qualities and defects con- 
ceived to describe it. Here are some of the categories used by 
different acaryas, Digambara and £vetambara: 





| Do§a 











































Of these categories, linga and bhu^ana belong to Hemacandra, the 
former being known also to Asadhara and the latter to Devagupta 
though not under those names: anga } dosa, and gana seem to be 
1 CS, p. 2. 3 Sr (V) 4. 3 P (£r Dh) 3. 4 YS ii. 2. 

C 787 



purely Digambara concepts, the first named being common to 
almost all the writers in the field ; whilst the aticaras ranged sym- 
metrically alongside those of the vratas are given in nearly all the 
texts Digambara and 3vetambara. The dosas are of course merely 
the negations of the angas. It will be convenient to treat first the 
category guna. 

(i) Spiritual craving (samvega). Pujyapada 1 has defined this as 
the ever-present fear of the cycle of transmigration. Hemacandra* 
characterizes it more positively as the desire for moksa arising from 
the realization that the pleasures of gods and men are, in the last 
resort, unsatisfying. Amitagati 3 calls it unwavering attachment to 
deva , guru , and dharma. For Asadhara 4 it is fear of the unstable 
samara which brings sickness and sorrow and sudden calamity. 

(ii) Tranquillity (sama, upasama). This is taken to imply the 
stilling of the kasayas. 5 

(iii) Disgust (; nirveda ). This is the loathing induced in a man of 
right faith by contact with the world and its miseries : he will have 
known the world and found it evil. But, continues Hemacandra, 6 
others hold sainvega to mean disgust with mundane existence and 
nirveda desire for final release. Amitagati 7 understands by nirveda 
the distaste for sensual pleasures. 

(iv) Devotion ( bhakti ). By Hemacandra this is placed among the 
five bkusanas of samyaktva and is best considered there. Amitagati 8 
understands by it ‘devotion to Jina and guru’. 

(v) Compassion ( anukampa ). This Hemacandra 9 defines as the 
desire to eliminate suffering: in this compassion for those in misery 
no partiality may be shown, for even a tiger will manifest affection 
for its own offspring. In its material aspect this virtue takes the 
form of practical steps to remedy suffering where one has the 
power and in its non-material aspect it expresses itself in tender- 
ness of heart. It is, as Asadhara 10 stresses, the root of the whole 
sacred doctrine. 

(vi) Remorse (ninda). This is the remorse felt by a pious man 
when for the sake of wife or son or brother or friend he has com- 
mitted some act inspired by passion or hate. 11 

(vii) Repentance ( garhd ). This is the repentance expressed in 

1 T (P) vii. 13. 
4 SDhAi. 4. 

7 &r (A) ii. 75. 
10 SDhA i. 4 . 

3 Y£ ii. 15 (p. 181). 

s Yg ii. is (p. 180). 

8 Ibid. 79. 

11 £r (A) ii. 76. 

3 &r (A) ii. 74. 

6 Ibid. (p. 183). 

9 Y 5 ii. 15 (p. 183). 



the form of alocana made in the presence of a guru for faults com- 
mitted under the influence of passion and hate . 1 The interpretation 
of this as of the preceding guna depends on Amitagati as the other 
deary as do not explain these terms. 

(viii) Loving kindness ( vatsalya ) This belongs also to the cate- 
gory of the angas. 

The above eight gunas are listed by Camundaraya, Amitagati, and 

Hemacandra lists five lingas 2 of samyaktva , four of which find 
a place also in the Digambara category of gunas. The remaining 
element astikya is explained as the acceptance of the Jaina doctrine 
as the veritable creed even in the presence of other opinions. 

The angas of samyaktva are noted by Pujyapada, Samantabhadra, 
Camundaraya, Somadeva, and Amrtacandra: 

(i) Freedom from fear (; nihianka ). This meaning is preferred by 
Samantabhadra , 3 who sees in it a determination ‘rigid as the temper 
of steel’ to follow the path of righteousness, and by Camundaraya, 
who lists the seven types of fear ( bhaya ) :+ 

(i) fear of this world ( iha-loka ) ; 

(ii) fear of the next world ( para-loka ) ; 

(iii) fear of sickness ( vyadhi ) ; 

(iv) fear of death ( mar ana ) ; 

(v) fear of being without protection ( agupti ) ; 

(vi) fear of being without defence ( atrana ) ; 

(vii) fear of something unexpected (akasmika). 

Amrtacandra , 5 however, prefers to interpret nihsanka as freedom 
from doubt about the truths proclaimed by the Jina. Somadeva 6 
offers both explanations: doubt, in his view, would mean an in- 
ability to choose between one doctrine and another, one vow and 
another, and one divinity and another. 

(ii) Desirelessness (: nihkdnksa ). For Samantabhadra? this means 
the absence of desire for pleasure which is finite, sinful, and 
attended by sorrows. Camundaraya and Amrtacandra 8 interpret 
it either as lack of craving for the enjoyment of sensual pleasures in 
this or in a subsequent life, or else as absence of interest in false 
creeds. Somadeva * 3 elaborates the same explanations remarking that 

* Sr (A) ii. 77- 2 “• *5- 3 RKi - 

♦ CS, p. 2. 5 PASU 23. 6 Handiqui, p. 259. 

7 RIC i 12. 8 PASU 14. 9 Handiqui, p. 259* 


to exchange samyaktva for the joys of the world is like bartering a 
ruby for buttermilk. 

(iii) Overcoming of repugnance {nirvidkitsa, nirjugupsa). 
Samantabhadra 1 holds this to imply the love of virtue without dis- 
gust for the body which is impure by nature but sanctified by the 
ratna-traya. For Amrtacandra 2 it means the victory over a person’s 
natural repugnance for whatever is physically nauseating like 
excrement, or productive of discomfort like heat and cold, hunger 
and thirst. Camundaraya 3 explains this anga as the removal of the 
false concept that the body is pure by comprehending the nature of 
its impurity; or else as the absence of the regrettable idea that such 
and such a doctrine of the Jaina religion is inappropriate and 
horrifying whilst another doctrine is in every way admirable. For 
Somadeva 4 nirvidkitsa means that there must be no hesitation in 
the practice of vaiyavrttya, 

(iv) Unswerving orthodoxy (amudha-drsti). This is the refusal 
to approve in thought, word, or deed the path of wrong belief/ in 
other words the rejection of mithyatva. 

(v) Good works ( prabhavana ). This is also a bhusana and will 
be dealt with as such. 

(vi) Edification ( upaguhana , upabrmhana). Samantabhadra 6 de- 
fines as the removal of any reproach levelled at the Jaina by ignorant 
people unable to follow the vows. Camundaraya and Amrtacandra? 
understand by it the development of one’s religious faith by culti- 
vating forbearance {ksama) and the other nine elements of dharma. 
At the same time faults committed by co-religionists should, as far 
as lies within one’s power, be concealed, ‘as a mother conceals the 
failings of her children ’, 8 But the Jaina religion will not be sullied 
by one unworthy adherent any more than a pool of water will be 
fouled by one dead frog . 9 

(vii) Strengthening in the faith (sthiti-karana). Samantabhadra 10 
defines this as the reaffirmation in the faith, by intelligent men full 
of vatsalya , of those who are lapsing from right views and right 
conduct, whether their wavering is due to a faulty acquaintance 
with the creed or to external causes. This anga is virtually equiva- 
lent to the sthairya-bhusaria of Hemacandra. 

1 RK i. 13. 

4 Handiqui, p. 259. 

1 PASU 27. 

10 RK i. 16 . 

2 PASU 15. 

5 RK i. 14. 

8 Handiqui, p. 260. 

3 CS, p. 3. 

6 RK i. 15. 

9 Ibid., p. 261. 


(viii) Loving kindness ( vatsalya ). This Samantabhadra 1 defines 
as unfeigned and wholehearted assistance to members of one’s 
community. Camundaraya 2 calls it ‘unfeigned affection for the 
fourfold Jaina community, like that of a cow for its calf, as a result 
of attachment to the sacred doctrine’. Somadeva 3 connects with this 
ahga the qualities of vaiydvrttya , vinaya , and bhakti. Vinaya 
comprises veneration for all who are deserving of respect, and 
bhakti devotion to the Jina, the gurus, and the scriptures. As the 
concept denoted by vaiydvrttya , or sometimes by vatsalya , is so 
important in the Jaina community it deserves separate consi- 

Hemacandra has listed five bhusanas 4 of samyaktva : 

(i) Firmness [sthairya). This means strengthening the faith of 
anyone who is wavering in the Jaina creed or maintaining one’s 
own faith firmly despite the success of adherents of other religions. 

(ii) Conversancy with the Jaina doctrine [Jina-sasane kausala). 
This bhusana is self-explanatory. 

(iii) Frequentation of the tirthas ( tirtha-seva ). The term tirtha is 
to be explained either in a material sense as the places of birth, 
consecration, enlightenment, and nirvana of the Jinas or in a trans- 
ferred sense as the fourfold Jaina community. 

(iv) Devotion [bhakti). This according to Hemacandra can take 
two forms : vinaya and vaiydvrttya. The former is expressed in an 
eightfold upacara like that accorded to an atithi in the ritual of 

(v) Good works ( prabhavana ). This term covers anything done 
to spread the Jaina faith and increase the consideration in which 
it is held. For Somadeva 5 this may take the form of the practice 
of almsgiving, celebration of festivals, setting up of images, or 
building of temples. The glory of the Jina’s teaching, says Saman- 
tabhadra , 6 is to be illuminated by removing the darkness of ignor- 
ance. Prabhavana for Amptacandra 7 would be expressed in 
almsgiving, feats of asceticism, puja, and study. Hemacandra 8 dis- 
tinguishes several types of persons [prabhavakas) who are respon- 
sible for this bhusana : experts in the Jaina canon, reciters of 
religious stories, debaters, astrologers, those who practise religious 

1 RK i. 17. 2 CS, p. 3. 3 Handiqui, p. 36a. 

4 Y6 ii. 16. s Handiqui, p. 361. 6 RK i. 18. 

7 PASU 30. 8 Yg ii. 16 (p. 185). 


asceticism, those who are learned in the sciences, and those who 
are conversant with magic spells. 

The aticaras of samyaktva may virtually, if the fourth and fifth 
of them which are closely related are merged together, be equated 
with the first four dosas. Both aticaras and dosas represent the 
negation of the angas, Pujyapada 1 holds that it is in any event un- 
necessary to have eight aticaras corresponding to the eight angas as 
the fourth and fifth — para-pasandi-prasamsa and para-pasandi- 
samstava — are elastic and comprehensive. Here, first, then, are the 
aticaras : 

(i) Doubt ( sanka ). Siddhasena Ganin and Haribhadra 3 con- 
sider this to be doubt in respect of th epadarthas of the Jaina creed ; 
this may be either partial when, for example, one padartha is called 
in question, or total when the whole structure of Jaina belief is 
challenged. Total doubt (sarva-visaya-sanka) is virtually the same 
as mithyatva. This interpretation of sanka as ‘doubt’ is given by all 
writers, £>vetambara and Digambara. 

(ii) Desire (kanksa). This again, like the preceding aiicdra , will 
tarnish samyaktva but not eradicate it. It is generally held to imply 
a hankering for other doctrines than Jainism, for one particular 
one if it is partial and for all in general if it is total . 3 Such a desire 
may be provoked by hearing that the Buddhists, for example, put 
no restriction on eating and drinking or bathing or easy living. It is 
wrong — in fact it amounts to a nidana — to cherish such purely 
material desires as to be handsome, or to have many sons, or to be 
reborn as a king, seeing in them a recompense for adherence to the 
right faith. 

(hi) Repulsion (vieikitsa). Two interpretations of this are given 
by the Svetambaras* from Siddhasena Ganin onwards: either it 
means hesitation or doubt about the value of the results of various 
human activities (not about the tenets of Jainism as in the case 
of the first aticara) ; or else it means repugnance for the bodies of 
Jaina ascetics because these are evil-smelling owing to the accumu- 
lation of filth and sweat on their unwashed limbs. What hinders 
them from bathing in water that has been rendered sterile, people 
ask, oblivious of the fact that a monk must insist on the impuritv 
of the body. 

1 T (P) vii. 23 . 

3 Ibid. (pp. 187-8). 

2 Y£§ ii. 17 (p. 187). 
4 Ibid. (p. 189). 


(iv) Admiration of adherents of other creeds ( para-pasandi - 

(v) Praise of adherents of other creeds ( para-pasandi-samstava ). 

The distinction between the fourth and fifth aticaras seems 

artificial. As has been noted they both have for antonym the 
ahga of amudha-drsti and in fact Somadeva 1 couples them together 
under the designation of anya-slagha or mudhata. With that excep- 
tion the Digambaras (for example, Camundaraya) 2 define prasamsa 
as ‘praise expressed in the mind’ and samstava as ‘praise expressed 
in words’. The Svetambaras* interpret praiamsa as ‘praise’ and 
samstava as ‘acquaintance’. Siddhasena Ganin ,4 however, prefers 
the Digambara explanation. 

For many writers these two aticaras give an occasion to describe 
and criticize the false beliefs of other sects — 180 varieties of kriya- 
vadinsy 84 of dkriya-vadins , 67 of ajiidnikas , and 32 of vainayikas 
are listed — particularly the Buddhists and Saivas. 5 

As was mentioned at the beginning the aticaras and dosas are 
not the only blemishes of samyaktva. The six andyatanas or non- 
abodes (sc. of right belief 6 ) appear to be a purely Digambara 
category : 

(i) false divinities ( ku-deva ) ; 

(ii) false ascetics ( kn-lingin ) ; 

(iii) false scriptures {ku-sastras) ; 

(iv) worship of false divinities (ku-deva-seva) ; 

(v) worship of false ascetics ( ku-lingi-sevd ) ; 

(vi) worship of false scriptures ( ku-sastra-seva ). 

Together* these andyatanas amount to mithydtva — the direct 
opposite of samyaktva — which is defined by Hemacandra 7 as 
belief in false divinities, false gurus, and false scriptures. 

For the .Svetambaras mithydtva may be of five types: 8 

(i) ahhigrahika — the attitude of those whose horizon is limited 
to their own scriptures which they are able to defend in 

(ii) andbhigrahika — the attitude of simple people who imagine 
that equal respect is to be shown to all gods, teachers, and 
creeds ; 

1 Handiqui, p. 258. z CS, p. 4. 3 Y!§ ii. 17 (p. 189). 

4 T (S) vii. 19 (p. 102). 5 Ibid. (pp. 100-2). 

6 Handiqui, p. 257. 7 Y& ii. 3. 8 NPP 4. 


(iii) abhinivesika — the attitude of those who, like Jamali, possess 
the faculty of discernment but deformed by some evil pre- 
conception ( abhinwesa ) ; 

(iv) samsayika — a state of uncertainty or hesitation between 
various viewpoints ; 

(v) anabhogika — the innate state of false belief typical of living 
organisms which have not attained to a higher stage of 

The Digambaras prefer a division into three types : 1 

(i) agrhita — an inherent, non-acquired quality found even in 
the lowest stages of living organisms ; 

(ii) grhtta — an attitude acquired, for example, by birth in a 
family which professes a false creed; 

(iii) samsayika — an attitude of indecision as in the previous list. 

Or else a sevenfold category : 2 

(i) ekantika — the absolute attitude as, for example, the belief 
that the jwa perishes ; 

(ii) samsayika — the attitude of uncertainty about the right faith 
as in the previous lists ; 

(iii) vainayika— the view that all gods, gurus, and scriptures are 

(iv) grhita — the attitude of acquired habit like the leather- 
worker’s dog which gnaws hides; 

(v) vipanta — the view that what is true is false and vice versa ; 

(vi) naisargika— the inherent false belief of creatures devoid of 
consciousness which, like a blind man, cannot discern fair 
from foul. This is equivalent to the agrhita of the previous 
list, or the anabhogika of the first list; 

(vii) mudha-drsti — the false belief where the divinity, the guru, 
and the dharma are sullied by passion and violence. 

This mudha-drsti which is more properly one of the dosas of 
samyaktva is presented in a more detailed form in the category of 
the three mudhatas or foolish ideas relating to the divinity, to the 
teacher and to worldly life. These seem to be listed only by 
the Digambaras but Hemacandra and other Svetambaras find the 
same opportunity for criticizing the superstitions of other religions 

1 SDhA i. 5. 2 Sr (A) ii. 1-13. 


when they discuss the nature of the ku-deva , ku-guru, and ku- 

(i) Devata-mudhata . It is a misconception of the nature of the 
divinity, says Samantabhadra , 1 to worship devas stained with pas- 
sion and hate in order to obtain a boon. Hemacandra 2 characterizes 
the ku-devas or a~devas as addicted to women (symbolizing raga), 
weapons (symbolizing dvesa ), and rosaries (symbolizing moha), and 
accustomed to inflict punishments or grant boons. All these attri- 
butes are inappropriate to the Jina who is devoid of passion, hate, 
and delusion. The deities that take pleasure in dancing, music, and 
theatrical performances cannot offer their votaries any lasting 
good . 3 * In this connexion Hemacandra delivers a long attack on 
Hindu religion condemning particularly the worship of the sacred 

(ii) Pasandi-mudhata. Samantabhadra* defines this as the praise 
of false ascetics who are engaged in worldly occupations, who have 
not divested themselves of possessions, and who are guilty of 
hitnsa. By false gurus Hemacandra 5 understands those who lust 
after women, gold, lands, and houses, who do not refrain from the 
consumption of meat, honey, alcohol, and ananta-kayas, who 
do not keep vows of chastity but are attached to wives and children, 
and who preach false doctrines. 

(iii) Loka-mudhata. As such worldly foolishness Samantabhadra 6 
instances the bathing in rivers or in the ocean, the making of heaps 
of stones or sand, the throwing oneself from a precipice, and the 
entering into fire. Equally senseless are such customs as the use of 
the panca-gavya and the adoration of trees, stones, gems, and other 
material objects . 7 

Among the twenty-five drg-dosas mentioned earlier occur the 
eight madas 8 or forms of vainglory: 

(i) pride in one’s knowledge (jndna); 

(ii) pride in one’s worship (puja ) ; 

(iii) pride of family (kula) p 

(vi) pride of caste (jdti) ; 9 

(v) pride in one’s strength (bald ) ; 

1 RK i. 23. 2 Yg ii. 6. 3 Yg ii. 7. 

4 RK i. 24. s ii. 9. 6 RK i. 12. 

7 YJ§ iv. 102. 8 RKi. 25. 

9 Perhaps better translated following Jinasena (MP xxxix. 85) ‘paternal 

ancestry* and ‘maternal ancestry’. 


(vi) pride in one’s wealth (; rddhi ) ; 

(vii) pride in one’s ascetic practices ( tapas ) ; 

(viii) pride in one’s beauty (vapus). 

Various classifications of samyoktm are given particularly by 
the Digambara acdryas , the most widespread being the threefold 
division into ksayika , aupasamika, and ksayaupaiamika varieties 
which depend on the extent to which karmic matter has been 
removed from the jwa. J 

Closely associated with samyaktva is the category of the three 
salyas which the Digambara writers 2 generally define before dis- 
cussing the watas. These are the harmful stimuli or ‘stings’ which 
distract the person who has attained to right belief : 

(i) deceit (mdya ) ; 

(ii) hankering for worldly pleasures and fame {nidana ) ; 

(iii) false belief (mithyatva). 

And, unless he rids himself of these salyas, he cannot properly 
observe the matas. The Svetambaras do not seem to employ the 
term salya in this sense but Abhayadeva, in his commentary on 
the Upasaka-dasah, 3 quotes a verse in which the salyas seem to be 
equated with the aticaras of samyaktva. 


Probably no term of Jainism is used to cover so many different 
categories as the word guna. The mula-gunas for the ^vetambaras 4 
mean generally the five anu-vratas (though sometimes a single 
mula-guna — ahimsa is mentioned) whilst the guna-vratas and 
siksa-matas together make up the uttar a-guyas . The Digambaras, 
however, apply the name mula-guna 1 5 to a category of interdictions 
which must be respected if even the first stage on the ladder of the 
pratimas is to be attained. Similar concepts are not foreign to 
Svetambara Jainism but they are not displayed with the same 
prominence nor is the designation mula-guna ever applied to them. 

1 Handiqui, p. 355. 2 T (P) vii. 18. 

3 UD i. 70 (p. 26): sank-ai-salla. 4 m I3G ( p , 696). 

s Asadhara opposes the mula-gunas as a category to the agra-gunas by which 
he understands the twelve vratas (SDhA iii. y—\ 8), A similar term reappears in 
Medhavin, who speaks of the agra-pada (§r (M) v. 4). 



The following table will show the variations that occur among 
Digambara writers in determining these mula-gunas : 

Amitagati * 
doha, Devasena, 
Medhavin, Saka- 
lakirti, Rajamalla , 








(1) > 



























marps a -virati ! 












In the sense given to the term by the Digambaras there is no 
canonical authority for the mula-gunas and for this reason it is all 
the more important to determine which enumeration of them is 
likely to have been the original one. The Ratna-karanda 1 2 is the 
oldest text under review to mention this category. But as has been 
noticed elsewhere Samantabhadra is responsible for many innova- 
tions in the iravakacara , and the same observation can be made 
with equal appropriateness about Jinasena. Yet it seems difficult 
to believe that, had Samantabhadra’s version been the original 
one, the anu-vratas as mula-gunas would have been replaced 
by the udumbaras in other lists, least of all by a writer like 
Amrtacandra whose work is the direct antithesis of the popular 
sravakacaras. And if the anu-mata-pancaka wears a new look in 
comparison with the udumbara-pancaka-virati Jinasena’s version 
in which dyuta is linked with mamsa and madya has even more 
unmistakably the air of having been refurbished. In this con- 
text it is perhaps not irrelevant to note that Asadhara , 3 who offers 

1 Amitagati, who does not employ the actual term mula-gunas, adds a ninth 
element: a-ratri-bhojana (!§r (A) v. i). 

2 RK iii. 20. 

3 SDhA ii. 2-3. 


three variant enumerations of the miila-gunas clearly prefers that of 

If this last list is examined more closely the impression of its 
authenticity is confirmed. The apparently disparate elements — the 
five udumbara fruits and three forbidden vikrtis : meat, alcohol, and 
honey — from which abstention is enjoined have one aspect in 
common: they are all used as offerings to the spirits of the ances- 
tors. Now of all Hindu customs that which has met with the 
keenest reprobation from Jainism has been the custom of iraddha 
and the offering of sacrifices to the pitrs . 1 That sraddha in an 
innocuous form has been accepted by Jains in modern times in no 
way invalidates this contention; even a work as late as Vamadeva’s 
Bhava-samgraha can declare that those who propitiate the pitrs 
with meat consume their own gotra . 2 

The cult of the ancestors is linked, as Meyer 3 has shown, with 
the worship of fertility spirits including the Great Mother, and 
since the bee is believed to incarnate the pitrs honey is used as an 
offering to them. Przyluski 4 has noted the epithet Aditi madhu - 
kasa ‘she whose whip is of honey’ because honey is held to be, 
among all foodstuffs, that which gives the most vigour. For Ami- 
tagati, in the Subhasita-ratna-samdohap the common characteristic 
of meat, alcohol, and honey is their aphrodisiac quality. The 
udumbaras , perhaps because they live long and have nutritive 
fruits, perhaps because of their milky latex, have been identified 
with the source of all fertility, and possibly owing to the ceaseless 
rustling of their leaves have been regarded as homes of the spirits 
of the dead . 6 

In Jaina number magic there is often an interplay between the 
groups of five and the groups of four (and its multiples) ; thus the 
five anu-vratas are made up to a total of twelve by the addition of 
the guna-vratas and siksa-vratas. It may be that originally the 
Digambaras had inherited a tradition — a tradition, perhaps, in 
which the designations alone had survived — of twelve uttara- 
gunas (which were the vratas) and five (later transformed into eight) 
mula-gunas . For a religion, at that date essentially missionary, the 

1 Note, for example, Y§ ii. 47 for the whole argument of the Dharma-rasayana. 

2 BhS (V) 443. 

3 Meyer, Trilogie altindischer Machte und Feste der vegetation, Pt. iii, pp. 77 if. 

4 Przyluski, La Grande deesse , p, 30. 

s Subhdfita-ratna-sairidoha, xxi. 13; xxii. 18; xx. 24. 

6 Przyluski, op. cit., p. 80. 


first step before a layman could assume the vratas would be for him 
unambiguously to reject the cult of the ancestors by a religious inter- 
diction of the offerings most commonly associated with that cult. 

The udumbaras are the fruits of five trees of the genus Ficus: 

(i) umbara, udumbara — Ficus glomerata Roxb. ; 

(ii) vata, nyagrodha — Ficus bengalensis ; 

(iii) pippala, a^vattha — Ficus religiosa Linn.; 

(iv) plaksa — Ficus infectoria Roxb. ; 

(v) kakombari, guphala — Ficus oppositifolia Willd. 

In the older texts the udumbaras are not ananta-kayas though the 
sixteenth-century Digambara Rajamalla 1 says explicitly that the 
word udumbara is the symbolic representation (upalaksand) for 
the sadharana plants. The reason for not eating them is that they 
are full of innumerable tiny insects and of invisible living organ- 
isms, the epithet krmi-kulakida which is often applied to meat being 
used of them . 2 A pious man, Hemacandra 3 says, should avoid them 
even if he is hungry and unable to obtain any other food. Sometimes 
the trasa-jivas are said to be present only in the moist fruits but 
even the eating of the dried fruits is sinful because of the raga 
involved . 4 

In the Sravaka-dharma-pancasaka the udumbaras are coupled 
with the atyangas and the ananta-kayas in the interdictions covered 
by the bhogopabhoga-vrata ; if the atyangas mean the ma-karas there 
is here a virtual equivalence with the mula-gunas but there seems 
to be no absolute ban on eating the udumbaras until the layman 
reaches the stage of the sacitta- tydga-pratima. 5 Similarly Siddha- 
sena , 6 discussing the aticaras of the bhogopabhoga-vrata , cites as 
examples of sacitta-sambaddhahara the consuming of jujubes or 
udumbara fruits because large numbers of seeds are swallowed. 
By the time of Devagupta 7 the attitude towards the udumbaras has 
become clearer : the second guna-vrata is defined as limiting the 
use of clothes, unguents, and other items of personal expenditure 
and as banning the three ma-karas (mamsa, madhu y madya) and the 
five udumbaras ; and in Hemacandra this eightfold ban is given an 

1 Lati-saijikita , ii. 79. 

2 This phrase, one of the commonest of all Jaina cliches, is also found in 
Bhartrhari’s NUi-satcika, 

3 YS iii. 43-43. ^ PASU 73. 5 P (&UP) 24. 

6 T (S) vii. 30. 7 NPP 75. 


importance almost equivalent to that of the mula-gunas in Digam- 
bara texts. 1 

The eating of meat and drinking of alcohol are also catalogued 
among the seven vyasanas and a confusion, deliberate or involun- 
tary, of vyasanas and mida-gunas is doubtless responsible for 
Jinasena’s 2 mention of gambling ( dyuta ) and for the enumeration 
found in a late writer, Vamadeva,3 w ho obtains a figure of eight 
mula-gunas by reckoning together abstention from the udumbara 
pentad, the ma-kara triad, ratri-bhojana, whoring, adultery, theft, 
and gambling with jtva-daya (compassion for living beings). 

Meat, alcohol, honey, and butter (which too is an abhaksya 
though not coming under the interdictions imposed by the mula- 
gunas ) are vikrtis — the four harmful vikrtis. The eating of meat is, 
above all, a sin against compassion and the guilt belongs not only 
to the actual slaughterer but to anybody who buys or sells, cooks 
or carves, or gives or eats meat as in fact the Hindu dharma-sastras 
confirm. To eat meat is to acknowledge vultures, wolves, and 
tigers as one’s gurus. Some people, continues Hemacandra (allud- 
ing to the sraddha ), 4 not only eat meat themselves but offer it to the 
devas zn&pitrs. 

The Digambaras tend to emphasize the sharp distinction be- 
tween eating meat which contains trasa-jivas and fruits or corn in 
which there are present only sthavara-jivas . s Even where a bull 
or buffalo has not been slaughtered but has died a natural death 
the consumption of its flesh involves the destruction of the 
minute living organisms (nigodas) that have found refuge there and 
these continue to come into existence in meat either raw or cooked 
or in process of cooking so that very great himsa is caused even by 
touching a piece of it. The eating of meat, says Asadhara, 6 increases 
the lusts of the flesh and keeps a man wandering in the samsara. 

While some writers tend to stress the pernicious effects of 
alcohol in befuddling the mind of the drinker others are more con- 
cerned with the inevitable himsa involved in the process of fer- 
mentation. Thus Somadeva 7 and Asadhara 8 refer to the immense 
number of jtvas transformed into a drop of alcohol and the former 
adds that sometimes in the cycle of transmigration beings are 
metamorphosed into wine to bemuse the minds of men. 

1 Yg iii. 8-43. ^ MP xxxix. 8. 3 BhS (V) 448, 

4 Yg iii. 39-31. 5 PASU 65-68. 6 SDhA ii. 8. 

7 Handiqui, p. 363. 8 SDhA ii. 4. 


Honey is condemned by Somadeva 1 because ‘it is pressed out of 
the young eggs in the womb of bees and resembles the embryo in 
the first stage of its growth*. To provide but a single drop, says 
Amrtacandra, 2 bees have to be killed and even if they have been 
driven by some artifice from the comb or if the honey has dripped 
down of itself himsd will still occur since other living creatures find 
their way into it. This same honey is unclean because it is derived 
from the vomit or spittle of insects and even though it may possess 
medicinal properties it will still lead to hell. Hemacandra 3 mentions 
especially the use of honey in the 3aivite deva-snana , and the false 
idea that it is holy. No doubt because of the traditional method of 
honey-gathering which involves the destruction of the hive by 
smoking out the bees it has become a proverbial saying that he 
who eats honey takes on himself the sin of burning seven villages. 4 


Five anu-vratas , three guna-vratas, and four siksa-vratas, making 
a total of twelve, are listed in the Upasaka-dasah , together with 
the supplementary, and by its nature non-obligatory, sallekhana - 
vrata. Except for one text of minor importance the mediaeval 
dcdryas show no hesitations in the enumeration of the anu-vratas , 
but the guna-vratas and siksa-vratas to which the Digambaras give 
the collective designation of silas , vary considerably in their 
sequence, certain elements, generally the desavakasika-vrata which 
is by its nature susceptible of being confounded with the dig-vrata, 
being at times eliminated to allow of the inclusion of sallekhana 
among the siksa-vratas . The anu-vratas are of course closely parallel 
to the maha-vratas of an ascetic ; and it is therefore not surprising 
that some writers have imitated the Dasa-vaikdlika-siitra which 
counts a sixth maha-vrata — that of a-ratri-bhojana — in the anu- 
vratas. In fact this sixth anu-vrata is noted by Camundaraya 5 (and 
at a later date by Sakalalurti) though no list of five aticaras seems 
ever to have been devised for it. 6 

The anu-vratas are: ahimsa , satya, asteya , brahma, and apari- 
graha. The Dharma-rasayana is alone in substituting for the first 
of these the prohibition of killing living creatures for sacrifice to 

1 Handiqui, p. 263. 2 PASU 70. 3 Y& iii, 41. 

4 Sr (A) v. 28. s CS, p. 7. 

_ 6 Other writers such as Vlranandin in his treatise on the monastic life, the 
Acara-sara , count a-ratri-bhojana as an additional maha-vrata . 


the gods (devata-nimittam a-jiva-marana), the ahimsa-vrata itself 
being relegated to a place among th e guna-vratas. 

The variations in the guna-vratas and iiksa-vratas can best be 
shown in tabular form: 
























> dig-vrata 







Padmanandin 1 



; ahimsa 


















■ samayika 









) desavakadika 














1 samayika 









Certain points are made clear by a glance at these tables. It has 

1 In this and the following tables the author of the Dharma-rasayana is meant. 



been remarked that the guna-vratas are additional vows, special 
cases in fact of the anu-vratas , whilst the siksa- vratas refer to 
spiritual exercises. The ^vetambaras, even those among them who 
follow the Tattvartha-sutra in some interpretations, insist on the 
designations guna-vrata and siksa-vrata and have also, as is logical, 
retained the sequence which leaves these two types of vows dis- 
tinct. The Digambaras who follow the Tattvartha-sutra have 
blurred this distinction by making the desavakasik a-vrata follow 
the dig-vrata to which it is related in content, the bhogopabhoga- 
vrata being inserted immediately before the dana-vrata probably 
because of resemblances in the aticaras. Another Digambara cur- 
rent stemming from Samantabhadra agrees with the ^vetambara 
tradition except in the one minor detail that it transposes the 
samayika- and desavakasika-vratas. (Karttikeya puts the desavaka- 
tika- after the dana-vrata.) Kundakunda, Devasena, and one or 
two others suppress the desavakasika-vrata altogether and give 
sallekhana twelfth place on the list. Yasunandin, who follows the 
Tattvartha-sutra for the order of the guna-vratas , eliminates the 
samayika- and posadhopavasa-vratas altogether probably because 
the same subjects are treated as pratimas and creates in their place 
a bhoga-vrata and an upabhoga-vrata. 

It is possible to discern in the treatment of the vratas and their 
aticaras a number of different traditions which it is of importance 
to note: 

1. The orthodox Svetambara tradition rigidly faithful to the 

2. Another Svetambara tradition that owes its origin to Hari- 
bhadra, who was considerably influenced by the Tattvartha- 
sutra. This includes Hemacandra and the seventeenth- 
century Yasovijaya. 

3. The Digambara tradition based on the Tattvartha-sutra. 

4. Another Digambara tradition going back to Samantabhadra, 
who compiled completely new lists of aticaras for some vratas . 
He is followed by Sakalakirti and Somasena. 

5. One significant writer — Somadeva — who alone has not re- 
spected the tradition of five aticaras for each vrata . 

The following table will show in detail how the aticaras are treated 
by them. 

1 The designations of the aticaras vary considerably from writer to writer. 
I have preferred to use, wherever possible, those given in the Upasaka-dasah. 

0 737 F 




Amitagati nyasapahara guhya-bhasana, mantra-bheda mrsopadesa kuta-lekha-karana 


Somadeva mudha-saksi- paisunya mantra-bheda parivada kuta-lekha-karana 



V > 

•M > 


cd J3 

•3 3 

ft ^ 

£ ‘C 
















® o 1 *1 

C/3 CO C/3 







The aticaras given in the Upasaka-dasah are specifically de- 
scribed as ‘typical ’ 1 ( peyala ), but though Abhayadeva* draws atten- 
tion to this in his commentary on the sutra pointing out that the 
set of five infractions attached to each vrata is not a restrictive 
definition ( avadharand ) but a symbolic indication (• upalaksana ) of 
other similar offences, little heed has been in practice paid to this 
and the Digambaras in particular seem to regard the aticaras as 
furnishing the detailed draft of a moral code. 

With the exception of Asadhara, who has here borrowed from 
Hemacandra, the Digambaras do not appear to take into account 
the distinction of bhanga and aticara , which has led many &vet- 
ambara acaryas into a tangle of sophistry. Whilst an aticara accord- 
ing to Abhayadeva 3 is a lapse from the vow, due, for example, to 
lack of understanding of it, any conscious and flagrant infraction 
constitutes a bhanga. Abhayadeva admits he is unable to understand 
the distinction of bhanga and aticara in the Avasyaka-tika but his 
own definition is hardly satisfactory. In practice a bhanga is held 
to be a complete negation of the vrata (for example, the outright 
refusal to give alms is a bhanga of the dana-vratd) whilst an aticara 
is an offence against the vrata in which the vow is partly kept and 
partly infringed or, as this might be expressed in over-simplified 
terms, an aticara is half a bhanga. But other types of transgression, 
intermediate between bhanga and aticara and involving more subtle 
differentiations, are also mentioned in the discussion of prati- 
kramana and alocana : such, for example, are the khandita and 
viradhana. An aticara , it is considered, may occur when an offence 
is palliated by ignorance, or when it is carried out through the 
agency of a third party, or when an evil intention is cherished but 
not put into effect, or when the spirit but not the letter of an 
injunction is contravened. It would seem that on this theme of 
bhanga and aticara the &vetambara acaryas are the prisoners of a 
traditional exegesis which constrains them to contortions of 
casuistry alien to the very ideas they have set forth in other 

To the same type of intellectual hair-splitting belong the com- 
putations of the possible number of bhahgas of a vrata of which 
some examples are given under the ahimsa-vrata. It is enough to 
explain here that any bhanga may be committed in speech, in body, 

1 See Schubring, DieLehre desjainas , p. 188. 2 UD i. 56 (p. zx). 

3 UD i. 56 (pp. zi-zz). 


or in mind (these are collectively referred to as the pada-traya ), 
the offender may himself be guilty of the act (when it is krta), may 
cause it to be done (when it is karita ), or may approve of its being 
done (when it is anumata ) ; together the resulting nine possibilities 
make up what the Digambaras call the nava-koti. There are also 
three possible stages in the commission of the offence : preparation 
(sainrambha), inception (samarambha), and execution (arambha). 

Where aticaras of a vrata are given (for some Digambaras do not 
note any) they are always, except in a few cases in the Yaiastilaka , 
five in number. Five is also the number of the anu-vratas them- 
selves (except where ardtri-bhojana is recognized as a vrata) 
Abhayadeva 1 * explains that they are five, and not four like the 
maha-vratas in the times of the twenty-two earlier tirthahkaras , 
because Sailaka-raja accepted the sravaka-dharma in the guise of 
five anu-vratas and seven other vratas in the presence of Sthapatya- 
putra, the pupil of Neminatha. The same writer explains the term 
anu-vrata as meaning either a vow that is ‘minor’ ( arm ) in com- 
parison with the major vows {maha-vratas) or the vow of a person 
who is ‘minor’, that is of secondary importance, in comparison 
with an ascetic, or (in the form of anu-vrata) as a vow expounded 
subsequently to the maha-vratas. 


By all the Jaina acaryas } except by the author of the rather aberrant 
and isolated Dharma-rasayana , the ahimsa-vrata is recognized as 
the first of the anu-vratas and even in that work where it is rele- 
gated to second place among the guna-vratas its position is taken 
by a specialized variant of non-violence — the refusal to kill 
animals in sacrifice to the gods. 3 This primacy of ahimsa lies at the 
very root of Jainism: dayamulu dhamm' -anghivaha as the Sravaka- 
dharma-dohaka} says ; and the instinct is sound which leads Amrta- 
candra to explain every other vrata as but a restatement in different 
terms of the content of the first. 

Amongst the Digambaras it is Amrtacandra, 4 and next to him 
Amitagati, 5 who have devoted most attention to refuting argue 
ments commonly advanced in the world in criticism of absolute 

1 P (SrDh) 7. 

3 Doha 40. 

2 Dharma-rasayana , 143. 

3 Sr (A) vi. 33-44. 

^ PASU 79-89. 


ahimsa. They point out that it is wrong to kill destructive creatures 
— and by this lions, tigers, snakes, and scorpions, and similar 
dangerous animals and insects are intended — in the belief that by 
so doing other living creatures will be saved from death or injury. 
Slaughter for the purpose of extirpating evil is as senseless as cut- 
ting down a tree with an axe in order to make it grow. Since de- 
structive creatures when slain go to a fate of great misery those 
who inflict such misery on them will inevitably incur great guilt. 
It is equally contrary to the concepts of true religion to destroy 
creatures that are in a state of wretchedness on the assumption that 
they will be out of their misery when dead, for of necessity they 
will be reborn in another incarnation where their plight may be 
yet worse. Vigorously to be combatted is the teaching of those who 
maintain that a good disciple should cut off the head of his pre- 
ceptor when through constant practice of religion he has achieved 
a mental state which will assure him a happy reincarnation ; for it 
is fallacious to imagine that since the attainment of happiness is 
difficult the blissful if killed will remain blissful. To claim that the 
religious life stems from the gods and therefore to them all things 
are to be offered, or to assert that there is no fault in slaughtering 
goats or other animals to satisfy the duties of hospitality, are other 
untenable points of view. The contention that it is better to kill 
one higher animal than to destroy a very great number of lower 
forms of life is refuted by the explanation that the carcass will 
inevitably be full of minute organisms called nigodas. For this 
reason perhaps, too, it is forbidden to kill oneself in order to offer 
one’s body as food for the starving. 

Amrtacandra is concerned on these issues mainly with the 
refutation of other creeds, but in ordinary life the commonest 
problem to present itself in the application of the doctrine of 
ahimsa would probably be whether or not it is licit to kill a de- 
structive animal, and in fact the question is put and answered by 
a number of writers including A^adhara 1 and Hemacandra. Hema- 
candra 3 in fact is the only mediaeval Svetambara authority on 
sramkacara to treat at length of the wider issues of ahimsa , though 
at an earlier epoch they had been discussed in the Sravaka - 

The nature of the layman’s ahirnsa-vrata depends on the dis- 
tinction between suksma-himsa , the taking of life in any form, 
1 SDhA iv. 6-32. 2 Y& ii. 23-49. 


abstention from which is obligatory for the ascetic, and sthula- 
himsdy the destruction of the higher forms of life from dvindriyas 
upwards, which is forbidden to all Jainas. The layman is also 
enjoined to avoid as far as possible the killing of ekendriyas and 
the useless destruction of sthdvara-jwas. The objection is some- 
times raised that since the monk has renounced himsa , whether 
krta } karita, or anumata , he should not instruct the layman to main- 
tain only sthula-himsa since this amounts to an implicit assent to the 
killing of ekendriyas . To elucidate the monk’s attitude a parable 1 
is narrated. 

The wives of a certain king obtained permission from their 
husbands to leave the women’s quarters and visit the city by night. 
To ensure that they could do so unmolested he gave order that all 
the men of the city should be outside the walls by dusk. However, 
the six sons of a merchant were detained by some business in their 
counting-house and failed to leave. They were arrested and con- 
demned to death. Their father besought the king for pardon but 
was only able to obtain the release of the youngest one by a 
reasoned plea to the ruler. Here the sons who are executed are the 
jiva-nikayas, the father is the sadhu , and his plea is his exposition 
of the dharma at the time that the layman takes the anu-vratas. 
He knows that the sravaka will not spare the lives of all living 
beings and so he attempts to save at least some of them. 

Hinisa may be either inherent in an occupation ( arambha-ja ) or 
intentional ( sankalpa-ja ), in other words, unrelated to the occupa- 
tion (andrambha-ja). Offences against the mat a may be either con- 
scious (sarthaka) or fortuitous (anarthaka), and in the former case 
they may be committed with due care and attention (sapeksa) or 
carelessly nirapeksa 2 These distinctions are sometimes known as 

Himsa does not depend on acts alone: the vrata will be broken 
merely by the absence of compassion shown when a man allows 
himself to be carried away by anger. A distinction can therefore be 
made between bhava-himsa (the intention to hurt) and dravya- 
hiipsa (the actual hurt ). 3 

The aticdras of this vrata are given in the same form by Svet- 
ambaras and Digambaras : 

(i) keeping in captivity ( bandha ) ; 

1 See Haribhadra's comm, on &rPr 115 or Municandra’s comm, on DhB 
U1 ‘ l6> 3 NPP 23. 3 T (S) vii. 8 (p. 64). 


(ii) beating {vadha) ; 

(iii) mutilating (chavi-cchedd) ; 

(iv) overloading ( ati-bhararopana ) ; 

(v) depriving of food and drink ( bhakta-pana-vyavaccheda ). 

(i) Bandi-ia. This according to Haribhadra 1 applies to the 
tying up or keeping in captivity of men or beasts. Siddhasena 
Ganin 2 stresses that this is very often utterly wanton as when ants, 
or other insects, are tied for amusement. It may, however, be quite 
legitimate when an unruly child, or slave, or servant has to be cor- 
rected or when horses, cattle, buffaloes, or elephants are kept for 
domestic use. The' general view seems to be that such action — 
and this applies to the other contraventions of this vrata — ranks as 
an aticara when done in anger. This is stressed by Hemacandra , 3 
who defines bandha as The restraining of cattle by ropes and 
withies or the restraining of one’s children for the sake of correct- 
ing them’. The tying should be done with consideration (sapeksa), 
the rope being knotted loosely so that it can be easily slipped in 
case of fire. Asadhara 4 follows Hemacandra in his explanation but 
notes also that it is licit to bind a thief or other intruder who may 
have entered one’s home. Pujyapada and Camundaraya 5 state 
simply that bandha means fastening with a rope to a block or post 
in such a way as to restrict freedom of movement from place to 
place. This and the following aticaras they appear to take as refer- 
ring only to animals. 

(ii) Vadha. 6 Haribhadra? explains this as ‘thrashing with 
whips’. When occasion arises, says Siddhasena Gapin , 8 a pious 
layman may administer a whipping to a person or animal in his 
charge with due consideration for age and avoiding any vital spot; 
pulling the ears or slapping is also permissible. The consensus of 
later opinion is perhaps best expressed by Devendra 9 when he says 
that it is merciless flogging that constitutes the aticara. The 
Digambaras define vadha as The beating of living creatures with 
rods, whips, or withies’. 

x Av (H), p. 820a. 2 T (S) vii. 20 . 

* YJs iii. 90 (p. 547). 4 SDhA iv. 16. 

5 CS, p. 5. 

6 This aticara has sometimes erroneously been rendered as ‘killing*. 

7 Av (H), p. 819 b. 8 T (S) vii. 30. 9 SrDK, pt. ii, p. 84. 


(iii) Chavi-ccheda. 1 For Haribhadra 2 this implies ‘cutting 
the body with swords and other sharp instruments’. The word 
chavi is in fact variously interpreted as ‘body’ or ‘skin’. The TatU 
vartha-bhasya introduces 3 here the idea of purposeless cutting of 
the bark of trees and Siddhasena Ganin extends this to the wound- 
ing of ap-kayas by cutting ice or of prthvi-kayas by disturbing the 
ground, offences which later are usually found under the anartha- 
danda-vrata. But, as he notes, this aticara applies rather to 
branding and ear-piercing or to methods of punishment used to 
intimidate criminals such as cutting off the nose and ears, or 
fingers and thumbs. Such chavi-ccheda is of course merciless and 
devoid of consideration (nirapeksa) but it ceases to be an aticara 
when it is done with due care (sapeksa), for example, in lancing a 
boil. Hemacandra* mentions as an instance of beneficent chavi- 
ccheda opening the swollen leg of a person suffering from elephan- 
tiasis ( pada-vahmka ). For the Digambaras 5 this aticara implies the 
mutilation of the ears, or nose, or other organs of the body. 

(iv) Ati-bhArAropana. Haribhadra 6 understands by this the 
loading on to the back, or shoulders, or head of an animal or human 
being of an excessive weight of goods such as betel nuts. Siddhasena 
Ganin 3 comments that a Jaina ought not to make his living by 
bhafaka-karman or sakata-kantian which are forbidden trades, but, 
if unable to do otherwise, he should load his oxen or other beasts 
of burden with a load rather below the maximum that they can 
bear and unyoke them during the heat of the day, giving them food 
and water ; whilst human beings should not be expected to carry 
more than they can take without undue effort. Pujyapada and 
Camundaraya 5 define this aticara as the loading on oxen or other 
animals, out of greed, of a burden greater than they can bear. 

(v) Bhakta-pAna-vyavaccheda. Siddhasena Ganin 3 says 
that the stinting of food or water to man or beast without cause is 
always to be avoided. For the moral good of undisciplined children 
or the physical good of fever patients it is, however, admissible 
when done with due care. The Digambaras understand this 
aticara to mean ‘provoking the suffering of hunger or thirst in 
animals for any reason . 5 

_[ In Jaina jurisprudence chavi-ccheda is one of the seven forms of danda- 
tiitl’y it covers any mutilation inflicted in punishment of a crime. See Arhan- 
niti, ii. a. 

2 Av (H), p. 8196. 3 t (S) vii. 20. 

5 CS, p. 5. 6 Av(H), p. 8196. 

4 Y & iii- 90 (P- 547)- 


‘How can there be any aticdra of the ahimsa-vratci which is 
designed to express a renunciation of killing if in fact no killing has 
taken place?’ 1 This question is often raised by the Svetambara 
acaryas , only to be answered at once by the explanation that where 
the intention to hurt or kill arises under the influence of anger and 
other passions there is bhava-Mmsa. Even if there is no dravya - 
himsa or physical injury the vrata will have been infringed by the 
putting away of compassion. In a phrase of Amrtacandra 2 himsa 
exists wherever raga and dvesa occur even though no creature 
perishes. A mere thought in an angry man’s mind is himsa : once 
delivered to the empire of his passions he destroys himself even 
if he destroys no other living being. Conversely where a person 
of pure life, for example, a sadhu practising irya-samiti , inadver- 
tently extinguishes the life of a jiva he does not bind on himself 
further karma. Aticaras of the layman’s ahimsd-wata therefore 
occur when the vow is broken in spirit {antar-vrttya) through 
anger but kept in the letter ( bahir-vrttya ), for example, when an 
animal is beaten mercilessly but recovers owing to its natural 
strength. 3 

Many writers are preoccupied by the calculation of the number 
of ways in which the vrata can be broken. Thus for AmitagatH 
a bhang a may be krta, karita , or anumata , may be committed in 
speech, in body, or in mind, may refer to the stages of samrambha , 
samarambha , or arambha and may belong to any one of the four 
kasayas : krodha , mana, maya , or lobha : from this computation, 
which is that of the Tattvartha-sutra, he derives a total of 108 forms 
of himsa. Devagupta 5 reckons 243 bhang as of the ahimsa-vrata : 
krta , karita , or anumata , in speech, in body, or in mind, com- 
mitted against the nine categories of jivas in past, present, or future 
time. Hemacandra 6 prefers a more complex calculation: each 
offence may be committed in speech, in body, in mind, in speech 
and body together, in speech and mind together, in mind and body 
together, or in speech, body, and mind together, and each may be 
krta , karita , anumata , krta-karita, krtanumata , karitanumata , or 
krta-kdritanumata ; and the variants which result may occur in past, 
present, or future time, giving a possible total of 147 bhahgas. It 
seems idle to follow the acaryas into the network of these theoretical 
speculations, and though they are applied to many injunctions of 

1 UD i. 45 (p. 7). 2 PASU 41-48. =» £rDK, pt. ii, p. 84. 

4 $r (A) vi. 12-13. 5 NPP 21. 0 Y& ii. 18 (p. 192). 


the Jaina creed, and recur with increasing frequency in the later 
texts in tabulated form, no further allusion will be made to them in 
the present study. 

The content of the ahimsa-vrata is much wider than the aticaras 
indicate, though many subjects which are treated under this head 
by early writers are later held to fall within the province of the 
anartha-danda-vrata and the bhogopabhoga-vrata. The Sravaka- 
prajhapti 1 records that the practice of ahimsa implies the straining 
of water through a cloth and the use of grain that is free from 
weevils. Siddhasena Ganin 2 mentions the ban on the consumption 
of meat, alcohol, and honey as forming part of the ahimsa-vrata. 
Somadeva , 3 too, includes under it the obligation to avoid un- 
strained water, abhaksyas , ananta-kayas, and ratri-bhojana. A^ad- 
hara , 4 who notes that the lay estate cannot exist without activity 
(( arambha ) or activity without killing, deals especially under the 
ahimsa-vrata with eating by night and meat-eating. 

It is the eating of meat and the sacrifice of animals that provoke 
Hemacandra 5 to an attack on the himsa-sastra as he calls the Mami- 
smrti. It is, he says, a hideous distortion of reality to pretend that 
animals have come into existence to be offered to the divinities for 
the prosperity of the world and that the jivas inhabiting them will 
be reborn as divine beings. Those who perform such sacrifices 
will go to the lowest hell, and even a wretched atheist, a carvaka , 
will have a better destiny than the hypocrites who preach a dharma 
of cruelty. That men abandon the dharma of compassion for this 
repellent creed is evidence of the evil of the age. If sacrificial 
victims really went to an abode of bliss why should not one kill 
one’s parents in the sacrifice ? How can figures like Siva, Skandha, 
Yisnu, or Yama, who are represented with terrible weapons, be 
adored as divinities? Like many other Jaina writers, Hemacandra 
quotes the famous verse : 

same jiva vi icchanti jivium na marijjium 

tamha pani-vaham ghoram niggantha vajjayanti nam 6 

‘Killing horrifies because all beings wish to live and not to be slain.’ 
It would here be well to stress that ahimsa is not something nega- 
tive; it is another aspect of daya — compassion — in Iiemacandra’s 

1 SrPr 259* s T (S) vii. 8. 3 Handiqui, p. 264. 

4 SDhAiv. 12. s Y§ ii. 33-49. 

6 Dasa-mikalika-sfttra, gatha, 219. 


words ‘the beneficent mother of all beings 1 , ‘the elixir for those 
who wander in suffering through the ocean of reincarnation’. This 
positive ahimsa is expressed in the form of karuna-dana or abhaya - 
dana, the giving of protection to all living creatures. 

For Somadeva, 1 who emphasizes this positive aspect, ahimsa as in 
the Tattvartha-siitra 2 is compounded of maitri — the non-infliction 
of suffering, pramoda — affection combined with respect for the 
virtuous, karunya — charity to help the needy, and madhyasthya — 
a state of equanimity without attraction or repulsion in regard to 
those who are devoid of virtues. Evil, he says, cannot dwell in a 
man crowned with the halo of compassion for this quality is more 
efficacious than the practice of all ceremonies. 


The term satya has been given such a wide connotation here 
that it is scarcely possible to render it merely as ‘truth’. Its speci- 
fically Jaina interpretation was already apparent to Pujyapada as 
his commentary on the Tattvartha-sutra : 3 shows. In fact the ampli- 
tude of this vrata has been concisely expressed by Vasunandin* as 
the abstention from untruth spoken out of passion or hate, and 
from truth, too if it provokes the destruction of a living being. 

From the earliest times certain divisions or delimitations of 
satya have been established in the texts. The most primitive 
(dating from the older Avasyaka literature) takes the following 
form (based on the gifts most commonly mentioned) : 

(i) untruth relating to a girl (kanyalika), e.g. saying that a girl 
is or is not a virgin ; 

(ii) untruth relating to a cow (gav-alika), e.g. saying that a cow 
gives much milk or little milk; 

(iii) untruth relating to land ( bhumy-alika ), e.g. saying that 
a piece of land belongs to oneself or belongs to another 
person ; 

(iv) untruth told for the sake of making away with a pledge 
{nyasa-harana), e.g. falsely denying that gold or other 
valuables have been entrusted to one; 

(v) bearing false witness (kuta-saksya). 

1 Handiqui, p. 264. 2 T (P) vii. 11, 

4 (V) 209. 

3 Ibid. 14. 



The above classification is that of the Pancasaka 1 but it is given 
without perceptible variation in all Svetambara works, from the 
§ravaka-praj nap ti onwards, that treat of the vratas. Asadhara 1 2 
borrows it from Hemacandra but is not followed by any other 
Digambara writer except Medhavin, who mentions only the first 
three categories. It should be noted that in all cases these three 
forms of asatya are interpreted as upalaksanas or symbolic examples 
so that they cover any false statements made in reference to human 
beings (kanyalika), animals ( gav-alika ), or inanimate objects {bhumy- 
alika ). 

Another classification which bears the stamp of the logicians 
divides asatya into the following categories : 3 

(i) denial of what is (bhuta-nihnava or sad-alapana) r e.g. ‘there 
is no atman' ; ‘there is no j papa’ ; ‘there is no panyd ; or ‘Deva- 
datta is not here’ (when in fact he is' present) ; 

(ii) assertion of what is not (asad-udbhavana or abhutodbhavana), 
e.g. ‘the atman is immanent’ (sarvagata), or ‘the atman is 
of the size of a grain of millet or rice’ or ‘the pot is there’ 
(when in fact it is not there) ; 

(iii) representation of something in a form other than its real 
form (arthantara or viparita), e.g. describing a cow as a 
horse or saying, as do the Buddhists, that the atman is non- 
eternal or, as do the Sankhyas, that it is eternal ; 

(iv) reprehensible speech (nindya) — in Hemacandra’s termino- 
logy garhita — which is again subdivided into : 

(a) speech that is tactlessly hurtful ( apriya ) as, for example, 
in alluding to a person’s physical deformity. Nothing 
should be said to cause embarrassment, anxiety, or 
unhappiness to others; 

(b) speech that is insulting (garhya) — in Hemacandra akrosa- 
rupa — or inspired by malice or mockery, e.g. calling 
someone a bastard ; 4 

(c) speech in which encouragement to harmful actions is 

given (savadya). This would include not only advice to 
steal or to kill but even an injunction such as ‘plough the 
fields’. ~ ° 

1 P (£rDh) ii. 2 SDhA iv. 39. 

3 Sr (A) vi. 49-54; PASU 91-98. 

4 Y 5 ii. 57; textually yatha are bandhdkineya ity adi. 



The foregoing classification, is given not only by the Digambaras 
Amitagati and Amrtacandra but also in the Yoga-sdstra where the 
treatment goes back directly to Siddhasena’s commentary on the 
Tattvdrtha-siitra 1 and indeed to the Svetambara Bhasya. The three 
types of nindya speech (styled garhita in the Bhasya) are, in corre- 
sponding order, paisunya-yukta , parusya-ynkta , and himsd-yukta. 

Since in general it would seem that in numerical presentations 
the tetrads are older than the pentads, the fivefold classification set 
out in the Nava-pada-prakarana 1 2 and repeated by Ya^odeva 3 in his 
commentary on the Pancasaka is probably a later development. 
On the authority of a Prakrit verse quoted this is given as : (i) abhil- 
todbhavana , (ii) bhuta-nihnava , (iii) viparita , (i v)garhya, (v) savadya. 

A^adhara 4 too has five categories but he has arrived at them by 
suppressing the savadya class, doubtless from a feeling that it was 
unnecessary because identical with the papopadesa division of 
anarthadanda. With that exception he has faithfully followed 
Hemacandra’s enumeration. 

Somadeva 5 gives another fourfold division of satya and asatya: 

(i) satya-satya — what is wholly true, the exact reproduction of 
facts ; 

(ii) asatya-satya — a statement part true, part false in which the 
falsehood predominates, e.g. weave the cloth, (where it 
would be more accurate to say weave the yarn) ; 

(iii) satyasatya — again a statement part true, part false, but with 
truth predominating, e.g. promising to give something 
within a fortnight and giving it only after a month or a year ; 

(iv) asatydsatya — what is wholly false, e.g. promising to give 
something which it is not within one’s power to give. 

Asadhara 6 incorporates this rather casuistic analysis into his 
sravakacara but no other writer appears to have noted it. In con- 
formity with the usage of the world the first three are permissible 
but the fourth is always to be avoided. 

For the five aticaras the older Svetambara authorities maintain 
unchanged the list of the Upasaka-dasah: 

(i) sudden calumniating (sahasdbhyakhydna)\ 

(ii) secret calumniating (raho’bhyakhydna) ; 

1 T (S) vii. 9. 3 NPP 30. 3 P (Y) n. 

4 SDhA iv. 44. 5 Handiqui, p. 265 . 6 SDhA iv. 40-43. 

0 737 G 


(iii) divulging the confidences of one’s wife (sva-ddra-mantra- 
bhedd ) ; 

(iv) spreading of false information (mrsopadesa ) ; 

(v) false statements expressed in writing (kuta- lekha-karana ) . 

However, even here, there are some divergencies in interpreta- 
tion. The oldest Digambara list, that of the Tattvartha-sutrap- 
varies sva-dara-mantra-bheda to sakara-mantra-bheda (at its origin 
probably no more, than a textual corruption), omits sahasabhya - 
khyana , and from the primitive categories of asatya borrows 
nyasapahara , assigning to it the vacant space in the aticara pentad. 
This pattern is followed by Amrtacandra, 2 Camundaraya, and 
Asadhara and, one may add, by Amitagati 3 though there is some 
blurring of the distinction between the second and third infrac- 
tions called by him ‘revealing of secret actions’ {prakasana. 
guhya- vicestitdndm) and ‘divulging the confidences of others’ ( para - 
mantra-bheda). Haribhadra, in the Dharma-bindu ,4 has kept the 
original Svetambara version except for the replacement of sahasd- 
bhyahhyana by nyasapahara . Hemacandra 5 on the contrary has 
preferred to retain sahasdbhydkhyana ; he recognizes raho } bhya- 
khyana as a variant reading for this and fills its place in the list by 
guhya-bhdsana whilst for sva-dara-mantra-bheda he gives visvasta - 
inantra-bheda. In other words, for the second and third aticaras , 
he is in exact agreement with Amitagati. Samantabhadra 6 follows 
the Tdttvdrtha-siitra but for sakara-mantra-bheda and mrsopadeia 
he has paUunya and parivada (for his commentator Prabhacandra 
the use of these terms does not change the meaning). For this 
anu-vrata as for others, Somadeva’s 7 list of aticaras is the most aber- 
rant: mudha-saksi-padokti (false witness), mantra-bheda (revealing 
of confidences), paisunya , parivada , and kuta-lekhana. It is clear 
therefore that for him paisunya cannot have the sense that Pra- 
bhacandra gives to it or it would be tautological. It would probably 
be more correct to give to it its everyday meaning of ‘calumny’ and 
to parivada that of ‘reproach’. Yet it must be pointed out in support 
of Prabhacandra’s explanation that Amitagati in the Subhasita - 
ratna-samdoha uses the term paisunya to describe what in his 
Sravakacara he calls prakasana gnhya-vicestitmidm and that Si- 
ddhasena Ganin 8 equates paisunya with what is apriya . 

^ T (P) vii. 2 5. * p ASU l84 . 3 g r (A) vii. 4. 

4 DhB iii. 27. s yjg iii. 91. 6 RK iii. 10. 

7 Handiqui, p. 265. 8 T (S) vii. 9 (p. 74). 



The interpretation of these various aticaras even when they bear 
the same designation shows considerable variations : 

(i) Sahasabhyakhyana. Haribhadra , 1 quoting the 

Curni, defines this as imputing to someone without due reflection 
a non-existent fault, such as saying, ‘You are a thief, you are an 
adulterer’. There is a danger that the victim might be killed or 
otherwise punished for this if the calumny were overheard by an 
ill-intentioned person. According to a Prakrit verse 2 quoted anony- 
mously by Abhayadeva and again by Hemacandra this transgres- 
sion is a bhanga when spoken intentionally in the knowledge that it 
is untrue and an aticara in other circumstances. 

(ii) Raho’bhyakhyana. In the traditional Svetambara inter- 
pretation, that of the Avasyaka Curni and Haribhadra , 3 the 
example cited for this aticara is to say: ‘They are discussing an act 
directed against the king’ ; the consequences for the persons thus 
calumniated are obvious. But already Siddhasena Ganin 4 had given 
an explanation drawn from the sva-dara-mantra-bheda aticara . 
In his view this offence is committed if, for example, an older 
woman is told that her husband is in love with a young girl or if 
a younger woman is given to understand that her husband is in- 
fatuated with a more mature rival, or if a man is informed that his 
wife denigrates him, saying that he is a lecherous brute ( kama - 
gardabha). Such allegations made by way of gibes constitute 
aticaras, but if there is a conscious evil intent (abhinivesa) under- 
lying them they are bhahgas. 

(iii) Sva-dAra-mantra-bheda. Haribhadra 3 defines this as 
the divulging to others of what has been said by one’s wife in 
confidence under special circumstances. His explanation is fol- 
lowed by successive ^vetambara authorities. Yasodeva 6 takes the 
word data as an upalaksana to include ‘friends’ and Hema- 
candra 7 goes further, designating this aticara as visvasta-mantra - 
bheda. The gravity of this transgression, as is pointed out from the 
Avasyaka Curni onwards, lies in the fact that it might bring about 
the death of the wife (or friend) through shame. Because of this 
evil potentiality there is in it an element of bhanga and at the same 
time, if it is true, an element of abhahga so that it can properly 

* Av (H), p. 821 b> 

4 T (S) vii. 21 (p. 105). 
6 P (Y) n (p. 60). 


3 Av (H), p. 821&. 
5 Av (H), p. 8ziA 
7 Yf§ iii. 91. 


be classed as an aticara. Siddhasena Suri 1 notes that in this 
offence a fact which ought not to be revealed is divulged by a 
person concerned and not, as in the preceding one, by a third 

(iv) M#sopade6a. This is explained by Siddhasena Ganin 2 as 
‘words that may cause suffering to others’ such as ‘Let the camels 
and donkeys be loaded’ or ‘Let the slaves be beaten’. On the basis 
of the JBhasya he gives also as an alternative interpretation ‘showing 
someone how to get the better of someone else in a dispute’. Both 
ideas are adopted by Hemacandra 3 but the second is preferred by 
the other Svetambara texts from the Amsyaka Curni onwards. 
From ‘instruction in methods of deceit’ this aticara is extended to 
cover the encouragement of the study of texts mainly concerned 
with falsehood. Devendra , 4 however, narrows it down to ‘teaching 
the use of unknown mantras and herbs’. The conventional 
Digambara view, exemplified by Pujyapada and Camundaraya , 5 
understands by this aticara the giving of advice which would be 
prejudicial to the attainment of moksa or to rebirth in the deva-loka. 
Asadhara 6 offers in addition to this the choice of the first two 
explanations favoured by Hemacandra. If the commentator Pra- 
bhacandra is to be trusted the parimda of the Ratna-karanda 7 is to 
be understood as mrtopadeia . 

(v) Kuta-lekha-karana. Haribhadra , 8 and in general the 
lovetambara writers, understand by this the counterfeiting of 
another person’s seal, or stamp, or the use of such a seal with a false 
text, but Siddhasena Ganin 9 more specifically relates it to the false 
writing of symbols on birch bark. The Digambara definition is 
‘alleging in writing with intent to deceive that what was not in 
fact said or done by someone was said or done by him ’. 10 Aiadhara 11 
notes both the Svetambara and Digambara versions. Abhayadeva , 12 
Hemacandra, and others say that this offence, though a flagrant 
breach of truth, is an aticara and not a bhanga because the vrata 
in its literal sense applies to the speaking, and not to the writing, of 

Nyasapahara. The Tattvartha-bhasya 13 defines this as ‘the 
taking of a pledge deposited by another person and forgotten’. 

1 PrSU, p. 72. 2 T (S) vii. 21 (p. 104). 3 Y£ iii. 91. 

4 SrDK, pt. ii, p. 87. * CS, p. 5- 6 SDhA iv. 45. 

7 RK iii. 10. 8 Av (H), p. 8216. 9 T (S) vii. ai (p. 105). 

10 CS, p. 5. 11 SDhA iv. 45. ** P (SrDh) 12. 

13 T (S) vii. 21 (p. 105). 



Siddhasena Ganin expands this by the following example. Suppose 
someone has deposited in safe custody a sum of five hundred 
coins but when he comes to collect it, cannot remember whether 
the figure was five hundred or four hundred. If the holder of the 
money were to take advantage of that uncertainty to give back only 
four hundred coins he would be guilty of nyasapahara. The same 
view is taken by Digambara writers. 

Sakara-mantra-bheda. According to the traditional Dig- 
ambara interpretation 1 this is the divulging from jealousy or other 
motives of the secret intention of another person as divined by 
watching his gestures or facial expression’. The sixteenth- century 
commentator Prabhacandra applies this definition to the aticara , 
which Samantabhadra calls paisunya. Siddhasena, in his com- 
mentary on the Tattvartha-sutra , 2 had explained paisunya as 
‘breaking up a friendship between two people by revealing what 
one has learned by studying gestures and expression’, and guhya- 
bhasana as ‘divulging affairs of state’. In the Bhasya both are 
associated under the head of sakara-mantra-bheda: Hemacandra in 
turn groups them as alternative explanations of the guhya-bhasana 

In recording the aticaras of sthuldsatya the £vetambara texts 
sometimes note a definition of this, more precise than the general 
notion that it applies to the layman and not to the ascetic. Thus the 
Avasyaka Curni 3 defines it as ‘speech by which great suffering or 
great hurt is caused to another person or to oneself’, whilst 
suksmasatya is ‘inaccurate speech used in play or in jest’ ; for Hari- 
bhadra 4 sthulasatya must be concerned with significant questions, 
suksmasatya implying what is trivial. 

Positive definitions of satya are sometimes given. The Sravaka- 
prajnapti , 5 for instance, enjoins that the aim of speech should be 
the intelligent pursuit of what is best for both worlds and the 
avoidance of what may cause hurt to others or to oneself or both 
to others and to oneself. Somadeva 6 considers that in speaking one 
should aim at measure rather than exaggeration, esteem rather 
than denigration, and distinction not vulgarity of expression. 
Amitagati 7 maintains that all such talk as is reprehensible among 

1 cs > P* 5- , 

2 T (S) vii. 2i (p. 106). A Volksetymologie is given: pritirn sunayatlti ptsunas 
tadbhavah paisunyam. This will be more easily understood if it is put back into a 
Prakrit form: ptim sunei tti pisuno tab-bhavo pesunnam. 3 Av Cu, p. 285. 

4 Av(H)82o6. 5 SrPr264. 6 Handiqui, p. 266. 7 &r(A)vi. 45. 


mlecchas , dishonourable to those who seek the religious life, and 
condemned by the doctors of the church is to be avoided; even 
truth when it results in suffering, fear, or harmful activity 
(arambha). Karttikeya 1 defines the satya-vrata as the avoidance of 
harmful, harsh, cruel, or secret speech and the use of balanced 
language that gives satisfaction to all living creatures and expresses 
the sacred truths. 

The connexion of asatya with hima has been brought out in the 
discussion of the individual aticaras. Amirtacandra 2 emphasizes 
that even where this is not apparent all asatya contains an element 
of careless activity ( pramatta-yoga ) which is at the root of himsa. 
However, for this very same reason a sermon on the performance 
of religious duties even though it seems to come under the head 
of unpleasing ( apriya ) speech is not asatya . 

The consequences which may ensue from speaking asatya are 
dwelt on by Hemacandra . 3 A liar may have his tongue and an ear cut 
off, may be beaten and imprisoned, treated with contumely, and 
deprived of his possessions. In another incarnation he may be 
afflicted with dumbness, speech defects, and foetid breath. Wilful 
calumny in particular is the root of endless miseries. On the other 
hand, one who always speaks the truth will, so popular belief avers, 
never be bitten by a serpent. 

In the consideration of asatya the abhyakhyana infraction has a 
special importance. It also forms a separate entry in the catalogue 
of the eighteen papa-sthanas, and figures among the asatanas . 


The Svetambara writers generally preface any discussion of 
stealing (steya or caurya or more generally adattadana , ‘the taking 
of what has not been given’) by fourfold classification of adatta\* 

(i) what is not granted by its owner (svamy-adatta), e.g. gold; 

(ii) what is not granted by a living creature ( jivadatta ), e.g. 
animal products not given by the slaughtered animal or 
even a fruit (which has not been given by th ejiva inhabiting 


1 KA 333-4* 2 PASU 99-zoo. 3 ygii. 53-64. 4 NPP 39* 


(iii) what is not granted by the Tirthankar a (Tirthankaradatta), 
e.g. food specially cooked by the householder for the 
monks (adha-karman) which, is illicit ; 

(iv) what is not given to the monks (gurv-adatta), e.g. food 
even though devoid of impurity which is enjoyed without 
inviting the gurus. 

Devagupta, Yasodeva, Abhayadeva, Hemacandra, Siddhasena 
Suri, and Ratna^ekhara, listing the adattas , all cite as authority a 
verse from the tika of the Prcisna-vyakarana: 

sdmi-jwadattain Titthayarenam tattheva ya guruhim 
eyarn adatta-saruvam paruviyam dgama-dharehim 

In fact, of course, it is only the first adatta with which the asteya- 
vrata is concerned. 

Objects which can be stolen are divided in two ways; 1 either as: 

(i) animate (sacitta) such as salt, horses; 

(ii) inanimate (acitta) such as gold, silver; 

(iii) partly animate, partly inanimate (ubhaya ) ; 

or as: 

(i) two-footed (dvi-pada ) ; 

(ii) four-footed ( catus-pada ); 

(iii) without feet ( apada ). 

Such categories, of which other similar specimens will be found 
under the aparigraha-vrata , have no practical importance in the dis- 
cussion of theft. However, Siddhasena 2 notes these divisions and 
carefully explains the Bhasya's definition of steya, ‘the taking with 
intent to steal of objects — even of such things as grass — which are 
in the possession of others or not given by others’, in such a way 
as to include ‘what is reprehended by the scriptures’, in effect 
the tirthankaradatta noted above. 

The aticaras of this vow are given alike by Svetambaras and 
Digambaras : 

(i) receiving stolen goods (stenahrtddana) ; 

(ii) suborning of thieves (taskara-prayoga) ; 

(iii) transgressing the limits of a hostile state {viruddha- 

1 &rPr 365; Av (H), p. 8326. z 

T (S) vii. 10 (p. 76). 


(iv) using false weights and measures (kiita-tula-kuta-mana ) ; 

(v) substitution of inferior commodities ( tat-pratirupaka - 

It is only Somadeva’s 1 list which shows certain divergencies: 
stena-karman may perhaps be interpreted as equivalent to stena - 
prayoga , and mgrahe samgraho ’ rthasya (accumulation of wealth in 
war-time) has the merit of being less ambiguous than viruddha - 
rajyatikrama. The last item, tat-pratirupaka-vyavahara } has been 
completely omitted but it is possible that the fourth is intended 
to be split up into two: ‘over-weighing’ and ‘under-weighing’, 
according to whether buying or selling is involved. The Digam- 
baras in general prefer the wording hinadhika-manonmana to de- 
scribe this aticara . 

(i) Stenahrtadana. Siddhasena , 2 following the Tattmrtha- 
bhasya , explains this as ‘obtaining goods which are the proceeds of 
a robbery for nothing or at a low price’. For Haribhadra 3 it is 
‘acquiring cheaply through greed stolen commodities such as 
saffron from a foreign country’. This explanation is repeated by 
Devagupta, Abhayadeva, and Yasodeva. Hemacandra prefers to 
follow Siddhasena Gan in. In the literal terms of the vrata this 
offence is not a bhanga ; on the other hand since the thievish intent 
is present it is a bhanga , so that by definition it can be classed as an 
aticara . 4 Siddhasena Suri takes an identical view. Amongst the 
Digambaras Pujyapada 5 and Camundaraya consider this offence 
to mean ‘obtaining something stolen from a thief without having 
employed or prompted him’, but A^adhara prefers to adopt 
Hemacandra’s definition. 

(ii) Stena- prayoga. Siddhasena Ganin 6 explains this as 
‘providing thieves with money to ply their trade’ and notes that it 
is wrong to sell implements of burglary. For Haribhadra 7 it means 
approving or encouraging thieves by saying: ‘You steal this.’ 
Abhayadeva and Yasodeva are of the same opinion. Hemacandra 
and Siddhasena Suri leave the choice open between Siddhasena 
Ganin and Haribhadra. Hemacandra, quoting Abhayadeva, pictures 
the offender as addressing the thieves in these terms: ‘Why do 
you stand idle ? If you have no food I will give you to eat. If you 
find no buyer for your wares I will take them.’ Such action is a 

1 Handiqui, p. 265. 3 T(S) vii. 22 (p. 107). 3 Av(H), p, 823a. 

* YfS iii. 9a. 5 T (P) vii. 27. 6 T (S) vii. 22 (p. 107), 

7 Av (H), p. 823a. 


bhangaoi the vow not to cause theft to be carried out but at the same 
time not a bhanga because the instigator does not himself commit 
theft , 1 In the Digambara view as exemplified by Pujyapada 2 and 
Camundaraya this aticara amounts to the direct or indirect in- 
stigation of theft or the expression of approval for it. Once again 
Asadhara 3 prefers to follow Hemacandra even to the extent of 
giving the elaborate details which would seem to belong to a stena- 

(iii) Viruddha-rajyatikrama. Siddhasena , 4 amplifying the 
explanation of the Tattvartha-bhasya, renders this as ‘the acquisi- 
tion of property in a country which is engaged in hostilities with 
one’s own country since even grass or wood acquired under such 
circumstances must be regarded as stolen’. For Haribhadra 5 the 
offence lies merely in the crossing of such a forbidden frontier since 
the ruler’s command is thereby disobeyed. That this would be for 
the purpose of contraband is implied in Abhayadeva’s 6 reference 
to thievish intent ( caurya-buddhi ). Hemacandra 7 and Siddhasena 
Suri are more explicit: they regard the transgression of the for- 
bidden frontier as a form of svamy-adatta which would be of the 
nature of a bhanga , and at the same time not a bhanga because the 
purpose is to carry out a commercial transaction. Yasodeva 8 even 
extends the aticara to cover all trade in one’s own country if for- 
bidden by the ruler. The Digambaras Pujyapada and Camunda- 
raya 9 have a noticeably different interpretation: ‘the obtaining of 
merchandise by any means other than licit’. Samantabhadra’s 10 
vilopa is given the same definition by Prabhacandra, who then 
equates it with viruddha-rajyatikrama for, as he explains, goods of 
great value can be acquired with a small outlay under such cir- 

(iv) Kuta-tula-icuta-mana. Siddhasena , 11 expanding the 
interpretation of the Tattvartha-bhasya , explains this as the use of 
methods which are fraudulent inasmuch as any deviation from the 
norm is calculated in one’s own favour when buying or selling, or 
fixing rates of interest. Thus a tenfold or elevenfold rate of interest, 
which is sometimes practised out of greed, is inequitable ( anydyya ) 
and illicit. For Haribhadra 12 the aticara consists in giving short 

1 Y§ iii. 93. 2 T (P) vii. 27. _ 3 SDhA iv. 47. 

4 T (S) vii. 22 (p. 107). 5 Av (H), p. 823a. 

6 P (SrDh) 14. 7 YS iii. 92. 8 P 00 14- 

9 CS, p. 6. 10 RK iii. 12. 11 T (S) vii. 22 (p. 107). 

12 Av (H), p. 823a. 


measure when selling, and taking an excess when buying. Abhaya- 
deva, YaSodeva, and Hemacandra accept the same view. Devendra , 1 
like Siddhasena Ganin, condemns under this head the levying of 
exorbitant rates of interest. The Digambara definition is extremely 
precise : ‘fraudulent trading in which more is taken for oneself and 
less given to others when weighing and measuring ’. 2 

(v) Tat-pratirupaka-vyavahara. Siddhasena , 3 * following 
the Tattvartha-bhasya, understands this as the counterfeiting of 
gold, silver, brass, copper, oil, ghee, milk, or curds with materials 
that resemble them in colour, weight, and other properties, as well as 
the use of fraudulent devices in trading. As an example of these, it 
is mentioned that when cattle are stolen the shape of their horns 
can be changed at will if these are fomented with stewed kalihgi 
fruits ; otherwise they would be too easily recognizable to be kept 
or sold. According to Haribhadra* this aticara is no more than the 
adulteration of commodities such as mixing palanji with rice, or 
fat with ghee. Other Svetambara authorities take the same view. 
Siddhasena Suri s (who gives to this aticara the name of sadrsa-yuti) 
and Hemacandra 6 mention amongst other substances mixed with, 
or substituted for, more valuable ones : khadira resin for asafoetida, 
and urine for oil. Hemacandra considers that this aticara may refer 
to methods of vyaji-karana such as deforming the horns of cattle. 
For the Digambaras 7 it implies ‘fraudulent trading in factitious 
gold and similar commodities, or more specifically in a later text 
the Pra£mttara-fravakacara s ‘coining false money’; but as on 
other points here again A^adhara’s views belong with the &vetam- 
baras. Like the preceding aticara this offence can be held to be 
a bhanga because people are deprived of their property by false 
pretences but at the same time not a bhanga because what is in- 
volved is in fact just a commercial transaction . 9 

The transgressions of the asteya-vrata discussed above apply, 
it is clear, more particularly to members of the trading class. But 
Hemacandra , 9 and with him Asadhara , 10 raise the point that they 
may also be committed by the king’s ministers and other officials. 
Thus a vassal ruler (samanta) who assists an enemy of the king 
to whom he owes allegiance is guilty of viruddha-rajyatikrama . 

1 SrDK, pt. ii, p. 91. 3 CS, p. 6. 3 T (S) vii. 23 (p. 108). 

4 Av (H), p. 833a. s PSU 373. 6 YS iii, 92. 

7 CS, p. 6. 8 PrabiQttara-sravakacdra> xiv. 37. 

9 Y$ iii. 92. ™ SDhA iv. 50. 


Officials of the royal treasury are also liable to commit the fourth 
and fifth aticaras in the course of their duties. 

Several writers (Abhayadeva, Yasodeva, Hemacandra) quote a 
verse from the Prasna-vyakarana-tika : 

coro coravago manti bheya-nnu kanaga-kkayi 
anna-do thana-do ceva coro satta-viho mao 1 

According to this popular dictum the category of thief includes 
the robber, the receiver, the king’s minister, the retail trader, the 
purveyor of food, and the purveyor of office. Another classification 
of thieves which would appear to have been taken from a stena - 
iastra is too lengthy to be recorded here. 

A distinction of sthula-steya and siiksma-steya is made in the 
early &vetambara texts. For Haribhadra, 2 following the Avasyaka 
Curni , the latter implies appropriating trivial objects like rubble 
from the roadside without asking permission. 

For the Digambaras the classical definition of theft is contained 
in the verse of the Ratna-karanda : 3 * 

nihitam va patitam va su-vismrtam vd parasvam avisrstam 
na harati yan na ca datte tad-akria-caurydd uparamanam 

‘not taking the property of others whether pledged or dropped or 
forgotten unless it has been given’. Camundaraya,* taking over this 
definition, adds ‘or if abandoned owing to fear of princes or from 
some other cause’. Vasunandin 5 and the 3vetambara Hemacandra 6 
have almost identical verses. Somadeva 7 insists that nothing that 
belongs to others may be appropriated ‘whether in a house or on 
the highway or on water or in the woods or in the hills’ ; and his 
words are echoed by Amitagati: 8 not even a blade of grass is to 
be taken if it belongs to someone else. 

The connexion of theft with himsa is brought out by Amitagati : 9 
‘whoever takes the possessions of a man takes away his life since 
they represent his external vital force giving him consolation.’ 
Through the suffering he causes to others the thief is to be classed 
with the oil-presser, the hunter, the butcher, the cat, and the tiger. 
From another angle it is contended that hima is a necessary con- 
comitant of theft since it occurs through pramatta-yoga. 10 

1 P (Y) 14 (p. 67). 2 Ay (H), p. 8 zib. 3 RK iii. 11. 

♦ CS, p. 6. s gr (V) an. 6 Y£ ii. 66 . 

7 Handiqui, p. 265. 8 £>r (A) vi. 60. 9 Ibid, 61-63, 

10 PASU 104. 


There are reminiscences of the aticaras in some Digambara 
works which do not enumerate them: the Dvadasanuprekm, 1 for 
example, describes the asteya-vrata in these terms: not buying 
a valuable article at a low price, being contented with a small profit, 
not appropriating something that has been forgotten, and not taking 
the property of others through anger or greed. 

A^adhara 2 extends the scope of the asteya-vrata in various ways. 
Thus when any doubt arises as to whether or not an object belongs 
to oneself to take it would be to break the vow. Nothing that has not 
been given is to be appropriated with the exception of property 
from the succession of a dead relative and of such things as the 
water of a river or the grass of a meadow which are common prop- 
erty. For example, if a buried hoard is found it must be left alone 
since, as treasure trove, it is without an owner but belongs to the 
ruler of the state. A late text, the fifteenth-century Prasnottara - 
srdmkacara , 3 contains a provision that if a man is unable to leave 
alone money or other valuables which have been dropped on the 
ground he should devote them to the performance of pilja in the 
Jaina temple. 

It should be remembered that theft is also one of the seven 
vyasanas and is treated in many Digambara works under that head. 


Various preliminary classifications, all summarized in the Nava- 
pada-prakarana, are current. Thus mention is made of twenty-four, 
ten, and eight divisions of kama all ascribed by Devagupta* to the 
Dharmartha-kamadhyayana of the Dasavaikalika-sutra ; Brahma 
(abstinence from sexual intercourse) is of eighteen kinds, nine 
relating to celestial females ( vaikriya ) and nine to terrestrial females 
{audarika). Maithuna (copulation) is twofold, relating to the 
vaikriya and audarika classes and the latter is again divided up into 
animal and human categories. Under this last head are distin- 
guished: sva-dara (one’s own wife or concubine), para-dara (any 
woman under the authority of another man), and vesya{ a prostitute 
who is considered to have no owner). 

1 KA 335. 2 sohA iv. 46—49. 

3 Prasnottara-sravakacara , xiv. 6. 4 NPP 48-30. 



Further the standpoint from which the whole subject is treated 
is only understandable on the basis of three sexes (an assumption 
common to ancient Hinduism and Buddhism) expressed in Jainism 
in the theory of the three sex urges (mda) — pum, stri, napumsaka. 1 
The triad of male, female, and androgyne seems to conserve 
memories of an earlier stage of society in which the hermaphrodite 
was accorded a role of special importance . 2 Mirrored in the gram- 
matical categories of the language it offered a neat response to the 
desire for schematization. 

The brahma-wata differs from all the other vows in its double 
formulation : positive in the sense of ‘contentment with one’s own 
wife’ (sva-dara-santosd) and negative as ‘avoidance of the wives of 
others’ ( a-para-dara~gamana ). In the former case the translation 
‘wife’ rather than ‘wives’ or ‘women’ has been chosen deliberately 
for reasons that will be apparent later, though in fact the issue of 
monogamy or polygamy continues to be debated in the texts, de- 
spite a social context in which polygamy is the natural prerogative 
of the well-to-do. Some authorities hold that of the five aticaras 
listed below only the last three can be said to transgress this vow 
in its negative formulation. 

The traditional designations of these aticaras are : 

(i) intercourse with a woman temporarily taken to wife 
(itvara-parigrhita-gamana ) ; 

(ii) intercourse with an unmarried woman ( a-parigrhita - 
gamana ) ; 

(iii) love-play (ananga-krida) ; 

(iv) match-making (para-vivaha-karana) ; 

(v) excessive predilection for the pleasures of the senses 
( kama-bhoga-twrabhilasa ) . 

For the third and fourth aticaras the designations may be said to 
be invariable and the interpretation substantially the same. Under 
varying labels two quite separate views on the meaning of the 
fifth are apparent. Most of the earlier Svetambaras — and it would 

1 The translation ‘androgyne’ rather than ‘neuter’ seems to respond best to the 
usage of the Jaina texts. 

2 Cf. Jean Przylusld, La Grande Deesse (Paris, 1950), p. 182: Entrela Grande 
Mere et le dieu suprime , pere de tons les fores, on trouve une divinite in term ^dt air e 
androgyne. Or leprfore est semhlable an dieu. On ne doit done pas fore surpris de ren- 
contrer a c 6 te de la Vdnus hermaphrodite . . . des pr fores bissexues on supposes tels. . . , 
Les devins itaient considdrds comine des androgynes. II est possible qu'en theorie tout 
devin dut fore androgyne. . . , 



seem from the wording of the Upasaka-dasah itself that their 
interpretation is nearer to the intention of the canon — hold that it 
refers to the pleasures that can be obtained from the eye and ear 
and the senses of taste, smell, and touch. This is the view offered 
by Abhayadeva , 1 Devagupta, and Yasodeva; anditis favoured as an 
alternative by Municandra. Haribhadra 2 had used it in combina- 
tion with the second interpretation (favoured by the later Svetam- 
baras and all Digambaras) that the aticara merely refers to excessive 
venery. It is in the treatment of the first and second aticaras that 
most uncertainty, sometimes provoked by textual variants, pre- 
vails. Samantabhadra 3 and Aiadhara are noteworthy as the 
exponents of an aberrant tradition that fuses these two trans- 
gressions into one and inserts in the missing space of the table a 
totally novel item: vitatva (obscene language). 

Naturally the first and second aticaras cannot apply to women. 
To rob a co-wife of a night with the husband that should properly 
be hers, to make advances to her husband when he has taken a vow 
of brahmacarya , or — though this would more properly be con- 
sidered a bhanga — to take a lover are named as offences that may 
be substituted for them. The distinction of sva-dara-santo§a and 
para-dara-virati is of course only valid for men . 4 Except for A^ad- 
hara 5 no Digambara writer makes reference to aticaras committed 
by women. 

Siddhasena Ganin , 6 in a definition that imposes a harsh precision 
on ideas in which animistic concepts are fused, classifies maithuna 
as animate ( sa-cetana ) and inanimate ( acetana ) : 

Sa-cetana\ (i) of a man, with a female (celestial, human, or 
animal) ; 

(ii) of a man, with another man or with an androgyne. 
This includes masturbation as well as homosexu- 

(iii) masturbation by a woman or use of a plant root as 
an artificial phallus. 

Acetana : (i) of a man, with the statue of a woman (celestial, 
human, or animal) fashioned in plaster, wood, stone, 
or leather, or in the form of a painting ; 

1 P(A) 16. 2 Av (H), p, 82.56. 

4 YS iii. 94 (p. 558). 5 SDhA iv. 58. 

' 3 RK iii. 14. 

T (S) vii. 11 (p. 78), 


(ii) with other inanimate objects such as the current of 
a stream or clay; 

(iii) of a woman, with an inanimate phallus of wood or 
with other artificial devices. 

The introduction of the concepts sa-cetana and acetana into the 
content of this anu-vrata seems to be an innovation as it does not 
appear in the main stream of the Svetambara commentaries, but it 
recurs among the Digambaras, and Amitagati, for example, refers 
to females, human, animal, and inanimate . 1 

(i) Itvara-parigrhita-gamana. The first element of the 
compound raises numerous difficulties. Siddhasena Ganin 2 offers 
two explanations: either itvara (itvari, itvarika ) signifies a harlot 
or else the word is used elliptically for itvara-kalam , implying a 
woman taken for a short time. In any event he regards the aticara 
as prohibiting intercourse with a prostitute if she is being kept by 
one man since for a limited period she has ceased to be common 
property. Haribhadra , 3 too, favours the interpretation ‘a kept 
woman 1 , and Abhayadeva, Ya^odeva, Hemacandra, and Siddha- 
sena Suri take the same view. This transgression has the character 
of an aticara , being both a bhanga because the kept woman, in the 
mind of her lover, has become his property and been assimilated 
to the status of a temporary wife, and yet not a bhanga since she 
will in fact revert to being a prostitute when her temporary con- 
tract expires . 4 Asadhara , 5 who calls this offence itvarika-gamana , 
follows closely the explanations of Hemacandra but extends the 
meaning of itvarika to include any woman who has become 
‘ownerless' through the loss of her husband and who leads a dis- 
orderly life. The parallel offence in Samantabhadra’s 6 list seems 
from Prabhacandra’s comment to refer to intercourse with any 
unchaste woman. For Camundaraya , 7 and presumably for the 
other Digambara authorities who distinguish this aticara from the 
next, it refers simply to the frequentation of prostitutes. 

(ii) A-parigrhita-gamana. For Siddhasena Ganin 8 this 
designation covers intercourse with any ‘ownerless’ woman 
whether she be a whore, or a married woman whose husband is 
absent, or any other woman outside the control of her family. The 
same acceptation is given to the term by Haribhadra, Abhayadeva, 

1 Sr (A) xii. 77. 2 T (S) vii. 23 (p. 108). 3 Av (H), p. 8 25a. 

4 YS iii. 94 (p. 555). 5 SDhA iv. 58. 6 RK iii. 14. 

7 CS, p. 6. 8 T (S) vii. 23 (p. 108). 



Ya^odeva, Hemacandra, and Siddhasena Suri. It is an aticara of 
sva-dara-santosa. A Digambara interpretation is available only 
from Camundaraya , 1 who holds that this offence is committed with 
an ‘ownerless’ woman who is a wanton. Devendra 2 understands by 
a-parigrhita ‘a widow’. 

(iii) Ananga-krIda. Siddhasena Ganin’s 3 explanation of this 
seems to overlap with the following aticara. He understands by it 
a combination of methods to heighten sexual passion: the use of 
artificial phalli made of wood, leather, clay, and other constituents, 
caressing the sexual organs, pulling the hair, biting and marking 
with the nails. Such practices he says, result in disease for the 
persons who give way to them. Haribhadra’s 4 definition is virtually 
the same: caressing a woman after coitus in order to re-inflame 
desire, and with Abhayadeva s he offers in addition an alternative 
interpretation : toying (krida) with parts of the body — the breasts, 
loins, armpits or face — other than the sexual organs (literally 
an-anga ‘not the organ’) ; Hemacandra and Siddhasena Suri leave 
the choice open between this second version and that of Siddha- 
sena Ganin. This offence may be regarded as an aticara not a 
bhanga because it refers to caresses and love-play, and not to the 
complete sexual act . 6 The Digambara authorities, including in this 
case Asadhara , 7 understand this aticara to include various sexual 
deviations, particularly fellatio and cunnilinguism. 

(iv) Kama-bhoga-tIvrabhilasa. The conventional Sve- 
tambara description of this offence visualizes a man who abandons 
all other thoughts and occupations in order to concentrate his 
every energy on the satisfaction of his sexual desires, and when 
his virility fails him has recourse to aphrodisiacs in the hope of 
attaining the potency of a stallion or bull elephant . 8 Such is the 
explanation furnished in almost identical language by Siddhasena 
Ganin, Hemacandra, Siddhasena Suri, and Asadhara. But as has 
already been noted this concept does not seem to be the most 
original. Haribhadra 8 explains that hama means the senses of sight 
and hearing and bhoga those of taste, smell, and touch; the aticara 
would therefore amount to ‘an excessive propensity for the 
pleasures afforded by the five senses’ ; but these lead on to the 
inflaming of passion ‘by using the nails or teeth or lotus leaves and 

3 T (S) vii. 23 (p. 109). 

6 YS iii. 94. 




1 CS, p. 6. 3 SrDK, pt. ii, p. 95. 

4 Av (H), p. 825a. 5 P (A) 16. 

7 SDhA iv. 58. 8 Av (H), p. 8256. 



by taking aphrodisiacs or by caressing the woman’s pudenda’. 
This is also the view of Abhayadeva 1 and Ya^odeva, who point out 
that the vow of sva-dara-santosa implies that copulation should 
never be prolonged once desire is appeased. The vow is sullied if 
a man seeks to prolong his gratification by the use of aphrodisiacs 
or of the methods taught in the kama-sastras . 2 Apart from Asadhara 
the Digambaras, who prefer the designation kama-twrabhinivesa (or 
in Samantabhadra’s case vipula-trsa ), regard the aticara as ‘an 
excessive manifestation of sexual passion.’ 3 Devendra 4 * understands 
by this ‘lip-biting and other love-play’ or else the 84 poses of 

(v) Para- vivaha-karana. Siddhasena Gaping notingthatthe 
abstention from this implied in the taking of the vrata may seem 
strange since a householder must of necessity marry off his children, 
finds an analogy in the duality of the vow itself. A layman promises 
by sva-dara-santosa to abstain from the enjoyment of all women 
save his own wife; similarly he is to abstain from arranging the 
marriages of other people’s offspring but not of his own. The use of 
the word para implies, says Haribhadra, 6 that he is actuated by 
a relationship of affection or by desire for the bride-price ( kanya - 
phala). Abhayadeva 7 further comments that the question of bride- 
price does not arise for a person of right faith whilst an unbeliever 
will not have taken the vows. Plowever, he must ensure that his own 
daughters are married off since otherwise they would be led into 
evil courses. Abhayadeva also notes the view held by some authori- 
ties that this aticara implies an obligation to monogamy since it 
excludes a second marriage ( para-vivaha ) of oneself: in fact the 
very phrase sva-dara-santosa would indicate that to take a second 
wife implies dissatisfaction with the first. 8 Hemacandra 9 and Si- 
ddhasena Suri, summarizing all the preceding considerations, em- 
phasize that in the case of one’s children to marry them represents 
the lesser of two evils. There is an element of fault in it, but to 
neglect to do so would be worse still. In general, para-vivaha - 
karana is a hhahga if one has in mind that its result is copulation, 
but not a hhahga if one thinks of it only as a ceremony. Devendra 10 
interprets para as parakiya ‘those belonging to others’ and so by 

1 P(A) 15. 

4 SrDK, pt. ii, p. 95. 

7 P (A) 16. 

10 SrDK, pt. ii, p. 95- 

0 737 

2 P (Y) v. 16. 

5 T (S) vii. 23 (p. 108). 
8 Ibid. (p. 26). 


3 CS, p. 7. 

6 Av (H), p. 8256. 

9 YS iii. 94 (p. S5&)- 



definition excludes from the aticara the marrying of one’s own 
children. In this he is in accord with the Digambara tradition 
as explicitly stated by Pujyapada, 1 and implied by Camundaraya. 
Asadhara 2 * follows the detail of Hemacandra’s explanations. The 
Avasyaka CurnP has evidently preserved a very ancient tradition 
when it relates this aticara to beasts as well as to men. Thus to 
say ‘let the bull be released in the go-dhand would be to transgress 
the vrata in the same way as if one said ‘let the nubile girl be 
wedded’. Later writers treat such advice as a contravention of 
the anartha-danda-vrata. 

Siddhasena Ganin 4 notes a variant reading for the Tattvartha - 
siitra which would lay down the first two aticaras to be itvarikd- 
gamana and parigrhitdparigrhita-gamana. The former would then 
apply to intercourse with a low or contemptible woman (kutsita- 
samkirna-yosit) explained as ‘one who is mentally or physically 
defective or who has entered the religious life’ ; it is reprehensible 
because it might incur punishment from the ruler and disparage- 
ment from the public. The second aticara would then be ‘inter- 
course with a prostitute or with a married woman separated from 
her husband’. 

There is some uncertainty as to which aticaras belong to sva- 
dara-santosa and which to para-dara-virati , though by general 
agreement the last three are common to both. As to the first two 
offences, three different opinions 5 prevail: 

r. That both are aticaras of sva-dara-santosa but not of para- 
dara-virati : this is often referred to as ‘Haribhadra Suri’s 
opinion’. 6 

2. That the first is an aticara only of para-dara-virati and the 
second only of sva-dara-santosa. 

3. That both are aticaras of para-dara-virati but not of sva-dara- 
santosa. The authority for this is a Prakrit verse quoted in the 
Sravaka-dharma-pancaiaka : 

para-dara-vajjino panca honti tinni u sa-dara-santutthe 
itthie tinni panca va hhanga-vigappehini aiyara 

This view, like the first, is at least as old as the Avasyaka Curnid 

1 T (P) vii. 28. 

4 T (S) vii. 23 (p. 109). 

6 PS 277 (p. 73). 

SDhA iv. 58. 

3 Av Cu, pt. ii, p. 292. 
5 Y£ iii. 94 (p. 557). 

7 Av Cu, pt. ii, p. 291. 



As has been noted elsewhere, all sexual intercourse is to be con- 
demned. At best, in the words of Yasodeva , 1 a layman may be per- 
mitted, if he cannot resist the sex urge but being fearful of sin 
(papa-bhiru) does not wish to be unchaste, to have recourse to a 
limited use of his own wife. A^adhara 2 concedes that if he fails to 
be convinced that meditation and not copulation is the remedy for 
the disease of lust he may seek such satisfaction. The fever of 
concupiscence is no more quenched by satisfaction, says Hema- 
candra , 3 than fire is extinguished by oblations of ghee. The con- 
cession may in the general view of the acaryas go further than the 
use of one’s wife and include recourse to prostitutes, but an anya- 
stri (a married woman, or an unmarried girl in the care of her 
parents) must always be left alone. 

Enjoyment of women betakes of the nature of affliction because 
like fever it brings on thirst, and delirium', and exhaustion of the 
body. The passionate pleasure of the encounter can give no real 
satisfaction . 4 Two reasons 5 * are alleged as a basis for the condemna- 
tion of all carnal contact; that in a moral sense the calm of the soul 
is disturbed by the increase of the passions of love and hate ; and 
that in a physical sense the sexual act is always accompanied by 
hirnsafi The second is the expression of a concept which goes back 
to the canonical texts 7 and on which the Digambaras particularly 
expatiate, adducing it in support of the contention that a woman 
cannot attain moksa in this life. It is held that there are always pre- 
sent in the navel, armpits, and pudenda of a woman myriads of 
minute living creatures of which large numbers perish during 
every act of coitus. Thus Amrtacandra 8 likens the act to the intro- 
duction of a heated iron bar into a tube containing grains of sesa- 
mum and adds that it has similar destructive results. Anaiiga-krlda 
multiplies the risk of himsa. The Svetambaras who recognize the 
possibility of stri-mukti do not often touch on this subject, which, 
however, finds a place in Hemacandra’s^ exposition of the brahma- 
vrata. Concerned as often in other places to seek support for the 

1 P (Y) 15. 2 SDhA iv. 51. 3 ii. 81. 

4 SDhA iv. 53-54. s Ibid. 55, 

6 It is curious to note that Jainism concurs with Christianity in condemning 

for a very different motivation, all sexual intercourse. Cf. De Sanchez, De matri- 

monii sacro Sacramento. * Non desunt ex doctoribus catholicis qui doceant actum 

conjugalem non posse absque culpa saltern veniali exerceri 

7 See Schubring, Das Mahanisiha-Sutta , p. 70. 8 PASU 108. 

9 Yg ii. 79. 


Jaina concept in outside sources, he quotes Vatsyayana’s Kama - 
sutra for the statement that ‘tiny worms generated in the blood are 
to be found in a woman’s sexual organs where they produce an 
itching ’. 1 For this apparent attempt at rationalization there would 
seem to be no justification in the earlier texts. 

A distinction is sometimes made between sthula-maitkuna and 
suksma-maithuna . According to a definition that comes from a late 
authority 2 * the former is enjoyment of women, human or celestial, 
in mind, word, or action whilst the latter implies a slight exciting 
of the sense-organs under the stimulus of desire. 

From the oldest stratum of Jainism comes the injunction to 
avoid, as the Sravaka-prajnapti 3 puts it, ‘the delusive sight of the 
bodies of women’. Devagupta and his commentator Ya^odeva* 
mention a special yatana or striving for those who seek to perfect 
the brahma-vrata : 

chann' -ariga-damsane phdsane ya go-mutta-gahana-ku-ssumine 
jayand savvattha kare indiya-avaloyane ca taha 

In other words a man should never stare at, or touch, the sexual 
organs of a woman or vice versa. Against the background of a 
pantheistic concept of the universe this interdiction is naturally 
extended to the animal creation. It is therefore forbidden to stimu- 
late a cow to urinate by rubbing its vagina; the urine should be 
collected when it is discharged naturally. Again, when a seminal 
emission occurs during sleep the mind should be concentrated in 
meditation on the sacred doctrine after recitation of the panca- 
namaskara . 

Amongst the Digambara writers who do not detail the aticaras of 
the brahma-vrata Karttikeya 5 defines it as ‘regarding the wife of 
another as one’s own sister or daughter and realizing that the bodies 
of women are full of impurity and that beauty and charm can only 
delude the mind’. For Vasunandin 6 it implies the complete renun- 
ciation of anahga-hrida and the abstinence from sexual relations 
during the parvan days. The arrows of Kamadeva are, he says, 
fatal to a righteous life. 

As will have become evident, the aticaras of this vrata cover most 
aspects of sexual deviations. Adultery ( para-dara ) and fornication 

1 Y£> ii. 8o. 2 Ratnasekhara on Sraddha-pratikyamana-sutra, 15. 

3 grPr 274. 4 p (Y) I7 ( p . 73). s ka. 337 _8. 

6 Sr (V) 211. 



(vesya) also figure among the seven vyasanas and are treated at 
length under that head in the popular literature. But the offence 
which incurs the keenest reprobation does not figure in any 
category. From the earliest days of Jainism there is evident an 
almost obsessional horror of incest. Thus Haribhadra, 1 repeating 
the words of the Avasyaka Curni> says that if the brahma-vrata 
were not enforced there would be a grave danger of a man having 
carnal connexion with his mother or sister or daughter through 
unrestrained lust. A series Of cautionary tales to drive home this 
point are recounted by almost every writer on sravakacara and 
any reference to marriage makes exogamy mandatory. 


This vow of non- attachment which alone of the anu-vratas has 
no correspondent among the maha-vratas of monks refers both to 
internal ( abhyantara ) and external ( bahyd ) parigraha. There are 
fourteen varieties of the former which are listed by Am^acandra, 2 
Somadeva, and A^adhara among the Digambaras and by Siddha- 
sena Ganin 3 among the Svetambaras. They are in fact largely 
irrelevant to the consideration of the vrata, but for the sake of 
completeness will be noted here (they of course comprise the 

(8) displeasure, dejection ( arati ) ; 

(9) fear (bhaya) ; 

(10) sorrow (soka)\ 

(1 1) disgust (jugupsa) ; 

(12) male sex urge (pum-veda); 

(13) female sex urge ( stn-veda ); 

(14) androgyne sex urge (napum- 

It is with the ten or (in the more current enumeration) nine 

1 Av (H), p. 8236. 2 PASU 1 16. 

kasayas and no-kasayas ) : 

(1) false belief (mith- 

yatva ) ; 

(2) anger (krodha ) ; 

(3) pride ( mdna ) ; 

(4) deceit (maya) ; 

(5) greed (lobha); 

(6) sense of the absurd 

(hasya ) ; 

(7) pleasure (rati ) ; 

3 T (S) vii. 24. 


external objects of parigraha 

(1) land ( ksetra ) ; 

(2) houses (vdstu ) ; 

(3) silver (hiranya ) ; 

(4) gold ( suvarna ) ; 

(5) diverse commodities 

(dhana ) ; 

(6) grain ( dhanya ) ; 

(7) servants and birds 

(1 dvipada ) ; 

(8) livestock (catuspada ) ; 

(9) furniture (kupya). 

that the vow is concerned. These are : 

(1) land (ksetra); 

(2) houses (vastu ) ; 

(3) gold coins (hiranya ) ; 

(4) gold (suvarna ) ; 

(5) livestock (dhana ) ; 

(6) grain (dhanya ) ; 

(7) maidservants (dasi) ; 3 

(8) menservants(^«); 3 

(9) cloth (kupya) ; 

(10) beds (iayydsana). 

Detailed classifications of all these types of possessions drawn 
from the canonical literature are found in almost all the $vetam- 
bara authorities 4 and although they seem to have no direct relation 
with the interpretation of the vrata they will be enumerated here. 
The oldest distinction is that of sacitta (animate) and acitta 
(inanimate) objects. 5 

1. Land; this is of three types: 

(a) setu-ksetra — land irrigated artificially by norias (araghafta) 
or other means ; 

(b) ketu-ksetra — dry farming land depending on rain ; 

(c) misra — irrigated land which also receives rain. 

2. Houses; again of three types: 

(a) excavated (khata ) ; 

(b) raised (ucchrita ) ; 

(c) a combination of both (khdtocchrita). 

3. The unanimous testimony of the Svetambara texts interprets 
hiranya as ‘silver, minted or unminted’ and, in fact, the later works 
from Devendra’s £raddha-dina-krtya 6 onwards replace hiranya by 

1 NPP 58. 2 CS, p. 7. 

3 The translation ‘servants* is based on the author’s own explanation bhftya- 
stri-puru$a-varga but dasa and dasi are certainly in many instances better trans 
lated by ‘slaves’. See PremI, op. cit., pp. 546-53. 

4 e.g. P (A) 17, 18. 5 e.g. 3 rPr 275. 6 &rDK p. 98. 


less ambiguous terms. For the Digambara deary as it seems always 
to have meant ‘coins whether of gold or silver’. 

4. There is no hesitation in the interpretation of the word as 
‘gold’, for the Digambaras ‘unminted,’ for the Svetambaras 
‘minted or unminted’. 

5. The Svetambaras, giving a very broad sense to dhana> class it 
into four categories: 1 

(a) What can be counted (ganima) : such as nutmegs ( jati-phala\ 
betel nuts (puga-phala) ; 

(b) What can be contained ( dharima ) : such as saffron ( kunkuma ), 
molasses ( guda ) ; 

(c) What can be measured (meya) : such as salt, ghee, oil; 

(d) What can be divided up ( paricchedya ): such as gems and 

6. There is no unanimity on the number of varieties of dhanya : 
the earlier £vetambaras name seven or eight sorts, Hemacandra 
and Siddhasena Suri fix the figure at seventeen, whilst Devendra 
(and with him later writers such as Ratnasekhara and Ya^ovijaya) 
prefers a list of twenty-four drawn from the Dasavaikalika - 
niryukti. Here is Hemacandra’s list: 2 

(a) rice (vrthi) ; (;') Italian millet, Panicum itali- 

cum ( priyangu ) ; 

(b) barley ( yava ) ; (k) the grain Paspalum scrabicu- 

latum (kodrava ) ; 

(c) lentils ( masura ) ; (/) hemp {sand) ; 

(d) wheat {godhuma ) ; (m) a kind of pulse (kalaya ) ; 

(a) the pulse Phaseolus (n) the pulse Dolichos uniflorus 

Mungo {mudga ) ; {kulattha ) ; 

(/) the pulse Phaseolus (0) the pulse Phaseolus aconiti - 

radiatus {masa ) ; folius { makusta ) ; 

(g) sesamum (tila); (p) ric e(sali); 

(h) the grain Panicum milia - (q) the pulse Cajanus indicus 

ceum ( anava ) ; ( adhaki ). 

(t) chickpeas {canaka) ; 

7 and 8. Dvipada is generally taken to include all the members of 
the household (wives, slaves, servants) and also domesticated birds 
such as parrots or peacocks. The oldest texts, for example, the 

1 P (A) 18 (p. 38). 

y£ iii. 95. 


Avasyaka Ciirni 1 mention alongside dvipada and catmpada a cate- 
gory of apada objects including carts and trees. Carts figure at a 
much later date in the dvipada class of the $raddha-dina~krtya , 2 
inappropriately in the context as they cannot be said to propagate 

9. Kupya is used by the £vetambaras 3 to mean household 
chattels ( grhopaskara ) made of iron, copper, brass, tin, lead, 
earthenware, bamboo, or wood, such as pots and pans, buckets, 
beds, chairs. It also includes carts and ploughs. The Digambaras 4 
seem to understand the expression to mean what might be called 
luxury goods : sandal [candana), silk (ksauma), cotton cloth (karpasa), 
silk dresses (kauseya). 

Ratna^ekhara, 5 who is later than the period we are discussing, 
recalls a classification of the householder’s property from the 
Dasavaikalika-niryukti where six categories are distinguished: 

(1) dhanya— of which there are twenty-four kinds; 

(2) ratna — a comprehensive list again of twenty-four kinds: 
gold, silver, brass, tin, iron, lead, minted coins, semi-precious 
stones, diamonds, precious stones, pearls, coral, conches, 
aloe wood, sandalwood, cotton cloth, woollen cloth, timber, 
hides, ivory, yaks’ tails, perfumes, and resin ( dravyausadha ) ; 

(3) sthdvara — the three kinds of immovable property are : land 
(presumably arable land), houses, and orchard land (torn- 
gana explained as ‘groves of coconut and similar trees’) ; 

(4) dvipada — there are two kinds of bipeds : human beings and 
two-wheeled carts ; 

(5) catmpada — ten varieties of livestock are listed as quadrupeds : 
oxen, buffaloes, camels, goats, sheep, thoroughbred horses 
(1 asva } i ,e.jatya) } ordinary horses (ghotaka } i.e, ajatya ), mules, 
asses, and elephants ; 

(6) kupya — implements and utensils of various kinds, no figure 
being given. 

In the traditional Svetambara view the aticaras of this vrata are: 

(i) exceeding the limits set for land and houses by incorpora- 
tion (yojanena ksetra-vdstu-pramandtikrama) ; 

1 Av Cu, pt. ii, p. 292. 2 3 rDK, p. 99. 3 Y& iii. 95. 

4 CS, p. 7. s Ratnasefchara on Sraddha-pratikramona-sutra , 18. 



(ii) exceeding the limits set for gold and silver by donation 
( pradanena hiranya-suvarna pramanatikrama ) ; 

(iii) exceeding the limits set for grain and other foodstuffs by 
packaging together ( bandhanena dhana-dhanya-pramanati- 
krama ) ; 

(iv) exceeding the limits set for bipeds and quadrupeds by 
natural reproduction (karanena dvipada-catuspada-pramana- 
tikrama ) ; 

(v) exceeding the limits set for household chattels by combina- 
tion (bhavena kupya-pramanatikrama ). 

All these aticaras consist in using various expedients to circum- 
vent the interdictions which devolve from a man’s self-imposed 
restrictions on the extent of his property. Any overt breach of this 
vrata which is a form of pratyakhyana would constitute a bhanga. 

For those ^vetambara writers who are influenced by the Tatt - 
vdrtha-siitra — Siddhasena Ganin 1 and Haribhadra — and in general 
for the Digambara authorities, the aticaras imply no more than wil- 
fully exceeding the limits set for the nine categories of possessions 
ranged under the five heads above. Samantabhadra, 2 though aware 
of these categories, has established a totally novel series of aticaras : 

(i) ati-vahana — out of greed of gain driving oxen or other 
beasts of burden for" a greater distance than they can com- 
fortably go ; 

(ii) ati-samgraha — hoarding of grain or other commodities in 
the hope of making a very high profit, so as to obtain a big 
return on capital; 

(iii) ati-vismaya — extreme disappointment at having sold some- 
thing at a price involving a loss ; 

(iv) ati-lobha — excessive greed expressed in wishing for a 
higher price when a good price has been obtained; 

(v) ati-bhara-vahana — overloading of beasts of burden through 
greed of gain. 

More than any other similar provisions of the moral code these 
aticaras are designed exclusively for the trading community ; and 
the fact that the last of them is little more than a repetition of the 
fifth aticara of the ahimsa-vrata emphasizes their secondary charac- 
ter. In fact Samantabhadra’s innovation in this field was imitated 
by none of his successors except Sakalakirti. 

1 T (S) vii. 24. 2 RK iii. 16. 


Returning to the original enumeration of the aticaras we find the 
following elucidations in the commentators : 1 

(i) Yojanena ksetra-vAstu-pramAnAtikrama. The 
assumption is that a man has taken a vow of pratyakhyana that he 
will not possess more than a given number of houses or fields. 
Suppose then, for example, that he acquires an additional field; 
and to avoid breaking the letter of his undertaking incorporates 
this with a field already in his ownership by removing a boundary 
fence. Though he will still have the same number of fields he 
will have committed an aticara but not a bhanga of his vow. 

(ii) Pradanena hiranya-suvarna-pramAnAtikrama. 
In' this case if a man, perhaps as a gift from a satisfied prince, 
acquires gold or silver in excess of the limits which he has imposed 
on himself, for a period of say four months, he may give it to a 
third party — to his wife, for example — on the understanding that 
he will get it back when the time limit of his pratyakhyana has 
passed. Here again he will not have broken the letter of his vow but 
will, all the same, have committed an aticara. 

(iii) Bandhanena dhana-dhAnya-pramAnAtikrama. 
Suppose that someone has imposed on himself pratyakhyana in 
respect of the acquisition of grain and other commodities for a 
period of four months, but is about to receive additional stocks. 
If he then goes along and has these tied up in bundles with ropes 
and leaves them where they are until he has sold the stocks 
already on his premises he will in a similar way have been guilty of 
an aticara. 

(iv) Karanena dvipada-catuspada-pramAnAtikrama. 
Here it is assumed that a man has vowed not to increase his live- 
stock, say, for a year. If they were allowed to breed freely in the 
meantime he would break the vrata. completely; accordingly he 
arranges that a cow, for example, will be in calf when the period of 
his pratyakhyana expires but will not actually have calved. Though 
there is thus a potential increase in numbers he will be only guilty 
of an aticara , 

(v) BhAvena kupya-pramAnAtikrama. If a man has 
undertaken to limit the number of his household utensils and later 
acquires additional ones he will be guilty of an aticara if, to keep 
the numbers the same, he has some of them welded together, two 

1 e.g. P (A) 18; NPP 63; Yg iii, 96. 


by two. On the subject of kupyci an opinion is also recorded by 
the seventeenth-century writer Ya^ovijaya 1 that here the fictitious 
pretext invoked is donation to a third party. 

Certain writers devote themselves to an assessment of the nature 
oi parigraha. The Digambaras explain it as murcha , the ‘hallucina- 
tion’ of material possessions; and murcha in the definition of 
Amrtacandra 2 is the development of acquisitive egotism (j mamatva ) 
arising from the operation of delusion (moha). In all forms of 
parigraha, internal and external, himsa is implicit. By a graduated 
progression the internal parigraha can be eliminated; whilst the 
external form, if it cannot be completely extirpated, can at least be 
rendered as exiguous as possible. For Amitagati 3 every arambha in 
the world stimulates parigraha , and conversely if this is curtailed 
harmful activity is reduced. Siddhasena Ganin* expatiates on the 
evil results to which murcha can lead. In lust for gain son will 
murder father, and brother brother. It is for this reason that men 
bear false witness and rob on the highways. 


As has already been noted, the original iSvetambara grouping of 
the guna-vratas covers a certain number of long-term restraints 
whilst the siksa-watas represent recurring exercises in self-dis- 
cipline, but it is only the dig-vrata that is accorded an exact pendant 
among the latter : the desavakasika-vrata, which in the Digambara 
lists is made to follow directly after it. Except in their temporal 
and spatial limits these two vows are identical. 

The nomenclature of the aticaras of the dig-vrata is, to all intents 
and purposes, the same for ^vetambaras and Digambaras : 

(i) going beyond the limits in an upward direction ( urdhva-dik - 
pramanatikrama ) ; 

(ii) going beyond the limits in a downward direction ( adho-dik - 
pramandtikrama ) ; 

(iii) going beyond the limits in a horizontal direction (tiryag-dik- 
pramanatikramd ) ; 

(iv) expanding the limits of the area of movement ( ksetra-vrddhi ) ; 

(v) forgetfulness (smrty-antardhana). 

1 Dharma-samgraha, 48. 

3 £r (A) vi. 75. 

2 PASU iii-28. 
4 T (S) vii. 12. 



The fundamental idea of the vrata is to reduce quantitatively a 
man’s sinful actions by circumscribing the area in which they can 
be committed. To express this, one simile, incorporated already in 
the Avasyaka Curni> is repeated from author to author among the 
Svetambaras and is used by some Digambaras, notably Samanta- 
bhadra and Asadhara: 

tattaya-gola-kappo pamatta-jwo ’ nivariya-ppasaro 
savvattha kim na kujjapavam tak-karananugao 1 

Like a heated iron sphere the layman will inevitably, as a result of 
pramada , bring about the destruction of living creatures every- 
where, whether he is walking, or eating, or sleeping, or working. 
The more his movements are restricted the fewer trasa-jivas and 
sthdvara-jivas will perish. 

Although the primary effect of this vrata is to curtail travel 
(Devagupta 2 expressly stipulates that certain roads are to be 
avoided in order not to destroy frogs) it has also a special associa- 
tion with the preceding ami-vrata. Thus the Dvadaianupreksa 3 
emphasizes that the complete restraint thereby imposed makes it 
possible to extirpate lobha which is at the root of parigraha. 
Hemacandra 4 says that the dig-vrata , by putting the acquisition of 
gold and silver and other wealth often out of a man’s reach, will free 
him from the empire of greed, here chosen for an example, as the 
most tenacious of the papa-sthanas. 

Let us turn back to the individual aticdras : 

(i) Urdhva-dik-pramanatikrama. As it is forbidden to 
ascend a mountain or to climb to the summit of a tree, a ban on all 
upward movement outside very narrow limits — perhaps within 
one’s own house — would seem to be intended. Haribhadra 5 and 
Devagupta preserve a very primitive tradition found in the 
Avasyaka Curni : if a piece of jewellery is carried off by a monkey 
or a bird it is not permissible to transgress the limits one has im- 
posed for oneself by climbing up to seek it, but if it is dropped one 
may retrieve it. 

(ii) Adho-dik-pramanAtikrama. Again the limits appear 
to be set very narrowly. It is forbidden to descend into a well or the 
underground store of a village (grama-bhiimi-grha) if outside the 
limits fixed, even if something has been dropped there. 

1 Av Cu, pt. ii, p. 394. 

4 Y£ iii. 3. 

2 NPP 70. 3 KA 341. 

5 Av (H), p.[827 b. 



(iii) Tiryag-dik-pramAistatikrama. This for the Svetam- 
baras applies to normal travelling in all directions, north, south, 
east, and west; and the boundaries are set fairly wide. (In the 
explanation of the fifth aticara a figure of a 100 yojanas is given 
by way of example.) Digambara writers 1 refer to the demarcation 
of limits by the position of well-known seas, rivers, forests, moun- 
tains, and states, and to measurement by yojanas. At the same time 
they seem to attempt to maintain a parallelism with the two pre- 
ceding offences by citing as an instance of this aticara the act of 
entering a cave in a mountainside which is outside the limits set. 
In all three cases the transgression is an aticara if committed 
inadvertently, a bhanga if done deliberately. 

(iv) Ksetra-vRDDHI. This is universally explained as an 
attempt to evade one’s obligation by extending the limits in which 
freedom of movement is allowed. 

(v) Smrty-antardhana. Suppose that a man has set a limit 
of ioo yojanas for his movements in the eastern direction, but 
through inattention and carelessness has forgotten the figure he 
had decided on. Uncertain whether it was ioo or 50, he hesitates. 
If he then goes outside the radius of 100 yojanas he will have com- 
mitted a bhanga but owing to the state of mind induced by his 
uncertainty he will still be guilty of an aticara if he exceeds 50 
yojanas . 2 

The aticdras deal with the spatial but not the temporal limits of 
the vrata, which by contrast with those of the desavakasika-vrata — 
a few hours or at most a day — are considerable: not less than 
four months (naturally, as later texts show, the four months of the 
rainy season are intended) or a year or for one’s life long. 3 In the 
Ratna-karanda 4 the dig-vrata is defined as the determination, by 
circumscribing one’s range of movement, to desist from minor sin 
(1 ami-papa ) until death; and the lifelong character of this form of 
pratyakhyana seems implicit in certain other descriptions. A6adhara, s 
borrowing a phrase widely current to explain the significance of the 
samayika-vrata , says that in the dig-vrata a layman becomes like an 
ascetic (jay ate yativad grhi). 

In view of the close relationship between the dig-vrata and the 
desavakasika-vrata it is perhaps surprising that the aticdras of one 
have not been transposed to the other. Yet the only instance of this 

1 RK iii. 23. 2 P (A) 20 . 3 Av (H), p. 827a. 

4 RK iii. 22. 5 SDhA v. 3 . 


seems to be found in the Sravaka-dharma-pancasaka 1 ‘vajjai 
uddhaikkamam anayana-ppesanobhaya-visuddham y where anayana 
and presana are introduced from the desavakasika-wata. Abhaya- 
deva’s commentary on these words — that they imply the fetching 
or sending for something — is absorbed into Hemacandra’ s 2 exhaus- 
tive description. 


For this the older 3vetambara writers prefer a designation in- 
herited from the Upas aka- dasah: upabhoga-paribhoga-parimana- 
vrata. Its terms are thus defined : 3 

upabhoga — things used once or used internally such as food, 
flower garlands, betel, cooling pastes, unguents, incense, or 
such acts as bathing ; 

paribhoga — things that can be used repeatedly or used externally 
such as houses, furniture, women, clothes, jewellery, vehicles. 

If a modern term may be allowed to intrude here some items of 
the second category might roughly be classed as consumer durables. 
The words upabhoga and paribhoga are used with these meanings 
by all the &vetambara authorities except Hemacandra, and also in 
the Tattvartha-sutra and the Caritra-sara. With Hemacandra and 
the Digambaras the concepts remain the same, but the label 
upabhoga is attached to things used repeatedly whilst things used 
once are styled bhoga. Exceptionally Somadeva and Yasunandin do 
not adopt the expression upabhoga at all but retain paribhoga for 
things used repeatedly and employ bhoga for things used once. 

Two basic divisions of this vrata are recognized by the Svetam- 
baras: 4 it may refer to food eaten or to occupations pursued. The 
second aspect, expressed in a ban on the pursuit of fifteen cruel 
trades, is unknown to the Digambaras except A^adhara, 5 who for 
this theme is heavily indebted to Hemacandra. Other topics in- 
cluded at least by the Svetambaras under the bhogopabhoga-vrata 
are the ananta-kayas, the abhafyyas, and rdtri-bhojana. 

1 P (SrDh), 20. 2 Yg iii. 97. 3 P (Y) 2i. 

4 e.g. &rPr 285, 5 SDhA v. 21-23. 

As listed by the Svetambaras the aticaras are : 

(i) consuming sentient things {sacittahara) ; 

(ii) consuming what is connected with sentient things (sacitta- 
pratibaddhahard ) ; 

(iii) consuming uncooked vegetable products (apakvausadhi- 
bhaksana ) ; 

(iv) consuming partly cooked vegetable products ( duspakvau - 
sadhi-bhaksana ) ; 

(v) consuming ‘empty’ vegetable products ( tucchausadhi-bha - 
ksana ). 

For the third and fifth of these transgressions the Digambaras — 
and with them Haribhadra 1 (in the Dharma-bindu) and Hema- 
candra — substitute : 

(iii) consuming what is mixed with sentient things (sacitta- 
sammisrdhara ) ; 

(v) consuming what has been conserved by fermentation 

All these offences of course relate very narrowly to what is eaten. 
Amongst the Digambaras Somadeva 2 has made some modifica- 
tions in the list : thus the first aticdra refers to food that is prohibited 
(nisiddha) and the fifth to food the preparation of which has not 
been personally supervised ( aviksitd ). 

Samantabhadra 3 has preferred to establish a completely different 
list in which the aticaras are given a much wider interpretation: 

(i) lack of contempt for the poison of sensual pleasure {visaya- 
visato ’ nupeksa ); 

(ii) remembrance of it ( anusmrti) ; 

(iii) excessive desire for it in the present ( atilaulya ) ; 

(iv) excessive desire for it in the future ( atitrsa ) ; 

(v) excessive enjoyment of it (atyanubham). 

Sakalakirti alone follows Samantabhadra in this classification of the 

The conventional list of them shows certain divergencies of 
treatment : 

v (i) Sacittahara. The Svetambaras 4 define this as the eating 
1 DhB iii. 32. 2 Handiqui, p. 383. 3 RK iii. 44. 4 Y& iii. 98. 


of sentient things, that is, those containing prthvi-kayas, ap-kayas } 
or vanaspati-jtvas such as tubers ( kanda ) and roots (mula) or fruits. 
Siddhasena Ganin’s 1 commentary on the Tattvartha-sutra adds to 
this concept a mention of ananta-kayas . Camundaraya 2 understands 
by sacitta simply a vegetable organism (harita-kaya). 

(ii) Sacitta-pratibaddhahAra. Haribhadra 3 explains this 
as the eating of, for example, ripe fruits which are attached to a 
tree. Abhayadeva 4 offers another interpretation. A person may put 
a fruit such as a date in his mouth with the intention of eating the 
flesh which is acitta but not the stone which is sacitta . Even if he 
eats only the flesh he will have committed an aticara (not a bhanga) 
through this fact of putting it in his mouth. These two explana- 
tions are given by succeeding Svetambara authorities and by 
Asadhara . 5 Siddhasena Ganin 6 chooses a slightly different illustra- 
tion: he instances the eating of jujubes ( badara ) or udumbara fruits 
which are full of seeds or pips. The Digambara view — that of 
Pujyapada 7 and Camundaraya, for example — is that this aticara 
implies the consumption of anything that has been in contact with 
or near to sentient things. 

(iii) Apakvausadhi -beaks ana. Haribhadra 3 abstains from 
comment on this as unnecessary but records a variant reading 
( pathantara ) : sacitta-sammisrahara. Discussing the Sravaka-dharma- 
pancasaka, Abhayadeva 8 notes that this and the two following 
aticaras refer to grain and pulses whilst the two preceding ones 
were concerned with fruit and roots. It may be asked why apa- 
kvausadhi-bhaksana is an aticara for if the substance involved is acitta 
no fault can be found with it and if sacitta it will already have been 
covered by the preceding aticaras. This offence has specifically 
the character of an aticara in relation to the vrata if it is done in 
the belief that even if flour is not cooked the fact that it has been 
ground will have destroyed its sacitta element. The same view is 
expressed by Ya^odeva and Siddhasena Suri. 

(iv) Duspakvausadhi -bh aksana. ForHaribhadra 3 andfor 
Siddhasena Ganin this means ‘half-cooked grains or pulses’ in 
which each individual grain, which may not have been cooked, will 
be sentient. Hemacandra 9 explains that it is because of the presence 

1 T (S) vii. 2 CS, p. 13. 3 Av (H), p. 8z8 b. 

4 P (A) az. 5 SDhA v. 20. 6 T (S) vii. 30. 

7 T (P) vii. 35. 8 P (A) 22. 5 Yg iii. 98. 


at the same time of the acitta cooked grains and the sacitta un- 
cooked grains that the offence is an aticara. On the Digambara 
side Camundaraya 1 considers daspakvausadhi to mean ‘cooked rice 
spoiled either by excessive moisture or because the grains in the 
centre are still raw’. A^adhara 2 explains that whether it is under- 
cooked or over-cooked some grains will remain raw and therefore 

(v) Tucchausadhi-bhaksana. The traditional definition of 
this, that of Haribhadra 3 for example, is ‘the eating of such grains 
and pulses as undeveloped mudga from which there is little satis- 
faction of hunger whilst at the same time much harm is done’. 
In this connexion Devagupta thinks of sugar-cane and other pro- 
ducts which are unsatisfying even if eaten in quantity. Abhayadeva , 4 
Ya^odeva, and Siddhasena Suri note that if an ‘empty 5 product 
were apakva or duspakva there would be an aticara in any case ; but, 
even if it is properly cooked, a person eating it will still have com- 
mitted an aticara inasmuch as he consumes it out of gourmandise 
after rendering it acitta by cooking, even though it does not serve 
the useful purpose of satisfying hunger. He will have kept the vrata 
in the letter whilst infringing it in the spirit. 

(iii) Sacitta-sammi^rahara. Siddhasena Ganin 3 under- 
stands by this either the eating of sweetmeats (modaka) mixed with 
fruits, flowers, or sesamum seeds or the eating of food into which 
small living creatures such as ants, or kunthus have fallen, whilst 
Haribhadra 3 suggests as an instance the eating of grain mixed with 
flowers. Hemacandra 6 mentions the consuming of a kind of cake 
{pur ana) mixed with ginger, pomegranate seeds, and other fruits or 
barley meal mixed with sesamum seeds and his examples are copied 
by Asadhara . 2 The Digambara 7 writers understand by sacitta 
minute living creatures. For Camundaraya 1 sammisra is what has 
been mixed in such a way that it cannot be divided whilst samba - 
ddha is what has merely been in contact with something else. 

(v) Abhisavahara. Siddhasena Ganin 5 offers two explana- 
tions: either wine or spirits produced by the fermentation of 
various substances or the use of fortifying vegetable substances. 
Hemacandra 6 has three: alcohol or soul gruel produced by 
fermentation; or the insertion of pieces of meat; or the use of a 

1 CS, p. 13. 2 SDhA v. so. 3 Av (H), p. 8286. 

♦ P (A) 22. s T (S) vii. 30. 6 y£ iii. 98. 

7 T (P) vii. 35. 

C 787 



fortifiant derived from wine or honey or other vegetable pro- 
ducts. Camundaraya 1 interprets as either sour gruel ( wiivira ) and 
similar products of fermentation or a stimulant (vrsya) Asadhara 2 
understands by it the immoderate consumption of liquids such as 
milk or rice gruel which strengthen the body. 

As has been pointed out the orthodox Svetambara 3 view is that 
the first two offences refer to such things as roots and fruits and 
the last three to the staple foods : grains and pulses. The Digam- 
baras , 4 who employ a different terminology, do not appear to make 
this distinction but they recognize in each aticara two elements 
of fault. Not only are sentient things consumed but the vigour 
of the sense organs (indriya-mada) is thereby stimulated ; diseases 
arising from the wind humour may also be occasioned and there 
may be an element of sin in the remedies applied to counteract 
them. In any event the monk must avoid such food when seek- 
ing alms. 

Camundaraya 1 has a fivefold division, built up from the less 
explicit model given by Pujyapada 5 and Samantabhadra , 6 of pari - 
bhoga and upabhoga to which he gives the common name of 
bhoga : trasa-ghata , pramada , bahu-vadha, anista, anupasevya: 

(i) always to be avoided are things which involve the killing 
of living creatures that move ( trasa-ghata ). Under this head 
come honey and meat; 

(ii) to be avoided in order to eliminate carelessness ( pramada ) is 
alcohol which blurs the distinction between what should be 
done and what should not be done; 

(iii) better to be avoided in order to prevent much killing ( bahu - 
vadha) are the ananta-kayas such as arjiina and ketaki 
flowers, unripe ginger, turmeric, radishes, or margosa 
flowers for when they are consumed there is great destruc- 
tion but little profit ; 

(iv) to be avoided in so far as they are undesirable (< anista ) 7 are 
vehicles, riding animals, ornaments, and similar luxuries. 
Some are permissible but the rest are not permissible and 
should be eschewed; 

1 CS, p. 13. 2 SDhA v. 30. 3 Y& iii. 98. 

4 e.g. CS, p. 13. 5 T (P) vii. at. 6 RK iii. 38-40. 

7 The late commentator Prabhacandra is probably mistaken in understanding 

by anitfa ‘food that is unwholesome because it causes colic or other disorders’. 


(v) not to be enjoyed ( anupasevya )* even, though not undesirable. 
Deliberate abstention from such luxuries as gaudy clothes 
and ornaments is recommended. If they are not abandoned 
for the duration of one’s life their use should be restricted 
as far as possible for a limited period of time. 

Amrtacandra 2 insists that hhoga and upabhoga lie at the root of 
himsa. Bearing in mind his own capacity a wise man should 
eschew even those varieties which are not forbidden and should 
restrict those which he is unable to abandon altogether. Indeed he 
should review continually his capacity for self-denial and if pos- 
sible curtail further each day the limits already set. This of course 
is in the very spirit of the stories of the Upasaka-dasah . 

The bhogopabhoga-parimana-vrata is of course, more con- 
spicuously than any other vrata , an expression of pratyakhyana. 
Samantabhadra 3 uses the vrord to explain the two methods of self- 
restriction: niyama and yama. The former is for a limited period 
of time — a day, a night, a fortnight, a month, two months, six 
months, and may relate to a wide range of utilitarian or luxury 
articles . 4 The latter term (apparently used only by the Digam- 
baras) implies renunciation for one’s life long. 

The Sravaka-dharma-pancasaka 5 enunciates the bhogopabhoga- 
parimana-vrata as covering abstinence from the consumption of 
the ananta-kayas, the udwnbaras, and the atyangas. The last term 
(Prakrit accanga ) has presented some difficulty to the commenta- 
tors. Abhayadeva takes it to mean either honey, alcohol, and meat 
or the practice of eating by night and use of garlands, sandal-paste, 
and similar substances, which are all described as occasioning 
excess of bhoga . 


Great importance has always been attached by Jaina writers to 
the avoidance of taking food by night (ratri-bhojana). A passage of 
the Dasa-vaikalika-sutra gives to this abstention the status of a 
vow and on this authority Camundaraya 6 in the Caritra-sara makes 

1 Prabhacandra explains as 'substances which even though prasuka are unfit 
for consumption by civilized people such as camel’s milk, cow’s urine, crushed 
shells, excrement, betel spittle’. 2 PASU 164-6. 3 RK iil. 43. 

^ SDhA v. 14. 5 P (A) zr (p. 32). 6 CS, p. 7- 


it into a sixth anu-vrata (being imitated in this by Sakalalurti) whilst 
Amptacandra 1 gives it in his sravakacara the position that a sixth 
vow would have occupied. However, this sixth vow failed to obtain 
general recognition and no aticara pentad was ever devised for it. 
For some Digambaras — Karttikeya 2 and Samantabhadra , 3 for ex- 
ample — and in the Avasyaka Curni a-ratri-bhojana is the subject 
of the fifth pratima and even when this, as in the general £vetam- 
bara view, is styled kayotsarga-pratima, forms still an important 
element in it. Again in certain enumerations — those of Amitagati 
and A^adhara — it figures among the mula-gunas. In general, how- 
ever, in the sramkacaras the topic of ratri-bhojana is treated either 
under the ahima-vrata or, since it is also counted as an abhaksya , 
under the paribhogopabhoga-parmana-vrata. 

Samantabhadra 3 defines abstention from ratri-bhojana as the 
abandonment of the fourfold aliments by night out of compassion 
for living beings. Amrtacandra , 4 who condemns this practice with 
especial vehemence, cites as arguments against it that there exist 
many tiny insects barely discernible by day which are completely 
invisible by night even when a lamp is lit, and that raga is always 
more intense in eating by night than in eating by day. Camundaraya 
repeats Samantabhadra’s definition and Vasunandin , 5 like those 
acaryas who place a-ratri-bhojana among the mula-gunas , regards 
it as a prerequisite for the observance of the first pratima. At night 
almost anything — moths, snakes, mice, bits of bones, skin, or hairs 
— may fall into a bowl of food, and the person who is eating will not 
be able to see them. And if he kindles a light moths and other tiny 
catur-indriya creatures will be dazzled and drop into the platter. 
However, as he refers expressly to ‘threefold night-eating’ Vasun- 
andin 6 would seem to admit that liquids may be consumed ; and the 
Sravaka-dharma-dohaka? expressly permits the taking of betel, 
medicines, and water during the night. 

The &vetambaras seem not to lay quite as much stress as the 
Digambaras on the avoidance of night eating, which receives only 
a bare mention under the paribhogopabhoga-vrata in the* Sravaka- 
dharma-pahcasaka and the Nava-pada-prakarana . Hemacandra, 
however, considers the subject of sufficient importance to devote 
to it a couple of dozen verses . 8 Four reasons are alleged for exclud- 

1 PASU 129-34* 2 KA 382. 3 RK y . 2t . 

4 PASU 132. s gr (V) 314. 6 Ibid. 318. 

7 Doha 37. 8 Yg iii. 48-70. 


ing eating by night: the food may have been contaminated by the 
touch of pisdcas ox pr etas or other evil spirits; it may be infested by 
minute invisible organisms such as kanthu and panaka; 1 insects 
may have crawled or fluttered into it; and its contents will in any 
event be unrecognizable in the dark. To swallow an ant in this way 
destroys the intelligence, a fly makes one vomit, a louse causes dropsy, 
and a spider leprosy. 2 Where food has to be cooked and the platters 
washed up there is even greater himsa by night. The ban on eating 
by night, particularly on the consumption of mangoes and ghee, 
should also cover the first and last muhurtas of the day when the 
light is dim’. 3 Addiction to ratri-bhojana entails rebirth as an owl or 
crow, or vulture or cat, or pig or serpent, or lizard or scorpion. 4 

For his condemnation of the practice of eating by night Hema- 
candra draws support lavishly from Hindu sources; from the 
Ayurvedic texts 5 for the quasi-medical reasons invoked, and in a 
more general sense from the mass of Hindu customary law and 
legends. Night, it is said, is a time of calamity when neither the 
oblation to fire, nor the offerings to the spirits of the ancestors, nor 
dana, nor puja are licit and when bathing is excluded, and it ill be- 
hoves a man therefore to eat during the hours of darkness. 6 Again 
it is traditional that in the morning the devas eat, at midday the rsis, 
in the afternoon the pitrs, in the evening the daityas and dainavas , 
and in the twilight the yaksas and raksaSasd 

Asadhara 8 takes over all Hemacandra’s arguments and at the 
same time agrees with Amrtacandra 9 in classing ratri-bhojana with 
the drinking of unfiltered water as a habit in which rdga is intense 
and which provokes great destruction of jivas; both practices are 
also said to be responsible for disease. The best type of Jaina will 
eat once a day, the next best, twice, like an animal, whilst the least 
satisfactory type, comprehending nothing, eats day and night mak- 
ing himself, in Hemacandra’s phrase, ‘a ruminapt though devoid 
of horns and tail’. 10 

Later ^vetambara writers such as Ratnasekhara and Yagovijaya 
quote largely from the Nisitha-curni in discussing ratri-bhojana 
and dwell particularly on the assertion made there that if a grha - 
godhila (a kind of house lizard) gets into the food and its excretions 

1 A kunthu is described as a very minute trlndriya insect and a panaka seems 
to be an organism producing mould. 

2 YS iii. 50-51. 3 Ibid. 57. 4 Ibid. 67. 

5 Ibid. 60. 6 Ibid. 56. 7 Ibid. 58-59. 

8 SDhA iii. 11-15. 9 PASU 130. 10 YS iii. 62. 



or parts of its body are eaten a similar lizard will come into exist- 
ence by spontaneous generation in the stomach of the eater. 1 


The definitions of what is not fit to be eaten are given considerable 
prominence particularly in the later Jainism. The standard Sve- 
tambara list of twenty-two abhaksyas is found as early as the 
Pravacana-saroddhara , 2 It has largely ousted the later list of six- 
teen preferred by Hemacandra. 3 Here are both enumerations : 

Nemicandra Hemacandra 

(1-5) five udumbaras (1-4) four banned vikrtis 

(6-9) four banned vikrtis (5-9) fi ve udumbaras 

(xo) snow (hima) (10) ananta-kayas 

(11) poison (visa) (11) unknown fruits 

(12) ice ( karaka ) (12) food eaten at night 

(13) earth (mrd) (13) pulses with raw milk products 



(14) food eaten at night (14) rice that has fermented 

(ratri-bhojana) ( puspitaudana ) 

(15) fruits with many seeds (15) curds kept for more than two 

(bahu-bija) days {dadhy-ah ar-dvitiya- 


(16) ananta-kayas (16) tainted food (kuthitdnna) 

(17) pickles {sandhatia) 

(18) buttermilk in tiny lumps 


(19) aubergines ( vrntaka ) 

(20) unknown fruits and flowers 

(21) ‘empty’ fruits ( tuccha-phala ) 

(22) tainted food ( calita-rasa ) 

The basic identity of the two lists is at once apparent. If, as the 

1 Dharma-sanigraha, pt. i, p. 73 b. 

2 PS, vv. 245-6. These verses are probably older than Nemicandra. They are 
found again in the Caitya-vandana-kulaka of Jinadatta Suri and are quoted by 
almost every later writer who refers to the subject. 

3 Yg iii. 6-7. 


commentator says, ghola-vataka is an upalaksana for ama-go-rasa - 
samprkta-dvidala and calita-rasa for puspitaudana and dadhy-ahar - 
dvitiyatita Hemacandra has no items that are not found in the 
longer list. However a list of twenty-five items consisting of Nemi- 
candra’s version with these two additions and a mention of 
srngataka ( Trapa bispinosa) is sometimes found . 1 

The relevant verses of the Pravcicana-saroddhara are worth 

pane' -wnbari-cau-vigai hima-visa-karage ya savva-matti ya 
rayanl-bhoyanagam ciya bahu-biya-ahanta-sandhanam 
ghola-vadd vdyanganam amuniya-namani phulla-phalayani 
j luccha-phalam caliya-rasam vajjaha vajjdni bavlsam 

| The udiimbaras and vikrtis (abstinence from which is required 

for the observance of the mula-gunas) y ratri-bhojana , and the ananta- 
kayas are discussed separately. Of the other elements of the list 
I snow and ice are forbidden because their consumption necessitates 

l the destruction of ap-kayas whilst they are not essential to life like 

water itself . 2 Poison is not to be taken even if its effect can be 
counteracted by mantras because it will in any event kill innumer- 
1 able gandolaka organisms in the stomach and because if death 

ensues it may provoke great delusions in the last hours. Later 
writers, from the fifteenth century onwards, here mention opium 
(ahi-phena). Earth is prohibited because it contains prthvi-kdyas> 
because it may be a source of generation of trasa-jivas with the full 
five senses like frogs, and because it may cause intestinal maladies. 
Salt is expressly excluded from the abhaksyas as being essential to 
life but all other kinds of earth including chalk(khatikd) are covered 
1 by the ban. The bahu-Uja class covers fruits like pomegranates in 

i which there is a risk of destroying a jtva in each seed. By sandhana 

are meant pickles or preserves of bael and other fruits. Ghola- 
vataka is said to be used to cover ama-go-rasa-samprkta-dvidala 
( dvidala being ‘pulses which when ground yield no oil 5 ); in it 
i there are organisms so minute that they can be discerned only by 

1 a kevalin. Aubergines have aphrodisiac propertied and provoke a 
tendency to sleep too much. Unidentified fruits and flowers are to 
be avoided for if they are forbidden it is wrong to consume them 

;■ 1 e.g. in the Yoga-vidhi of Candra Suri. 

2 The explanations in this paragraph are all taken from Siddhasena Suri's 
commentary on the above verses. 



and if they are poisonous they will occasion loss of life. The expres- 
sion tuccha-phala embraces also flowers, leaves, and roots, ‘empty’ 
because they do not satisfy hunger but cause much destruction of 
jivas. Examples of these are thebael fruits, and rose-apples, and the 
flowers of mahua, and Indian horse-radish. The term calita-rasa 
(food that has ‘gone off’) is meant to include by extension boiled 
rice which has fermented and curds kept for more than forty-eight 
hours; these are to be rejected because living organisms have 
started to multiply in them. 

Even if the twenty-two abhaksyas are listed for the first time 
in the Pravacana-saroddhara their enumeration is adumbrated at 
a much earlier date. Haribhadra, 1 relying on the Avasyaka Curni, 
situates them under the divisions of the caturvidhahara. Thus 
under as ana come meat and the ananta-kayas\ under pana meat- 
broth and alcohol; under khadima the udumbaras ; and under 
svadima honey. Devagupta 2 * adds to this embryo list butter, ghola- 
vataka, and ratri-bhojana. Yasodeva,3 who is posterior to Nemican- 
dra, gives no formal enumeration but mentions the five udumbaras, 
the four vikrtis , ice, earth, ratri-bhojana , bahu-'bijas, ananta-kdyas, 
and pulses mixed with raw milk products (mugga-gayam ama-go- 

The Digambaras have not, at least during the period under 
review, defined with such precision the abhaksyas Amitagati 4 
enumerates — rather surprisingly under the anartha-danda-vrata 
surana-kanda(znana?ita-ka.yd) — curds kept for more than two days, 
boiled rice that has fermented, drona 5 flowers and kalihga b flowers ; 
and states that in general any ananta-kaya and any substance that 
is tainted and no longer fresh is to be avoided. 

A^adhara 7 gives a more extensive but unnumbered list which he 
subdivides under the infractions of the mula-gunas. His abhaksyas, 
arranged in the order of the Svetambara list are : 

(1-4) four banned vikrtis 

(5-9) five udumbaras 

(10) water or other liquid in leather 

containers (mdmsa-vrata) 

(1 1) honey used as a collyrium (rnadhu-vrata) 

1 Av(H),p.8a8&. 2 NPP75. 3 P(Y)ai. 

4 &r (A) vi. 84-85. 5 Leucas linifolia Spreng. 

6 Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. 7 SDhA iii. 11-14 and 



(12) asafoetida ( hingti ) in contact with 

leather {mamsa-vratd) 

(13) any flowers such as those of mahua 

or marking-nut (bhallataka) {madhu-vratd) 

(14) food eaten at night 

(15) rice gruel that has fermented (puspita- 

kanjika) {madya-vrata) 

(16) ananta-kayas 

(17) pickles (sandhana) ( madya-vrata ) 

(18) pods {simbi) such as raja-mam (udumbara-mata) 

(19) aubergines (and jujubes, betel-nuts, 

&c.) unsplit (udumbara-vrata) 

(20) unknown fruits (: udumbara-vrata ) 

(21) curds kept for more than two days {madya-vrata) 

(22) tainted food {vyapanna-bhojya) {mamsa-vrata) 

There is also an interdiction on eating mangoes, ghee, and a num- 
ber of other foodstuffs in the last muhurta of the day. Snow and ice, 
poison and earth are absent from this list; on the other hand 
A^adhara includes articles that have been polluted by leather and 
also flowers (which take the place of empty fruits). Coupled with 
the abhaksyas is the ban on unfiltered water. 

Later Digambara lists closely follow AsSadhara’s pattern and 
make few noticeable additions to the objects forbidden. 

There are rudimentary lists too in the Sravaka-dharma-dohaka 1 
and the Yasastilaka , 2 The former understands the abhaksyas to 
include nali, surana , mulaka , lasuna , and other ananta-kayas , 
flowers, curds kept for more than two days, fermented rice, and all 
tainted food. Somadeva names ananta-kayas and flowers. 


Amongst the substances which a Jaina is forbidden to consume 
either as food or as medicine are included the ananta-kayas or 
sadhdranasy plants which are inhabited, not like the majority of 
the vegetable kingdom by individual jib#?, but by an infinite num- 
ber of living organisms. Where in the elementary bodies — earth, 
water, fire, wind — the individual^# wraps itself up only in a tiny 
part of the material, in the plant bodies additional jivas may attach 
1 Doha 34-36. 2 Handiqui, p. 264. 


themselves to the original individual and adhere to it until its 
development process is complete. Those plants which are classified 
as ananta-kayas seem to be chosen because of certain morpholo- 
gical peculiarities such as the possession of bulbs or rhizomes or 
the habit of periodically shedding their leaves ; and in general they 
are characterized by possibilities of vegetative reproduction. 1 

A list of 3 2 is already conventional by the time of Nemicandra 3 
and is repeated by successive writers. It is contained in the follow- 
ing verses : 

savva hu kanda-jai 3 siirana-kando ya vajja-kando ya 
adda-haliddd ya taha addam taha allci-kaccuro 
sattavan vircili kumdri taha thohari gilol ya 
lhasanani vama-karilla gajjara taha lonao lodho 
giri~kanni kisala-patta kaseniga thigga alla-mutthaya 
taha liina-rukkha-challi khelludo amaya-valli ya 
mtda taha bhiimi-rasa viruha taha dhakka-vatthulo padhamo 
suyara-vallo ya tahapallahko komaV -ambiliya 
dlu taha pindalu havanti ee ananta-namehim 
annarn anantam neyam lakkhana-juttze samayao 
An attempt is made below to identify the individual plants 
mentioned : 

Prakrit form 

Sanskrit form 

Botanical name 



(1) surana-kanda 


campanulatus Br. 

(2) vajja-kanda 


Synantherias sylva- 
tica Schott 

(3) adda-halidda 

moist haridra 

Curcuma longa Roxb. 



(4) adda 


Zingiber officinale 

(5) alla-kaccura 

moist kaccura 

Curcuma zedoaria 

(6) sattavarl 

(7) viral! 



Asparagus race- 
mosus Willd. 

(8) kumaii 


Elettaria cardamo- 
mum Maton. 

card a- ' 


1 See J. F. Kohl, ‘Pflanzen mit gemeinsamen Korper nach der Lehre der 
Jainas’ in Zeitschrift fur Ethnologic (1953), Bd. 78, pp. 91 if. 

2 PS 236-41. 

3 The commentators sometimes consider the first item on the list of thirty- 
two to be savva kanda-jai { all sorts of plant growths rooting below the soil, unless 
in a dried state) in which case suraria-kanda and vajra-kanda together form the 
second item. 




Prakrit form 

Sanskrit form 

Botanical name 



(9) thohar! 1 


Euphorbia neriifolia 

(10) giloi 


Tinospera cordifolia 

(11) lhasana 


A Ilium sativum Linn. 


(12) varnsa-karilla 

shoots of vamsa 


(13) gajjara 

(14) lonaya 2 

(15) lodha 3 

(16) giri-kanni 





Daacus carota Linn. 


(17) kisala-patta — immature shoots of any 1 


(18) kaseruga 


Sdrpus kysoor Roxb. 

(19) thigga 


Cyperus bulbosus 

(20) alla-muttha 

(21) luna-rukkha- 

challi 4 

(22) khelluda 

(23) amaya-valli 

moist musta 

bark of lavana- 

Cyperus rotundus 

(24) mula 


Raphanus sativus 


(25) bhumi-rasa — mushrooms or other edibi 

'e fungi 

(26) viruha (virudha) — sprouted pulses or grains 

(27) dhakka-vatthula 5 * 

(28) suyara-valli c 



Feronia elephantum 

(29) pallanka 


Beta maritima Linn. 


(30) komal’-ambiliya 

immature amlika 

Tamarindus indica 


(31) alu 7 


Arum colocasia 


(32) pin^alu 


Dioscorea globosa 


gho§atak! shoots 

Luffa aegyptiaca 


karira shoots 

Capparis aphylla 



immature tinduka 

Diospyros embryop- 
i ter is Pers. 


varuna shoots 

Crataeva Raxburghii 


vaja shoots 

Ficus bengalensis 



nimba shoots 

Melia azadirachta 


1 Sometimes called vajra-taru. 2 The ashes are said to yield natron. 

3 This is explained as padmini-kanda and is perhaps equivalent to the nali of 

some Digambara lists. 4 Also called bhramara-vrtya. 

5 An ananta-kaya in its early stages but not when mature. 

6 Said to be so called because pigs are used to discover it. 

7 Today this word tends to be given the meaning of ‘potato’. 


The unnumbered ananta-kayas not included in the standard list of 
thirty-two are mentioned as early as the Pravacana-saroddhara. 

Hemacandra , 1 though he does not adopt the verses quoted 
above, gives virtually the same enumeration of the ananta-kayas. 
Of the thirty-two he omits viralika , vamsa-karilla, garjaraka , 
lavanaka , khelluda, bhumi-rasa , and tanka-vastala ; however, he 
mentions also five edible roots: grnjana , mudgara , palasa-kanda , 
hasti-kanda , and manusya-kanda . 

These Svetambara lists suffered from the disadvantage that they 
were not exhaustive and named only a few of those ananta-kayas 
in the vegetable kingdom which might conceivably serve as food. 
The Digambaras have preferred to abide by a general classification 
given in a verse of the Mulacara z from which examples can be 
drawn at will : 

miiT ' agga-pora-bia saha taha khanda-kandha-bia-ruha 
sammucchima yd bhaniya patteyananta-kaya ya 

(1) reproducing from the root (; mula-bija ), e.g. ardraka , haridra ; 

(2) „ „ „ tip (agra-bija), e.g. ketaki ( Pandanus 

odoratissimus Willd.) ; 

(3) » „ „ nodules ( parva-bija ), e.g. iksu (sugar- 

cane), vetra ; 

(4) „ „ ,, branches (sakha-bija) ; 

(5) 5 ) ,, ,, stem (skandha-bija),e.g.palasa > sallakr ) 

( 6 ) „ ,, ,, tubers ( kanda-bija ), e.g. stir ana , pin- 

dala, palandu (onion) ; 

(7) » j> ,> seed (bija-ruha), e.g. godhiima, Mi; 

( 8 ) spontaneously generated (sammiirchima). 2 

These plants, which are jointly inhabited by many jivas, have a 
common source of nourishment and when one perishes the many 

The concepts underlying the category of the ananta-kayas have 
been convincingly explained by J. F. Kohl , 4 who notes that the 
Jaina concept is based on a thorough insight into plant physiology 
and morphology as is shown by the recognition of the role of roots 
and stems in the storage of reserves for future generations. 

1 YJ? iii, 44-46. a Miilacara , zi 3. 

3 SDhA v. 174; Lafi-sarrihitd, ii. 79 ff. 

4 J. F. Kohl, op. cit, and ‘Einige Bemerkungen zur Zahlensymbolik und zum 
Animismus im botanischen System der Jaina-Kanon* in the Kirfel-F estscli rift 
(Bonn, 1955), pp. 1Z5-35. 

( 13C 7 ) 


As already noted the bhogopabhoga-vrata has two aspects: it may 
refer to food or to occupation. The fifteen trades 1 forbidden 
under this head are given in the Upasaka-dasah ; they form a 
purely Svetambara category, being unnoticed, for example, in 
the Tattvartha-siitra. Asadhara 2 alone among Digambara writers 
has included them in his work in an evident borrowing from 
Hemacandra. The enumeration is as follows : 

(1) livelihood from charcoal ( angara-karman ); 

(2) livelihood from destroying plants (vana-karmari) ; 

(3) livelihood from carts (sakata-karman) ; 3 

(4) livelihood from transport fees ( bhataka-karman ); 

(5) livelihood from hewing and digging (sphota-karman); 

(6) trade in animal by-products (da?ita-vanijya) ; 

(7) trade in lac and similar substances (laksa-vanijya) ; 

(8) trade in alcohol and forbidden foodstuffs ( rasa-vanijya ) ; 

(9) trade in men and animals ( kesa-vanijya ) ; 

(10) trade in destructive articles ( visa-vanijyd ); 

( 1 1) work involving milling (yantra-pidana) ; 

(12) work involving mutilation (nirlanchana) ; 

(13) work involving the use of fire ( davagni-dana ) ; 

(14) work involving the use of water (sarah- 4 o$ana); 

(15) work involving breeding and rearing ( asati-posana ). 

The designations remain virtually the same in all the literature but 
there are some noticeable divergencies in interpretation. 

1. Angara-karman. For Haribhadra 4 this is the ‘making, 
buying, and selling of charcoal’. Besides charcoal-burning this 
includes all occupations involving the use of kilns in which the 
six forms of living organisms ( saj-jiva-nikaya ) may perish. Under 
this head come therefore the smelting of iron, the firing of pottery, 
the refining of gold or silver, the making of bricks and tiles, the 

1 These occupations are noticeably similar to those prohibited for a brahmin 
who maintains himself as a sudra. See Yajnavalkya-smrti, iii. 36-43. 

3 SDhA v. 21-23. 

3 Hoernle rightly noted that the third forbidden trade is apparently duplicated 
by the fourth. The acaryas are, however, unanimous in the explanation given and 
offer no support at all to his suggestion ‘livelihood with clothes*. See UD ii. 29. 

4 Av (H), p. 839 a. 


construction of ovens for roasting chick-peas and other pulses, and 
in general any working in metals such as tin, copper, brass, bell- 
metal, or lead. 1 

2. Vana-karman. Haribhadra 2 explains this as ‘the purchase 
of a stand of trees and the felling and sale of the timber’. Hema- 
candra 3 * defines it as the sale of timber, cut or uncut, and of the 
leaves, shoots and fruits of plants, whether cut or uncut. It also 
applies to the making of flour from grains and pulses by grinding 
between two stones (sila and sila-putraka) or by pounding in a mill 
(gharatta)*. It is in the destruction of vanaspati-kayas that the 
offence lies. 

3. Sakata-karman. This includes the construction and sale 
of carts to be drawn by animals and the driving of them, whether 
done by oneself or at one’s instigation. The ban on such occupa- 
tions would apply equally to the work of a wheelwright. Such 
trades are sinful’ because the use of a cart involves the harnessing 
and beating of the draught beasts and the crushing of living or- 
ganisms by the animals’ hooves and under the wheels as they 
move. 5 

4. B h A? aka- K arm an. ‘The conveying of merchandise in 
one’s own vehicle or hiring out of draught animals to others for 
the same purpose’ seems to be the original meaning. 6 Hemacandra 7 
defines as ‘making a livelihood by carting goods in vehicles or on 
horses, oxen, buffaloes, camels, mules, or asses’. The same de- 
struction of life as in the preceding case would be liable to occur. 

5. Sphota-karman. For Haribhadra 8 this is the cultivation 
of the soil with a plough or digging-stick. By Hemacandra’s 9 time 
the concept has been considerably expanded. He understands it 
to include the excavating of artificial pools, tanks, and wells, the 
ploughing of fields, the quarrying of rocks, and shaping of stone. 
Particularly in the work of cultivation the earth is mercilessly torn 
up and not only ar tprthm-kayas destroyed but also vanaspati-kayas 
and trasa-jivas. Asadhara 10 adds a further concept: the making and 
selling of fireworks. Devendra 11 would also include under this 
head the grinding of grains and pulses into flour (which is more 
generally held to fall under yantra-pidand) and the mining of salt. 

1 Y^iii. 102. 

4 Ibid. 104. 

7 Yg iii. 105. 
10 SDhA v. 21, 

2 Av (H), p. 8296. 

5 SDhA v. 21. 

8 Av (H), p. 8296. 

11 &rDK, pt, ii, p. 108. 

3 YS iii. 103. 

6 Av (H), p. 8296. 
9 YS iii. 106. 


ii 9 

6. D an T A- van I j Y a. Haribhadra, 1 quoting the Avasyaka Curni , 
explains that traders bargain for ivory with the jungle tribes, who 
then hunt and kill elephants on the understanding that the dealers 
will come back and purchase it from them. They also make similar 
arrangements with fishermen for conch-shells. By buying products 
thus obtained from the slaughter of living beings they are directly 
provoking that slaughter. While Abhayadeva 2 appears to confine 
the notion of danta to the by-products of the elephant Hema- 
candra 3 explains that danta (ivory) is an upalaksana to indicate any 
animal by-products such as tail-hairs of yaks, claws of owls, bones 
i.e. shells of conches, pelts of antelopes or down of geese. Deven- 
dra 4 adds to this list the scent glands of musk deer. 

7. Laicsa-vanijya. Again here laksd is an upalaksana de- 
signed to include red arsenic ( manah-iild ), indigo, borax (; tahkana :), 
dhataki , s and other substances, which have in common the prop- 
erty of serving as dyestuffs or colorants. Devendra 4 mentions too 
in this connexion yellow orpiment. The objections to the use of 
and trade in them are based on various grounds. Red arsenic and 
borax as poisons would properly belong under visa-vanijya ; the 
collection of red lac involves the destruction of endless numbers of 
tiny insects; dhataki is reprehended because alcohol can be made 
from its bark and flowers and because its resin is full of insects ; 
and the cultivation of indigo is said to be inseparable from the 
destruction of living beings. 6 

8. Rasa-vAnijya, From the Amsyaka Curni 7 it would seem 
that originally the reference here was to the manufacture, sale, and 
consumption of alcohol, which is described as leading to brawling, 
squabbling, and murder. But for Hemacandra 8 rasa in the sense of 
alcohol becomes an upalaksana to include honey, fat (obtained from 
meat), and butter, in other words the substances prohibited under 
the mula-guna category. Devendra 4 adds a ban on trade in meat, 
milk, curds, and ghee. 

9. Kesa-vanijya. This is explained as trade in creatures that 
have hair. Haribhadra 1 understands by this the buying of slave 
girls in a place where they are cheap and selling them elsewhere to 
make a profit, w r hich is reprehensible because it implies restricting 

1 Av (H), p. 829 b. 2 P (A) 22 (p. 35)* 3 YS iii. 107. 

4 grDK, pt. ii, p. 108. 5 Woodfordia floribunda Salisb.' 

6 Yg iii. 108. 7 Ibid. 109. 

8 Av Cu, pt. ii, p. 297. 


the liberty of others. Hemacandra 1 distinguishes carefully be- 
tween this occupation, which affects living beings, human or 
, animal, and danta-mrtijya, which concerns only parts of animals. 
When bought and sold, animals are bound to suffer from beating 
and tying up and from hunger and thirst. 

10. Visa-vanijya. This implies a ban on trade in poisons 
such as aconite, weapons such as swords, mechanical devices such 
as norias, iron implements such as spades and ploughs, all of 
which are potentially dangerous to life. 2 Hemacandra includes here 
yellow orpiment, which Devendra 3 more logically places under 

11. Yantra-pidana. This is deemed to be the operation of 
mills and presses for crushing sugar-cane and for expressing oil 
from sesamum seed, mustard seed, and castor-oil beans as well 
as the ‘crushing’ of water in norias. The destruction of life 
thereby provoked is so great that a popular saying ( laukika ) affirms 
that an oil-press is as evil as ten slaughterhouses. 4 Devendra 5 
includes here all trade in such articles as grindstones, pestles, and 

12 . Nirlanchana. Haribhadra 6 understands by this the 
gelding of bulls and other animals. Hemacandra 7 extends the 
meaning to cover the branding, docking, nose-piercing, and cutting 
off of the ears and dewlaps of livestock. 

13. Davagni-dana. Haribhadra 8 interprets this on the basis 
of the Avasyaka Curni as ‘setting fire to the meadows as is the 
custom in Uttarapatha, so that later on, when the rains come the 
grass may grow lushly’. Hemacandra 9 ‘offers three explanations: 
either the careless starting of woodland fires by foresters; or the 
kindling of fires out of piety in the dipotsava festival for a man’s 
future weal at the hour of his death ; or the system of predatory 
cultivation described by Haribhadra. In all cases there is very 
great loss of life. 

14. Sarah-^osai^a. This is explained as drawing off the water 
from lakes, tanks, and watercourses so that they dry up and can be 
sown with crops; thus all forms of aquatic life are destroyed. 9 

15. Asati-posana. For Haribhadra 10 this means the rearing 

1 Y$ iii. 109. 2 Ibid. no. 3 &rDK, pt. ii, p. 108. 

+ Yg iii. m. s SrDK, pt. ii, p. 108. 6 Av (H), p. 8296. 

7 Y£ iii. 112. 8 Av (H), p. 830a. 9 Y$ iii. 114. 

10 Av (H), p. 830a. 



of girls for prostitution as is the custom in the Gauda country, 
Hemacandra 1 supplements this to include the breeding and keep- 
ing of destructive animals and birds such as parrots, mynahs, 
peacocks, cocks, cats, dogs, and monkeys. Devendra 3 adds the 
further idea of rearing eunuchs. 

Although the Digambaras have not inherited the tradition of the 
fifteen forbidden trades they enforce some similar interdictions 
under other heads. In almost every text, for example, the ban on 
the keeping of destructive animals and birds is included in the 
himsa-pradana division of anartha-danda which also embraces 
everything that is understood by msa-mnijya and laksd-mnijya. 
Samantabhadra 3 and Camundaraya* subdivide the papopadesa 
division of anartha-danda into klesa-vanijya (in which it would 
seem not unreasonable to discern a false sanskritization of a 
Prakrit kesa-vanijya) and tiryag-vanijya which together cover the 
ground of the ninth forbidden trade. 

The eternal dilemma of Jainism in laying down an ethos for the 
layman has been well put by A^adhara. The lay estate, he says, can- 
not exist without activity and there can be no activity without the 
taking of life; in its grosser form this is to be avoided sedulously 
but the implicit part of it is hard to avoid. It follows that at least 
the keeping of animals and contact with any destructive implements 
are to be eschewed . 5 

At the same time certain Digambara milieux have undoubtedly 
widened the sphere of occupations open to a believing Jaina and 
may have consciously rejected some of the interdictions described 
above. The Adi-pnranap for instance, makes provision for a man 
belonging to a caste which bears arms to retain them if essential 
to his livelihood. 

In general, however, Digambaras and &vetambaras agree in 
admitting only a limited number of ways of earning one’s living: 
but acaryas of the school of Jinasena 7 mention various forms of 
vartta defined as ‘the pursuit of a profession in a pure way’ which 
is itself regarded as one of the six daily karmans. The later Svetam- 
baras from Ratna^ekhara 8 onwards generally refer to seven licit 

npayas : 

1 Y& Hi. 1 13. 

2 SrDK, pt. ii, p. 108. 

3 RK iii. 30. 

4 CS, p. 9. 

s SDhA iv. 12. 

6 MP xxxviii. 125. 

7 e.g. CS, p. 20. 

8 Sraddlia-vidhi , p. 90. 

0 737 






(1) vanijya (trade) 

(2) vidya (practice of medicine) 

(3) krsi (agriculture) 

(4) silpa (artisanal crafts) 

(5) pasupalya (animal husbandry) 

(6) seva (service of a ruler) 

(7) bhiksa (mendicancy) 


mad (clerical occupations) 

silp a-kar man 

asi (military occupations) 

The Svetambara list is apparently designed to indicate a sequence 
of desirability; trade is the best means of getting one’s living 
whilst begging is the worst: 1 it represents a last resort for the blind 
and the crippled. Vidya covers astrology and divination as well as 
chemistry and perfumery. For krsi the late Digambara work the 
Traivarnikacara 2 suggests in preference to tilling the soil a form of 
mStayage in which a Jaina business man would provide oxen, seed, 
and implements for others to use. 

Five typical actions symbolizing the round of daily duties in the 
home are grouped together and styled the ‘slaughter-houses’ 
(suna) because they inevitably result in the destruction of living 
organisms. The following verse detailing them is quoted in Pra- 
bhacandra’s commentary on the Ratna-karanda : 3 

khandani pesanl culli uda-kumbhah pramarjani 
panca-suna grhasthasya tena moksam na gacchati. 

These siinas which impede the path to moksa are eliminated, says 
A^adhara, 4 by almsgiving to ascetics, and in fact when they are 
mentioned in the texts it is always under the head of dana . The 
enumeration is as follows : 

(i) pounding (khandani, kuttani) symbolized by the pestle and 

(ii) grinding ( pesani ) symbolized by the hand-mill ; 

(iii) cooking (cidli) symbolized by the fire-place; 

(iv) cleansing (uda-kumbha) symbolized by the water-pot; 

(v) sweeping (pramarjani) symbolized by the broom. 

The five sunas so styled seem to be peculiar to the Digambaras, 
being mentioned by Samantabhadra, Asadhara, and Medhavin 
but the enumeration can hardly be strange to the ^vetambaras, and 

1 AU i. 58. 

* TrA vii. 108. 

3 RK iv. 23. 

4 SDhA v. 49. 



in fact, the Nava-pada-prakarana in a quotation 1 mentions five 
harmful actions from which a layman who keeps the vratas must 
refrain: kandana, pisana, randhana, dalana, pay ana. The first three 
correspond exactly to the first three sunas but then dalana appears 
to duplicate pisana andpayanato repeat randhana\ and an embryo- 
nic version of the sunas seems here to have been inserted under 
the bhogopabhoga-vrata. In the same connexion Ratnasekhara 2 in 
the fifteenth century quotes a verse almost identical with that given 
in Prabhacandra’s commentary, and the sunas are mentioned by 
Caritrasundara 3 amongst the forms of arambha. 


The vow to abstain from harmful activities that serve no useful 
purpose covers a range of rather disparate topics and overlaps 
to some extent with the ahimsa-vrata and the bhogopabhoga-vrata, 
and even with the mrsopadesa aticara of the satya-vrata and the 
para-vimha-karana aticara of the brahma-vrata. Four types of 
anartha-danda are listed in the canon and maintained by the 
^vetambaras and to these the Digambaras, perhaps drawing on the 
definitions of mithydtva , have added a fifth. The five are : 

(i) evil brooding (apadhyand ) ; 

(ii) purposeless mischief ( pramadacarita ) ; 

(iii) facilitation of destruction (himsd-praddna ) ; 

(iv) harmful counsel (papopadeia) ; 

(v) faulty reading (duh-sruti). 

All the &vetambara authorities, except Siddhasena Ganin and 
Siddhasena Suri, give the list of four (without duh-sruti). The 
Tattvartha-sutra does not notice any varieties of anartha-danda 
but the commentator Pujyapada* mentions the above five and they 
are found in the sravakacaras from Samantabhadra 5 onwards. 

(i) ApadhyAna. The older term for this apadhyanacarita 
‘action motivated by evil brooding* is not found outside the 
canonical texts. Abhayadeva 6 seems to understand in this connexion 

1 NPP 75 (p. 326). 

2 Ratnasekhara on Srdddha-pratikramana-sutra, 22. 

3 AU iii. 23. 4 T (P) vii. 21. 5 RK iii. 29. 

6 P (A) 23 (p. 36). 



‘business worries’. (‘When should the merchant caravan set out ? 
What goods should it carry? Where should it go ? When would be 
the right time to buy and to sell? &c.’) But already in the Nava- 
pada-prakarana Devagupta 1 has introduced the idea of arta- 
dhyana and raudra-dhyana whether expressed in an unwholesome 
desire (‘Would that I might win a kingdom or great wealth, or be 
exempt from old age and death ! Would that my enemy might die !’) 
or the satisfaction felt when that desire is fulfilled (‘How glad I am 
that my enemy is dead!’). This interpretation of apadhyana as 
arta-dhyana and raudra-dhyana is established by Hemacandra 2 and 
maintained by his successors. The generalized Digambara view is 
virtually the same : it is defined by Pujyapada and Camundaraya 3 * 
as ‘caressing the ideas of vanquishing, killing, imprisoning, mutilat- 
ing, and despoiling others’. However, an early text, the Dvada - 
sanuprek$aS considers it to refer to ‘talking of the faults of others, 
coveting the riches of others, lusting after the wives of others, and 
watching the disputes of others’. For Amrtacandra 5 it implies 
thinking about battles, conquests, hunting, adultery, and theft. 
Asadhara , 6 however, adopts Hemacandra’s explanation. 

(ii) Pramadacarita. Devagupta 7 understands by this the 
failure to cover with a cloth liquids such as oil, ghee, or molasses, 
for example, or addiction to vices such as alcoholism and gambling. 
Ya^odeva 8 and Abhayadeva refer expressly to ‘hurt caused through 
sloth’. To the five pramadas normally listed Hemacandra 9 adds a 
further wide range of purposeless activities to be avoided: watching 
dancing displays or theatrical representations or listening to con- 
certs out of curiosity (i.e. when these do not treat of a religious 
theme) ; study of the hama-iastras ; dicing ; games played in pools 
and watercourses (jala-krida) ; gathering flowers ; watching cock- 
fights or other combats of animals ; playing with swings ; and the 
maintaining of inherited enmities. To sleep the whole night is only 
permissible when one is exhausted by illness or by a journey. These 
indications of Hemacandra have been largely developed and ex- 
panded by Asadhara , 10 but not under the head of anartha-danda . 
Pramadacarita he defines as the profitless destruction of prthvi- 
kayas , vayu-kayas , tejah-kayas, and ap-kayas by such actions as 

1 NPP 84. 2 YS iii. 75 - 3 CS, p. 9. 

+ KA 344- 5 PASU 141. 6 SDhA v. 9. 

7 NPP 84. 8 P (Y) 23 (p. 89). 0 YS iii. 78-80. 

10 SDhAv. 10-11. 


digging the ground, obstructing the wind, quenching fire with 
water, irrigating a field, or felling a tree ; and under this head he 
would condemn too all unnecessary travelling. This is in fact the 
Digambara tradition inherited from Pujyapada and Camundaraya, 
whilst Karttikeya and Amrtacandra use very similar terms. It is to 
be noted that Hemacandra 1 groups under the head of pramada - 
carita those negligent and irreverent actions within a Jaina temple 
which are later called aiatanas , 

(iii) Himsa-pradana. Haribhadra and succeeding writers 3 
explains that it is improper to furnish means of destruction — 
weapons, fire, or poison to another person whether or not he is 
under the influence of anger at the time. Hemacandra 3 elaborates 
this statement by saying that carts, ploughs, swords, bows, pestles, 
mortars, bellows, or similar objects should not be supplied to 
another person unless a question of being helpful ( daksinyavisaye ) 
is involved, since himsa-pradana to a son or other relative is almost 
unavoidable. Hemacandra’s definition has been taken over by 
Asadhara; the more general Digambara version is that of Pujyapada 
and Camundaraya : 4 ‘the supplying of poison, weapons, fire, rope, 
whips, staves, and similar objects’, whilst Samantabhadra 5 speaks 
also of chains, swords, axes, and spades. In all these interpretations 
there are of course no differences except of detail. Karttikeya , 6 
however, includes under this head the keeping of destructive 
animals such as cats and all trade in such materials as iron or lac. 

(iv) Papopadesa. Haribhadra , 7 who etymologizes papa as that 
which precipitates (■ patayati ) into hell, regards this as ‘instruction 
in an evil trade’, citing such expressions as ‘plough the fields’ or 
‘break in the oxen’ as unbefitting a Jaina layman. In general 
papopadesa 8 is held to refer to the inevitable but still reprehensible 
operations of agriculture, but Devagupta 9 includes under it the 
notion of any advice to marry or procreate. Hemacandra 10 gives 
a number of additional examples : ‘The rains have come, seed time 
is at hand, so plough the fields’, ‘geld the stallions’, ‘set fire to the 
forest in the hot season’. Like himsa-pradana , papopadesa cannot 
be avoided when a question of being helpful is involved, but it 

1 Yg iii. 81. 2 Av(H), p. 8306. 3 Y6 iii. 77- 

♦ CS, p. 10. 5 RK iii. 31. 6 KA 347* 

7 Av(H), pt. ii, p. 830 b\ patayati narakadav Ui papain . This is more compre- 
hensible if put back into the Prakrit from which it must have been taken: 
paei narayaie ttipavam. 

8 Av (H), p. 8306. » NPP 84. “ YS Hi. 76. 


should never be given out of mere garrulity, Samantabhadra, 1 
followed by Camundaraya 2 (and by Medhavin), recognizes four 
types of it: 

(а) talk of buying slaves cheap to sell them dear elsewhere 
(klesa-vanijya ) ; 

(б) talk of buying beasts cheap to sell them dear elsewhere 
(tiryag-vanijya ) ; 

(c) giving word to trappers, hunters, or fowlers of the presence 

of beasts and birds (vadhakopadesa) ; 

(d) giving advice to cultivators which involves destruction of 
prthvikayas , tejah-kayas , vayu-kayas, and ap-kayas ( aram - 

Pujyapada 3 defines it as advice which stimulates others to pursue 
harmful activities unnecessarily. Asadhara 4 has widened the field 
of application of the term considerably to include any advice lead- 
ing to himsa , falsehood, or theft, or concerning methods of liveli- 
hood involving wrongdoing. Amrtacandra 5 insists that papopadesa 
should never be given to men to lead them astray in their profes- 

(v) Du^Sruti. The standard definition of this purely Digam- 
bara category, that of Pujyapada, or Camundaraya, or Amjrta- 
candra 6 is ‘listening to, reciting, or expounding evil stories through 
which passion and injury are provoked’. Karttikeya 7 understands 
by this ‘reading kama-iastras and listening to the faults of others’. 
For Samantabhadra 8 it is the study of works which befoul the mind 
with harmful activities, worldly attachments, violence, false belief, 
hatred, passion, pride, and lust. The seventeenth-century com- 
mentator Prabhacandra 9 offers as examples of texts on false belief 
those dealing with doctrines such as the Advaita. Asadhara 10 adopts 
Samantabhadra’s view and stigmatizes as examples of mind- 
defiling works the Vatsyayana-kama-sutra on kama, the Lataka 
on himsa , the Vartta-niti on parigraha , the Vira-katha on sahasa, 
the Brahmadvaita on mithyatva , the Vasi-karana-tantra on raga, 
and on mada such texts as exalt the brahmin’s place in the caste 

The aticaras of this mata , according to the Svetambara version, 

1 RK ili. 30. 2 CS, p. 9. 3 T (P) vii, ai. 

4 SDhA v. 8. 5 PASU 142. 6 Ibid. 145. 

7 KA 348- 8 RK iii. 33. 0 Ibid. 30. 

10 SDhA v. 9. 


are listed below with an indication of the category of anartha-danda 
of which they are held to be infractions : 

(i) libidinous speech ( kandarpa ) pramadacarita 

(ii) buffoonery (kautkucya) pramadacarita 

(iii) garrulity (maukharya) papopadeia 

(iv) bringing together harmful implements 

(samyuktadhikarana) himsa-pradana 

(v) superfluity of luxuries ( upabhoga-pari - 

bhogatireka ) pramadacarita 

The Digambara lists differ on one important point: the fourth 
aticara is given as asamiksyadhikarana, generally interpreted as 
‘inconsiderate action’. Haribhadra, in the Dharma-hindu 1 , has pre- 
ferred this more readily intelligible form, which is none the less an 
innovation of the Tattvartha-sutra. Whether this stems from a 
conscious rationalization or is the fruit of a textual corruption can 
only be a matter for speculation. Somadeva 2 has a quite personal 
version of the aticaras of this vrata : upadesad vaiicana-pravartana 
(practice of deceit on instructions), arambha-pravartana (practice 
of harmful activity on instructions), himsa-pravartana (practice of 
violence on instructions), bharadikya (overloading of animals), 
adhika-klesa (inflicting much suffering on them). 

(i) Kandarpa. The Tattvartha-bhasya 3 defines this as ‘indecent 

language and jesting associated with concupiscence’. Siddhasena 

Ganin 3 develops this: language which is provoked by lust or 

in which the main element is lust; it is accompanied by move- 
ments of the mouth, lips, eyes, and eyebrows to arouse laughter.’ 
Haribhadra 4 accepts the first element of this definition and adds 
that tradition prescribes that it is unbecoming for a Jaina layman 
to guffaw loudly; if laugh he must, he should confine himself to a 
slight titter. Abhayadeva, Ya^odeva, Municandra, and Siddhasena 
Suri take the same view and Hemacandra 5 adds a further 
comment that a sravaka should say nothing to provoke infatuation 
(mohodreka) in himself or others. For Devendra 6 kandarpa is no 
more than roisterous laughter. In the Digambara definition 7 
kandarpa is coarse (< asista ) language associated with laughter 
resulting from excessive raga provoked by the rise of caritra-moha. 

1 DhB iii. 33. 2 Handiqui, p. 269. 3 T (S) vii, 27 (p. 112). 

4 Av(H), p. 8306. 5 YS iii. 115. 6 SrDK, p. 112. 

7 CS, p. 10. 


(ii) KautkOCYA. The Prakrit kukkuia is also sanskritized as 
kaukucya . The commentators prefer to etymologize it as kut (in 
the sense of a pejorative particle) — kulsitam — kucati; and explain 
it as ‘spasmodic contractions (sahkocana) of the eyebrows, eyes, 
nose, lips, hands, and feet whilst making various sorts of funny 
movements ’. 1 Haribhadra again cites the traditional statement that 
a sravaka ought not to speak in such a way as to make other people 
laugh, and he is followed by all the £vetambara acaryas. The Dig- 
ambaras consider this aticara to be ‘vulgar speech accompanied by 
laughter and by undesirable gesticulation ’. 2 

(iii) Maukharya. Siddhasena Ganin 3 holds this to be speech 
that is vulgar, prolix, nonsensical ( asambaddha ), and impertinent 
(mukhara being an epithet applicable to anyone who speaks without 
due consideration). That is the general $vetambara view. The 
Digambaras define it as ‘constant purposeless talking through self- 
conceit ’. 4 

(iv) Samyuktadhikarana*. The traditional Svetambara in- 
terpretation is unvarying: the keeping together of any two objects 
{adhikarana — etymologized as ‘that by which one’s Simon is guided 
to an evil fate’), generally implements or parts of implements, 
used for any of the activities {arambha) of daily life which inevitably 
involve destruction of jivas . s If they are kept apart there may be 
some reduction quantitatively in arambha as the person wishing to 
use them may be dissuaded from doing so if they are not immedi- 
ately available. Typical examples of such linked adhikaranas are 
pestle and mortar, plough and coulter, cart and yoke, bow and 
arrows. Siddhasena Ganin 6 gives a rather similar interpretation 
to the asamiksy adhikarana of the Tattvartha-sutra , mentioning the 
supplying of grindstones ( sila-putraka ), mill-stones (godhuma- 
yantraka-sila ), or sickles ( datra ), but noting the Digambara defini- 
tion ‘excessive and improper use of an object without consideration 
for the aim in view’. For the same term in the Dharma-bindu? 
Municandra offers a purely Svetambara explanation. Pujyapada’s 8 
definition is practically identical with that of Siddhasena but there 
is' no identification of the harmful objects. With Camundaraya 9 
the concept is more complicated: asamiksy adhikarana may be of 
three kinds: mental, vocal, or physical. Thinking of unprofitable 

1 Av (H), p. 83 o&. 

4 CS, p. 10. 

7 DhB iii. 33, 

2 CS, p. 10. 
s Av (H), p. 832a. 
8 T (P) vii. 32. 

3 T (S) vii. 37 (p. 1 13). 
6 T (S) vii. 27. 

9 CS, p. 10. 


literary productions would be an example of the first type; the 
second would cover the recounting of purposeless stories or indeed 
any form of the spoken word through which pain was caused to 
others; whilst the third would include the cutting, breaking, 
bruising, or throwing away purposelessly of any sentient or non- 
sentient leaves, flowers, or fruit. Asadhara 1 sees in this offence ‘the 
taking more of anything than is needed for use’. 

In the pratikramana texts there is a special avowal of offences 
under this head : weapons, fire, pestles, mechanical devices ( yantra ), 
grass, wood, mantras , roots (mula), drugs ( bhaisajya ) given or 
caused to be given to any person. Devendra 2 * explains yantra to 
mean such things as carts ; grass may be used to clean maggots from 
wounds or for besoms, and wood for staves or for norias ; whilst 
mula means roots such as naga-damani 2 used, for example, to 
assuage fever or to procure abortion. 

(v) Upabhoga-paribhogatiriktita. Haribhadra* records 
a traditional teaching on moderation in the use of upabhogas : if one 
man takes an excessive amount of oil and myrobalan for his toilet 
then other people attracted by this luxury go to the bathing tank 
and many bathe who would not otherwise have done so; and as a 
result many ap-kayas and small aquatic creatures perish unneces- 
sarily. Excessive indulgence in betel and flower garlands brings 
about similar profitless destruction. Accordingly a man who 
desires to bathe should either do so at home or, failing that, rub oil 
and myrobalan on to his head at home and, when they are com- 
pletely dissolved should go to the tank and wash by taking up 
water in his hands. Abhayadeva, Ya^odeva, Municandra, and Hema- 
candra repeat the same view. Siddhasena , 5 in his commentary 
on the Tattvartha-sutra, explains that bathing and the use of orna- 
ments as well as the consumption of food and drink and unguents 
must be on a moderate scale and adapted to one’s needs. The 
Digambaras 6 regard this aticara merely as the accumulation of 
upabhogas and paribhogas beyond the limit of one’s needs. Asad- 
hara , 7 who calls this transgression sevarthadhikata , prefers Hema- 
candra’s explanation. 

Here again the pratikramana? texts enjoin the confession of 
faults committed in connexion with bathing, unguents (udvartana), 

1 SDhA v. 1 2. 2 Devendra on Sraddha-pratikramaya-sutra, 24. 

3 Artemisia vulgaris Linn. * Av(H), p. 831a. 5 T (S) vii. 27. 

6 CS, p. 11. 7 SDhA v. 12. 8 Smddha-pratikramaiia-sutra, 25. 


cosmetics ( varnaka ), cooling pastes ( vilepana ), sounds, shapes, 
tastes, smells, clothes, couches, and ornaments. The washing of 
the body after anointing should not be done at a spot where there 
are trasa-jwas , nor at a time when there are many sampatima 
creatures abroad, nor with unfiltered water. Unguents should not be 
dropped in the dust where they may become infested with maggots 
only to be eaten later by dogs or trodden under foot. Varnakas such 
as musk and in vilepanas such as sandal-paste or saffron may also 
give rise to sampatima creatures. Under the head of sahcla the fol- 
lowing are reprehended : the sounds of musical instruments when 
listened to out of mere curiosity, and the noise made to arouse 
house lizards at night so that they come out to eat flies. Similarly 
undesirable are the shapes of women viewed at theatrical per- 
formances or described to others, and the savour of tasty dishes de- 
scribed to others to increase their gourmandise. 

One point emerges clearly from all the texts : it is because un- 
necessary evil actions (nirarthaka-papa) bind on additional karma 
that anartha-danda is to be at all costs avoided. But here a careful 
distinction has to be made between what is artha and what is 
anartha. By artha , for example, Haribhadra 1 understands ‘the 
practical interests of the family’. Devagupta’s 2 definition is more 
explicit: whatever harmful action is done for the sake of religion 
(such as building a temple), or for the bodily organs ( indriya ) 
(such as eating nourishment or taking betel), or in order to produce 
food (such as farming) is artha ; any similar action for other ends — 
such as the cutting down of creepers or the killing of lizards is 

Certain writers tend to stigmatize as a grave form of pramada- 
carita some of the offences commonly called the vyasanas , particu- 
larly gambling and the frequentation of prostitutes. This point is 
made particularly by Devagupta. For Amrtacandra , 3 too, gambling 
takes precedence over all other forms of anartha and leads to lying 
and stealing. 

Somadeva 4 attempts a general definition of the various elements 
comprised under the term anartha-danda. It would include all acts 
done to spite, sadden, or denigrate others, or through which others 
are hurt or deprived of liberty. More specifically it refers to the 
keeping of harmful animals and the provision of harmful objects. 

1 SrPr 290. 2 N p P g 3> 3 Npp g 4 

4 PASU 146. 5 Handiqui, p. 269. 


A narrower view is that of Vasunandin : 1 the observance of the 
anartha-danda-wata implies a ban on the selling of iron rods or 
snares, the keeping of destructive animals, and measuring with 
false balances. 

As has already been noted the main differences in the scope of 
this vow, as understood by ^vetambaras and Digambaras, are to be 
found in the addition by the Digambaras of duh-iruti to the four 
categories listed in the Upasaka-dasah and in the replacement of 
samyuktddhikarana by asamiksyadhikarana. The ban on the keeping 
of such creatures as destroy other lives — cats, dogs, mongooses, 
cocks, vow only by the parrots, peacocks, and mynahs — seems to be 
introduced by the Digambaras, almost all of whom insist on this. 

Amitagati 2 appears to have included under the anartha-danda - 
vrata certain elements which elsewhere are covered by the bhogo- 
pabhoga-vrata. Thus he stipulates that iron, lac, indigo, saffron, 
bees-wax (madana), hemp, weapons, pickles ( sandhanaka ), stirana- 
kanda> flowers, curds that have been left for two days, rice that has 
sprouted or fermented, water-melons, and drona flowers are to be 


For all the deary as the samdyika is at the same time the first siksd- 
vrata (except for Asadhara and Samantabhadra, who make it the 
second, and for Vasunandin, who omits it altogether) and the third 
pratima. At the same time it is one of the six avasyakas and, to men- 
tion a category which is outside the sphere of this survey, one of the 
five caritras. As an avasyaka it belongs to the life of the layman 
when it is temporary (itvarika) and to that of the monk when it is 
lifelong (ydvat-kathita). 

Two explanations of the term are usually current. For Sidd- 
hasena Ganin 3 it is an exercise in samaya etymologized as the 
attainment (ay a) of equanimity or tranquillity of mind (samet). 
Pujyapada 4 holds samaya to be ‘the process of becoming one 
(ekatva-gamana), of fusion of the activities of body, mind, and 
speech with the atman\ and the practice designed to achieve this 

i £r (V) 21 5. 3 & (A) vi. 81-85. 

3 T (S) vii. 16 (p. 91). 4 T (P) vii. 21. 


end is the samayika. In any event the samayika in IiaribhadraV 
definition implies at the same time the cessation of all blameable 
activity and the concentration on blameless activity. 

The £vetambara texts give a ritual for the samayika based on the 
Avasyaka Ciirni, a distinction being made between the ordinary 
and the affluent layman. For a man of great wealth or invested with 
the authority of a ruler special rules are laid down in order to in- 
crease the prestige of the Jaina community by emphasizing the fact 
that he has adhered to the. sacred doctrine. In the former case the 
following procedure is prescribed 2 : 

The samayika may be performed in one’s own house or in a 
temple, or in a specially designed fasting-hall ( posadha-sala), or in 
the presence of a sadhu , or in a place where one is resting or not 
engaged in any activity. The individual intending to perform the 
rite must not be in fear of anyone or in dispute with anyone or 
indebted to anyone, nor should there be other cause for anxiety 
to sway his mind in any direction. He must, like a sadhu, observe 
the five samitis and the three gaptis and avoid all harmful (savadya) 
speech, and before picking up or setting down any object he must 
not neglect pratilekhana and pramarjana . 3 He should try to avoid 
spitting or blowing his nose, but if he cannot help doing so, should 
first find a bare patch of ground and carry out pratilekhana and 
pramarjana. Then, making obeisance to the sadhus , he is to repeat 
the following formula: 

karemi hhante samaiyam savajjairi j ogam paccakkhdmi java sahu pajju- 
vdsami duviham tivihenam manenam vayae kayenavi na karemi kardvemi 
tassa bhante padikkamdmi nindami garihami appanam vosirami. 

I engage, lord, in the samayika , making pratyakhydna, for as long as I 
worship the sadhus of harmful activities whether I have done them or 
caused them to be done by others; neither with mind, speech nor body 
will I do them or cause them to be done by others ; I confess them, lord, 
and reprehend and repent of 4 them, and I cast aside my past self. 

Each word of this formula — usually styled the samayika-sutra — 
is analysed in detail by the commentators. Thus the Prakrit vocative 
bhante is interpreted as an invocation of him ‘who makes an end to 
existence, to reincarnation’ ( bhavanta ). Nindami and garihami are 

1 Av (H), p. 8316. * Av (H), p. 832a 

3 pratilekhana is the scanning of the ground or of any object for the presence 
of living creatures and pramarjana the removing of such living creatures by 
means of a monk’s broom {raja-harana). 

4 It will be recalled that garha is one of the gutias of samyaktva. 



said to have the same meaning; but the former expresses reproba- 
tion made in one’s own mind and the latter reprobation voiced in 
the presence of a guru. Pratyakhyana of course refers to harmful 
activities in the future, pratikramana to those already past; and it 
is the self which is the author of past harmful activity {samdya- 
yoga ) which is cast aside. 1 

After reciting this formula the layman must make airyapathiki- 
pratikramana and then alocana. After vandana to the acaryas in 
order of seniority and to his preceptor he is to make pratilekhana 
and sit down to engage in svadhyaya. If (as happens when any of 
the impediments mentioned at the beginning exist) the samayika is 
performed in one’s own home or in the posadha-iala the question 
of the arrival formalities does not arise. 

A king or very rich man will come with camaras and chattras and 
regal ornaments, there will be horses and elephants and foot- 
soldiers and chariots in his retinue, and as he goes to the presence 
of the sadhu or to the temple, the common people will bow down 
and praise him crying, ‘Blessed is the sacred law.’ When he arrives 
he will lay aside the insignia of royalty and take off shoes, and 
sword, and diadem; and then only is he to make Jina-puja and 
guru-vandana. If, when he has performed the samayika , he were to 
go away as he came with much pomp and a great retinue it would 
be from the religious angle undesirable, so he departs on foot. As 
the sadhas cannot fittingly stand up when he arrives, since he is 
only a sravaka , a seat is disposed beforehand so that he may be 
given the honours fitting to his rank while the acaryas await him 
standing up. Thus the delicate question of whether or not they 
should rise does not present itself; and on arrival he makes the 
samayika and then pratikramana and then pays reverence to the 
sadhus. During this time he lays aside his ear-rings, signet-ring, 
flower garlands, betel, and outer garment, but opinions differ as to 
whether he should or should not take off his diadem. 2 

It is reiterated in many places that in the samayika the layman 
becomes like an ascetic and for that reason it should be performed 
often. The assertion seems to stem originally from the Avasyaka - 
niryukti : 3 

samaiyammi u kae samano iva savao havai jamha 
eena kdranenain bahuso samaiyam kujjd 

1 Y& iii. 8a (p. Sos), 2 Av (H), p. 83 za-b; Y£ iii. 82 (pp. 508-9). 

3 Av (H), p. 832ft. 


A similar verse is to be found in the Sravaka-prajnapti , 1 * whilst in 
the Pratima-pancasaka 2 the samayika is described as the layman’s 
highest temporary guna-sthana ; it may exert such an effect on him 
that he is led to renounce the world altogether. However, this 
assimilation of the sravaka to the yati is to a greater or less extent 
a feature of all the necessary rites, and even in the samayika where 
the identity of layman and ascetic is most nearly achieved too 
much stress can be laid on the comparison. Iiaribhadra 3 warns 
that the likeness will never be more than partial just as when refer- 
ence is made to a candra-mukhi stri : her face resembles the moon 
only in its roundness ( parimandalyd ), affability (, saumyata ), and 
grace ( kanti ) but differs from it in many other ways. Since the 
householder when he ‘empties his senses’ with mind concentrated 
on the Jina attains in effect to the maha-vratas at a particular point 
in time and space it might be supposed that he would achieve per- 
fect restraint and self-control (samyama). However, as Pujyapada 4 
points out, the karmans and kasayas are still present so that the 
term maha-vrata can only be held to be used figuratively, just as 
caitra is said to be present everywhere in a royal household. 

Samantabhadra 5 envisages the layman who is performing the 
samayika as a monk on whom clothes have been draped, and this 
phrase becomes a cliche with succeeding Digambaras. Camunda- 
raya 6 takes the view that by overcoming the parisahas and upasargas, 
by maintaining silence, and by refraining from all manifestation of 
himsa he does in fact achieve the maha-vratas. Elsewhere, however, 
it is emphasized that there is no real cessation of attachment to 
material things or disapproval for those activities of daily life 
which constitute arambha. Where the sadhu has recourse to the 
maha-vratas the iravaka relies on the anu-vratas ; nor does the 
latter necessarily maintain the full ritual prescriptions, for example, 
those governing the use of the mukha-vastrika and rajo-harana i 
even during the samayika . 7 

The older Svetambara texts generally lay down that the samayika 
should be carried out as often as possible . 8 Amongst the Digam- 
baras Amrtacandra 9 recommends morning and evening and 
whenever possible outside those times, and A^adhara 10 the night- 

1 SrPr 393. 2 P (£rUP) n. 3 Av (H), p. 8336. 

4 T (P) vii. 31. 5 RK iv. ia. 6 CS, p. 11, 

7 &Fr 310. 8 Av (H), p. 833 b. 9 PASU 149. 

10 SDhA v. 29, 



time and the end of day ; but usually the three sandhyas or links of 
time — dawn, noon, and sunset — are indicated as proper for the prac- 
tice of the rite, which should last for a minimum of one muhurta. 

As has already been noted, the choice of a place for its perfor- 
mance is, for the &vetambaras, the same as that offered for the other 
avasyakas, and the Pratima-pancasaka 1 even refers expressly to a 
communal samayika observance in the posadhci-sala. The Digam- 
baras lay more stress on silence and solitude : Karttikeya 2 insists on 
a place where there are no gnats or other disturbing insects, no 
babble of sounds (kalayala), and no tumult of many people; 
Samantabhadra 3 suggests a solitary forest clearing, a sanctuary, or 
one’s own home; Vasunandin 4 a temple, one’s own home, or any 
undefiled spot facing north or facing south ; and ASadhara 5 is con- 
tent merely with solitude. 

Svetambaras and Digambaras give the aticaras of this mat a alike : 

(i) misdirection of mind ( mano-duspranidhana ); 

(ii) misdirection of speech (vag-duspranidhana ) ; 

(iii) misdirection of body (kaya-duspranidhana ) ; 

(iv) forgetfulness of the samayika (smr ty- akarand) ; 

(v) instability in the samayika (anavasthita-karana). 

(i) Mano-duspranidhana. For Haribhadra 6 this means ‘wonder- 
ing whether household tasks have been rightly performed’. He 
quotes from the Sravaka-prajnapti 7 a verse to the effect that the 
samayika , when performed by a sravaka who under the influence of 
arta-dhyana becomes a prey to mundane anxieties, is ineffective. 
Siddhasena Ganin 8 explains that duspranidhdna arises when the 
mind is swayed by eddies of anger, avarice, deceit, pride, and envy: 
and this interpretation is followed by later ^vetambaras. Pujyapada 
and Camundaraya 9 hold that this aticdra implies a failure to sur- 
render the mind to meditation. 

(ii) Vag-duspranidhana. Haribhadra 10 defines this as the use of 
indecent, harsh, or hurtful language. The Srdvaka-prajnapti , 11 
again repeatedly quoted on this point, lays down that is essential 
to speak with discretion and avoid any words that can have a 
harmful effect; otherwise the samayika becomes impossible. For 
Siddhasena Ganin 12 this aticdra amounts to confused and hesitant 

1 P (SrUP) 12. * KA 353* 3 iv * 9- 

4 Sr (V) 274* 5 SDhA v. 28. 6 Av (H), p. 834a. 

’ grPr 313. 8 T (S) vii. 28. 9 CS, p. 11. 

10 Av (H), p. 8346. 11 grPr 314. 12 T (S) vii. 28. 


enunciation of the syllables and inability to comprehend the mean- 
ing of the text. The same view is taken by Hemacandra and by 
Pujyapada, Camundaraya, and Asadhara. 

(iii) Kaya-duspranidhana. Haribhadra 1 understands by this the 
failure to make pratilekhana and pramarjana of the ground and of 
all material objects, and to keep the hands and feet and other limbs 
of the body from moving, amounting to pramada in the perfor- 
mance of the samayika. In this connexion he speaks of making 
pramarjana with the soft flap of a garment. On the nature of 
this aticara there is general agreement among Svetambaras and 

(iv) Smrty-akarana. This is generally held to be an inability 
through extreme carelessness to remember when the samayika is to 
be performed or whether or not it has been performed. Thus since 
the whole of the religious life depends on mindfulness the samayika 
is nullified . 2 Unlike mano-duspranidhana which implies a tem- 
porary deviation of the mental processes this aticara can vitiate the 
practice of the samayika over long periods . 3 Lack of concentration 
is the simple Digambara definition . 4 

(v) Anavasthita-karana. This is explained as a failure to observe 
the proper formalities in carrying out the samayika , or a readiness 
to give it up after a very short time, or the taking of food 
immediately after it is finished . 5 The Digambaras apply the 
designation anadara to this aticara^ explaining it as a lack of zeal 
in the performance of the samayika . 6 

The nature of the samayika , as it is presented in the early 
Svetambara texts, is obscured or altered at an early date among the 
Digambaras, at least as an element of the lay life. The concept of a 
brief period of detachment from the world and its cares, of a respite 
from the tyranny of love and hate, is still to the fore in Pujyapada, 
Samantabhadra, Camundaraya, and above all Amirtacandra 7 but 
with this are gradually being associated, as aids to the attainment 
of this state of mind, elements of ritual from the other amsyakas. 
Thus Samantabhadra 8 prescribes for the samayika the ritual move- 
ments and other requirements ( avarta , pranama , yatha-jdta> 

1 Av (H), p. 8346. 2 T (S) vii. 28. 3 Y§ iii. 116 (p. 577). 

4 T (P) vii. 33. 5 YS iii. 116. 6 CS, p. 11. 

7 PASU 148 ; RK iv. 10. The general picture is that of the sainte indifference of 

St. Francois de Sales. 

8 RK v. 18. 



nisadya, tri-yoga-suddhi ) that form part of the vandanaka in the 
Svetambara canonical writings ; whilst avartas and pranamas are 
mentioned by Karttikeya . 1 

Posture and symbol assume an increasing importance. The 
sanketa types of pratyakhyana offer a model for Samantabhadra 2 
when he proposes that the samayika should be maintained for as 
long as the hair is tied up, or the fist clenched, or the garment 
knotted. These symbolic limits for its duration — kesa-bandha , 
musti-bandha , and vastra-bandha — are noted again by Camunda- 
raya 3 and by Asadhara . 4 Various mu dr as find a place in Amitagati’s 5 
description of the rite: they include the three — Jina-mudra , yoga - 
mudra l, and mukta-sukti-mudra — that have been incorporated in the 
standard ^vetambara caitya-vandana ritual, as well as a vandana- 
madra in which the devotee stands with his hands clasped in the 
form of a half-open lotus on his stomach. Five forms of obeisance 
( pranama ) are noted by Amitagati : 6 with one limb (the head), with 
two limbs (the hands), with three limbs (the head and hands), with 
four limbs (the hands and knees), and with five limbs (the head, 
hands, and knees). These types are fairly generally accepted and are 
noted by Hemacandra . 7 The third pranama is the ardhdmnata 
and the fifth the pancanga of the caitya-vandana ritual. There are 
more considerable divergencies in the recommendations for the 
postures to be adopted in the samayika : Karttikeya 8 mentions the 
paryankasana and the seated kayotsarga to which Samantabhadra 9 
and Asadhara 10 add the upright kayotsarga ; Amitagati 11 envisages 
the padmasana^ paryankasana, virasana, and gav-asana; Camunda- 
raya 12 speaks of the paryankasana and makara-mukhdsana ; and 
Somadeva 13 notes the padmasana , virasana , and sukhasana. Kartti- 
keya 14 lists seven requisites for the samayika : fitting time (kala) and 
place (ksetra), posture ( asana ) and mood ( vilaya ), purity of mind 
( manah-suddhi), of speech (vacana-suddhi), and of body (kaya- 

But the most significant extraneous element which is absorbed 
into the samayika is the custom of making offerings. Samantabha- 
dra 15 envisaged the puja as an aspect of dana , but the more general 
trend is to associate it with the samayika , and from this stems the 

1 KA 371. 4 RK iv. 8. 3 CS, p. 11. 

4 SDhAv. 28. 5 3 r(A) viii. S*~S6. 6 Ibid. 63-64. 

7 Yg, p. 61a. 8 KA 355 - 9 RKiv. 8. 

10 SDhAv. 28. 11 Sr (A) viii. 45-48. 12 CS, p. 11. 

13 Handiqui, p. 281. 14 KA 352. 15 RK iv. 30. 

C 787 


injunction that it is to be performed at the three sandhyas. Even 
Amrtacandra 1 regards piija with prasuka substances as part of the 
samayika ritual whilst Vasunandin 2 comprises under this the adora- 
tion of the sacred doctrine, the images, and the paramesthins. The 
logical development is already clearly apparent in the Yaiastilaka 3 
where the discussion of the samayika-vrata covers dhyana as well as 
every form of dravya-puja and bhava-puja. 

With the Svetambaras a more rigid tradition maintains the 
separate identity of the samayika-vrata but at the same time, as 
will be seen, many elements from it are incorporated into the 
caitya-vandana. Thus the five abhigamas of that ritual are drawn 
from the description of the arrival of the ruler or rich disciple 
desirous of performing the samayika . In fact, as with the Digam- 
baras, this slanting of the concept had begun at an early date. 
Abhayadeva , 4 in his commentary on the Pancasakas , expressly 
admits the possibility of performing, for example, Jina-snapana- 
puja during the samayika inasmuch as piija does not fall within the 
definition of savadya-yoga. 

However, samayika and caitya-vandana are still felt to be suffi- 
ciently distinct to receive separate treatment in the £raddha-dina- 
krtya. In the section devoted to the samayika Devendra notes the 
traditional distinction of the rich and poor disciples and the de- 
scription of the ritual given in the Avasyaka Curni, adding one 
significant detail that is of later origin. If the vocative bhante is 
used in the recitation of the samayika-sutra it is obligatory on the 
devotee, if no monk is present, to set up a sthapanacarya — a sym- 
bolic representation of the guru — to which adoration is offered 
just as the Jina image is worshipped in place of the Jina, who is 
for ever absent from the world. For this sthapanacarya Devendra 
uses the term suri . 5 The samayika is also mentioned in another 
passage of the Sraddha-dina-krtya where it appears to designate 
any worship offered in the home when, because of some impedi- 
ment, a man is unable to go to the temple . 6 

The diminishing importance of the samayika in the lay life is 
manifest in the fifteenth- century Sraddha-vidhi 7 where it figures 
among the practices which are possible only during the leisure of 
the rainy season. In that connexion Ratna^ekhara comments signi- 

1 PASU 155. * (V) 375, 3 Handiqui, pp. 369-83. 

4 P (A) 35 (P- 38). 5 SrDK 330. 6 Ibid. 77. 

7 Sraddha-vidhi, p. 158a. 


ficantly that the acceptance of the samayika is difficult for a rich 
man whilst the pujd is easy. 

A brief allusion deserves to be made to the resemblance between 
the desavakasika-vrata and samayika-vrata noted by some Digam- 
bara acaryas. Samantabhadra 1 defines the latter as the complete 
avoidance of those five sins which are the subject of the anu-vratas. 
Asadhara insists 2 that a distinction must be made between them, 
explaining that in the desavakasika-vrata all papa outside a tiny 
radius ceases whilst in the samayika-vrata for a brief moment all 
papa everywhere is eliminated. 


In character closely related to the dig-vrata , of which it is a re- 
duced version in time and space, this vow is considered by the 
^vetambaras to be the second of the siksa-vratas', but the Digam- 
baras in the main prefer to place it among the guna-vratas im- 
mediately after the dig-vrata. However, Samantabhadra (with 
Sakalalurti) and Asadhara (with Medhavin) hold it to be the 
first, and Karttikeya the last, of the siksa-vratas. Perhaps because 
considered to be basically identical with the dig-vrata the desdva- 
kasika-vrata is omitted by those acaryas who make sallekhana the 
subject of the last siksa-vrata. 

Abhayadeva 3 describes this vrata as an assumption for a limited 
time ( avakasa ) of the restrictions of place (< desa ) set forth in the dig- 
vrata since freedom of movement is restricted to a tiny part of the 
area previously measured out. Where previously the boundaries 
were measured in hundreds of yojanas and the restrictions were to 
operate for a lifetime or a year or, at the very least, for four months, 
it is the surroundings of one’s home and the limits of a day that are 
now prescribed. It is in fact a symbolic epitome of all the vratas. Its 
intensity, says the Sravaka-prajnapti , 4 should be contained within 
a small compass like the poison of the serpent’s eye. Haribhadra 
explains this illustration thus : at one time the serpent’s poison eye 
could kill at a radius of twelve yojanas but later a magician drove it 
away and limited its range to on tyojana. In the same way a layman 

1 RK iv. 7. 

3 P (A) 37. 4 SrPr 319. 

SDhA v. 28. 


is to contract his harmful activities and reduce the danger caused 
by them by imposing narrower limits on his own ‘poison eye’ — 
those movements which kill living beings. 

For the spatial dimensions of the desavakasika-mata Siddhasena 
Ganin 1 prescribes a room of a house, a whole house, a village, or 
a township, and, as an example of its duration, the period from dusk 
to dawn. Other time limits suggested are a night, a day, five days, a 
fortnight, or for even shorter periods such as a prahara or a mukurta . 2 

Spatial limitations with the Digambaras are similar. Samanta- 
bhadra 3 suggests as suitable boundaries a house, a merchant 
caravan, a village, a wood, or, in terms of measurements, one 
yojana. Camundaraya* proposes the suppression of all journeying 
except for the walk from one’s home to the bathing tank and back, 
Amrtacandra 5 would confine movement to a village, a street, a 
market, or a house. There is a tendency among later Digambaras 
to read into this vrata a ban on certain types of travel irrespective 
of limits set. Thus Medhavin 6 condemns under this head all 
journeying to countries where the Jaina teaching is unknown and 
its prescriptions not observed. In regard to time the Digambaras 
would seem to admit much longer periods for the observance of 
the desavakatika-vrata than do the Svetambaras. Samantabhadra 7 
speaks of a fortnight, a month, two months, four months, six 
months, a year, and Karttikeya 8 mentions a year ‘or other period’. 

The basic idea underlying both the dig-vrata and the desavaka- 
Hka-mata is that if a man reduces his freedom of movement to a 
restricted area, small or large, his absence from all the area not 
comprised within the self-imposed limits will mean that he can be 
said to be keeping the maha-vratas , the rigid vows of an ascetic, 
in that wider area ; whilst at the same time constant awareness of 
these spatial limits will result in added vigilance in the observation 
of the ann-vratas within them. 

All the sravakacara texts record the aticaras of this vow in the 
same form: 

(i) having something brought from outside (anayana-prayoga) 

(ii) sending a servant for something from outside ( presya ~ 
prayoga ) ; 

(iii) communicating by making sounds ( sabdanupata ) ; 

1 T (S) vii. 16 (p. 90). 2 Y& iii. 117. 3 RK. iv. 3. 

4 cs » P* 9 - 5 PASTJ 139. 6 gr(M) vii. 40. 

7 RK iv. 4. 8 KA 367. 



(iv) communicating by making signs ( rupanupatd ) ; 

(v) communicating by throwing objects ( bahya-pudgala - 

(i) Anayana-prayoga. This would seem from the evidence 
of the texts to mean ‘getting somebody to take a message in order 
to obtain something from outside one’s self-imposed limits ’. 1 
ITemacandra 2 explains that the essence of the vrata — the avoidance 
of harm to living organisms through moving to and fro outside the 
designated area — is violated even by causing someone else to make 
such movements on one’s behalf. The Digambaras style this 
aticara simply anayana and render as ‘giving orders to have some- 
thing brought from outside the limits ’. 3 

(ii) Presya-prayoga. The older $vetambara texts distinguish 
this offence from the preceding one by implying an element of 
compulsion : ‘giving orders to a servant to have something brought 
from outside ’. 1 The Digambaras interpret it as ‘causing work to be 
done by a servant outside one’s self-imposed limits :’ 4 in both this 
and in the previous aticara orders are given to an employee. 

(iii) ^ab dan up at A. The picture of this aticara given by the 
& vetambaras is more or less as follows : a man stands just inside the 
wall or enclosure of his house (which he has chosen as the boundary 
of his activity) and by making noises such as sneezing or coughing 
attracts the attention of people who are near at hand, and then em- 
ploys them on various errands . 5 The Digambaras consider that the 
offence consists in attracting the attention of men working outside 
in the hope that they will understand and do what is required of 
them without delay . 6 

(iv) RupAnupata. This is exactly parallel to the preceding 
aticara except that signs and gestures are used to attract attention. 

(v) Pudgala-praksepa. Again there is an exact parallelism 
(both for Digambaras and ^vetambaras). Here clods of earth, 
sticks, stones, or bricks are thrown to attract attention. 

1 Av (H), p. 835a. 

* CS, p. 9. 

2 Y£ iii. 117. 

5 Av (H), p. 83 $b. 

3 t (P) vii. 31. 
e CS, p. 9. 




For the Prakrit posaha (corresponding to upavasatha ) there have 
come into existence a number of false sanskritizations pausadha , 
prosadha , posadha — of which the last seems to have attained the 
most general currency. It is commonly held to mean the parvan , 
the day of the moon’s periodic change and the etymologically 
tautological posadhopavdsa is accordingly interpreted as 'the fast on 
th t parvan day’. Whilst this is the only explanation admitted by 
some texts, by the Tattvdrtha-bhasya , l for example, elsewhere 
the fantasy is given free play and the posadha becomes ‘that which 
strengthens or fattens the religious life’, (posam pustim prakramad 
dharmasya dhatte posadha). 7 - For Caritrasundara it is a contraction 
of paramau§adha ‘the supreme medicament’. In ordinary usage of 
course posadha is synonymous with posadhopavdsa. 

There are some major divergencies between Digambaras and 
^vetambaras in posadha observance. The Digambara texts ex- 
plicitly or implicitly indicate that the fast should continue from 
noon on the day preceding the posadha (the dharanaka) till noon 
on the following day (the paranakd) that is, for a total of forty- 
eight hours. The $vetambara writers, however, mention a period 
of twenty-four hours (aho-ratra) 2 * and some of the later authorities 
admit even a shorter term. 4 There are four posadha days — the 
catusparvi made up of as t ami, caturdasi purnima , and amavasi — in 
a month but some Svetambaras admit the possibility of additional 
days. Thus the most widespread view is that of the Tattvartha - 
bhdsya, 5 which names specifically the astami , caturdasi , and pancadasi 
of each half-month with the possibility of other optional posadha 
days (for which Siddhasena Ganin suggests the pratipada), and the 
late Acaropadcsa 6 would regard the 2nd, 5th, 8th, nth, and 14th of 
each parvan as posadha days. In the main, however, the texts are 
silent on this point. 

In the classifications of the doctrine th e posadha has two niches : 
it is the third (or for some Digambaras the second) siksa-vrata and, 

1 T (S) vii. 16 (p. 93). 2 Y§ iii. 85. 

3 However, it would seem that this might in practice be longer as the layman 

should not break his fast till he has fed the ascetics, that is, not until after the 
first pauru?l of the day. 

4 e.g. Ratnasekhara in the Sraddha-viclhi, p. 153&. 

s T (S) vii. 16 (p. 93). 6 AU v. 4 - 13 . 


at the same time, it is the fourth pratima. It is also sometimes 
regarded as a form of tapas. It will be convenient to treat together 
any references to the posadh a, irrespective of the category to which 
they are assigned, and to commence by a description of the ritual 
as the later lovetambaras have codified it. 

From the canonical texts onwards the Svetambaras list four 
spheres of application for the posadha , which may in each case be 
either partial {desatas) or entire (sarvatas) : 

(i) In respect of food ( ahara ) : 

(a) partial — eating once or twice only during the period, or 
eating tasteless food (; nirvikrtya ) only, or taking only 
rice and water (acamamla), or taking only water; 

(b) entire — complete abstinence from the fourfold aliments. 

(ii) In respect of bodily care (deha-satkara) : 

(a) partial — omitting some aspect of the toilet such as 
bathing ; 

( b ) entire — complete abstinence from bathing, massaging, 
cooling pastes, perfumes, and all other forms of care 
for the person. 

(iii) In respect of sexual intercourse ( maithuna ) : 

(a) partial — continence during the day only, or for a period 
of one or more praharas , or limitation to one or two 
acts of intercourse during the full period; 

(b) entire — complete abstinence from sexual relations, 

(iv) In respect of worldly occupations (vyapard): 

(a) partial — refraining from certain of the harmful activities 
of a householder ; 

(b) entire — complete abandonment of all activities. 

It would appear that it is only in regard to food that the Digambara 
acaryas admit the possibility of partial restraints: they insist on 
total abstinence in all other respects. Thus Amitagati 1 stipulates for 
the performance of the posadha the relinquishment of all bodily 
adornment ( samskara ) including garlands, perfumes, unguents, 
and even betel (which is generally considered as ahara), and of 
worldly duties, as well as a state of brahma-carya. Similarly Kart- 
tikeya’s 2 ruling is clear: that without complete cessation of arambha 
no posadhopavasa is effective. 

1 3 r (A) vi, 89. 

3 KA 374. 


With regard to food there are then three possibilities : 1 

(i) the best (uttama) — upavasa (a complete fast) ; 

(ii) the next best (madhyama) — anupavasa (a fast in which the 
taking of water is permitted) ; 

(iii) the least satisfactory (jaghany a) — eka-sthana or sakrd-bhojana 
(the taking of one meal a day). 

All these food restrictions are of course forms of pratyakhyana. 
There is fairly general agreement on the nature of the uttama and 
madhyama types but for the jaghanya type A^adhara 2 prefers 
acamamla (taking only rice and water) or nirvikrtya (taking only food 
without vikrtis) whilst Vasunandin 3 * 5 offers a choice of eka-sthana } or 
eka-hhakta , or aca?namla } or nirvikrtya , and Vamadeva* mentions 
only kanjikahara (which is equivalent to acamamla)* 

Pujyapada 6 and Camundaraya regard the posadhopavasa as a 
relinquishment of the pleasures of the five senses even of such as 
are afforded to the ear by sounds. Camundaraya 7 indeed etymolo- 
gizes the word upavasa as ‘the state in which the sense organs abide 
(vasanti) after reaching (upetya) quiescence’. In general it is held 
that the primary aim of the posadhopavasa is to enable the samayika 
to be properly performed : wherever it is entire there of necessity 
the samayika exists, where it is partial the samayika may or may 
not be attained. Asadhara 8 takes up from Samantabhadra the 
cliche that a man performing the posadha appears to onlookers as 
a muni on whom clothes have been draped. 

According to the ^vetambaras the fast, like the avasyakas in 
general, may be carried out in a temple, in a posadha-sala y in the 
presence of a sadhu , or in one’s own home. The Digambaras are 
generally content to say that any secluded spot is suitable but 
Pujyapada and Camundaraya 9 recommend a temple, or the abode of 
a sadhu , or one’s own fasting-room ( sva-posadhopavasa-grhd ). 
Somadeva 10 mentions a temple, one’s home, a hill-top, or a forest 
glade. The whole time should be spent in meditation ( dhyana ) or 
scriptural study {svadhyaya). 

The posadha ritual is given in considerable detail in the later 

1 RKiv. 19. z SDhAv. 35. 3 £r (V) 29 2. 

« BhS (V) 508. 

5 For an. explanation of these terms see p. 209. 

6 T (P) vii. 21. 7 CS, p. la. 

5 CS, p. 12. 10 Handiqui, p. 282. 

8 SDhA vii. 5* ' 


Svetambara writings. The following description is taken from 
Yasovijaya 1 , who has used a number of older texts : 2 3 

On th e posadha day the layman is to lay aside ornaments of gold 
and jewels and to remove garlands, vilepanas and varnakas and to 
break off all his worldly occupations. Then taking all he requires for 
the posadha he should go to the posadha-sala or to the presence of a 
sadhu, choosing a suitable piece of bare ground for defecation and 
micturition. If no sadhu is present he sets up a sthapanacarya after 
reciting the namaskara, then makes airyd-pathiki-pratikramana and 
recites a ksama-sramana. 2 After examining his mukha-vastrika for 
living organisms he again recites a ksama-sramana followed by 
a declaration of his intention to carry out the posadhopavasa either 
partially or entirely in the four kinds. After further repetitions of 
the ksama-sramana he performs samdyika and svadhyaya. Then he 
again examines his mukha-vastrika and also his clothes, and rajo- 
harana, and the sthapanacarya. Then he makes pratilekhana of his 
bedding and brushes the posadha-sala , and after airyd-pathiki- 
pratikramana again, engages in svadhyaya like a sadhu . He may 
then, if it is the proper occasion, make puja in the temple. If his 
posadhopavasa is not to be a complete fast (that is, if it is to be 
ekasana, or dcamamla, or nirvikrtya , or anupavasa) he may go home 
to eat or drink or else have food or drink brought to him in the 
posadha-sala by his servants but should not obtain his meal by 
begging as a sadhu would. Returning to the posadha-sala he follows 
the same routine as before. If he has to satisfy a bodily need he must 
observe the same precautions as a sadhu. If required he should per- 
form visramana for the sadhus. At the end of the appointed time 
he declares that the posadha is completed, stands up, and recites the 
namaskara and then, kneeling with his head touching the ground, 
recites verses in praise of disciples of MahavJra, who performed the 

Asadhara 4 gives the following directions for the performance of 
the posadhopavasa. After eating and feeding the sadhus at noon the 
layman should go to a secluded spot and fast. He should spend 
the rest of that day meditating on religion and, after performing the 
evening puja and other necessary duties, should pass the night on a 

1 Dharma-Sanigraha, pp. 90 ff. 

2 As, for example, Haribhadra’s commentary on the Avaiyaka Sutra. 

3 For an explanation of this and other terms used see pp. 199 ff. 

4 SDhA v. 36-38. 


bed which is devoid of living organisms, devoting himself to 
smdhyaya, and letting his mind dwell on the anupreksas. After the 
si xpraharas of the night are over he is to get up and carry out the 
dawn puja and necessary duties, to pass the remaining ten praharas 
in similar fashion, and at noon on the morrow of the parvan day to 
take a moderate repast, at the same time feeding the sadhus. During 
the fast should be made either mentally or with acitta materials 
such as aksata to Jinas, sastra and gurus, and all such diversions as 
music and dancing which lead the mind astray should be avoided. 

More extensive information is given by Vasunandin. 1 On the 
saptami and trayodasi days of each half-month the layman, after 
eating and feeding the minis , is to wash his face and hands and feet, 
and clean out his mouth, and go to the temple for worship. After 
paying obeisance to the guru and carrying out the necessary duties 
in his presence he is to fast from the fourfold aliments also in his 
presence. The rest of that day he will spend reciting the scriptures, 
listening to dharma-kathas, and thinking on the anupreksas. He 
performs the evening puja. and passes as much of the night as he 
can in the kayotsarga posture. Having made pratilekhana of the 
ground and prepared a bed in a small compass he is to sleep in the 
temple or in his own house ; or else he may pass the whole night in 
the kayotsarga. Rising at dawn he will carry out the morning 
worship of Jina, sastra and gurus with dravya-puja and bhava-piijd. 
According to the same pattern he will pass the actual posadha day 
and the morning of the paranaka day which follows, and will then 
return home to eat and to feed the sadhus. 

There is little factual difference in the aticaras recognized by 
Svetambaras and Digambaras but there are two ways of arrange- 
ment of them : one traditionally Svetambara, and the other adopted 
by the Digambaras and also by Haribhadra in the Dharma-bindu 2 
and by Hemacandra in the Yoga- sastra . 2 The former scheme is: 

(i) failure to examine the sleeping-place ( apratilekhita-iayyd ) ; 

(ii) failure to examine the place of excretion ( apratilekhita - 
sthandila) *, 

(iii) failure to sweep the sleeping-place (apramarjita-sayya) ; 

(iv) failure to sweep the place of excretion ( apramarjita - 
sthandila ) ; 

(v) improper general performance of the fast (samyag ananu - 

1 £r (V) 280-9. 

DhB iii. 36. 

3 Yg iii. 118. 


The second schema is more convenient as a basis for the present 

(i) excreting without examining and sweeping the spot ( apra - 
tyupeksitapramarjitotsarga ); 

(ii) picking up or laying down an object without examining and 
sweeping the spot ( apratyupeksitapramarjitadana-niksepa ) ; 

(iii) making one’s bed without examining and sweeping the spot 
(apratyupeksitapramarjita-samstara ) ; 

(iv) lack of zeal in performance ( anadara ) ; 

(v) forgetfulness ( smrty-anupasthapand ). 

The aticaras as here presented are clearly modelled on those given 
for the samayika-wata with which the posadhopavasa is closely 
associated. It is of course the Tattvartha-sutra 1 that is responsible 
for the innovation and it is from this work that Haribhadra and, in 
his wake, Hemacandra have borrowed it. 

(i) ApratyupeksitApramArjitotsarga. A suitable spot 
of ground must be chosen, examined, and swept either with a 
monk’s broom ( rajo-harana ) or with the flap of one’s garment be- 
fore voiding faeces, urine, spittle, or any bodily discharge. The 
^vetambara writers specify that neither must there be a failure to 
do this nor must it be done distractedly ( udbhranta-cetasa ), if the 
destruction of living organisms by the dropped excreta is to be 

(ii) ApratyupeksitApramArjitAdAna-niksepa. Sidd- 
hasena Ganin 1 understands by this the picking and laying down of 
sticks, boards, stools, and similar objects without the due precau- 
tions already mentioned. Pujyapada and Camundaraya 3 explain 
this aticara as the handling of objects used in the Jina-puja or in 
the obeisance to the guru such as perfumes, garlands, sandalwood 
paste, and incense or of articles of personal use such as pots and 
pans and clothing. The word nihsepa does not always figure in the 
nomenclature of the aticara but according to Hemacandra 3 is always 
implied. Although this aticara is missing from the traditional 
3vetambara list the deary as, taking say yd and sthandila as upala- 
ksanas , regard it as included. 

(iii) ApratyupeksitApramArjita - samstAra. Haribha- 
dra, 4 defining the sayya or samstdra as ‘consisting of darbha grass, 

I T (S) vii. 29. 2 CS, p. 12. YS iii. n8. 

4 Av (H), p. 8366. 


kasa grass, blankets, or clothes’, says that pratilekhana is obligatory 
before going to bed, before lying down again after easing nature, 
before strewing grass on the ground, and indeed before entering 
the posadha-sala. As in the case of the two preceding aticaras in- 
spection and cleaning are everywhere held to be essential before 
mats and garments are spread on the ground. Hemacandra 1 points 
out that in the designations of these three aticaras the negatives are 
used in a pejorative sense just as the term abrahmana is applied 
contemptuously to an unworthy brahmin. 

(iv) Anadara. For Siddhasena Ganin 2 this means a lack of 
zeal, and for Pujyapada and Camundaraya 3 more expressly a lack 
of zeal expressed in failure to perform the necessary duties 
(avasyaka) owing to the travail of hunger. To this aticara corre- 
sponds the samyag ananupalana of the traditional Svetambara list 
defined by Haribhadra 4 as a ‘failure to carry out the fast according 
to the ritual with unflinching mind’. In this connexion Abhayadeva 5 
and Siddhasena Suri give the following elucidation. Vexed by 
hunger and thirst whilst performing th q posadhopavasa the layman 
thinks: ‘Tomorrow I shall have an excellent meal cooked, with 
ghrta-purna cakes and other delicacies and shall drink grape-juice 
and other refreshing drinks, I shall bathe and anoint myself and 
make my toilet with saffron paste and comb my hair elegantly, if it 
is hot I shall sprinkle myself with water.’ Thus he continues to 
desire the pleasures of the senses and to recall with lascivious 
words and gestures the joys of venery and to ponder on the prob- 
lems of worldly business which will confront him, so that there is 
no virtue in his fast. Devendra , 6 in the §raddha-dina-krtya , records 
a divergent designation for this aticara : bhojanabhoga (‘the enjoy- 
ment of food’), which, by taking bhojana as an upalaksana , he inter- 
prets in the same way. 

(v) Smrty-anupasthapana. Siddhasena Ganin 7 explains 
this as ‘inability to remember whether one has or has not per- 
formed th e posadhopavasa or whether one is or is not to perform it’. 
This is a fatal defect as the attainment of moksa is rooted in mind- 
fulness. For the Digambaras this aticara is no more than lack of con- 
centration and Adadhara 8 in fact applies to it the name anaikagrya 
‘an unsteadiness of the mind in fulfilling the necessary duties’. 

1 Yg iii. 1 1 8. 2 T (S) vii. 29. 3 CS, p. 12. 

4 Av (H), p. 8366. 5 P (A) 30. 6 £rDK, pt. ii, p. 126. 

7 T (S) vii. 29. 8 SDhA v. 40. 


As in other cases Somadeva 1 has a very personal interpretation 
of this vrata . He holds the five aticaras to be : failure to examine the 
ground ( anaveksd ), failure to sweep the ground ( apratilekhana ), 
wrong physical activity ( duskarmarambha ), wrong mental activity 
(t durmanaskard ), and failure to carry out the necessary duties 
( avasyaka-virati ). 

The commentators show considerable interest in whether a 
layman is to use the monk’s broom ( rajo-harana ) for the operation 
of sweeping the ground, which is an essential part of the posadho - 
pavasa, Haribhadra, Siddhasena Ganin, Hemacandra, and the 
Digambaras do not refer to the question but the other ^vetambaras 
all mention its use. Abhayadeva 2 and Ya^odeva discuss the point at 
some length quoting the Avasyaka Curnz and other texts. If the lay- 
man who is making the posadhopavasa is with a sadhu he is to ask 
him for his rajo-harana y if he is at home he will use a rajo-harana 
if one is available, if not, the end of his garment. 


This vrata covers the most important single element in the 
practice of the religion for, without almsgiving by the laity, there 
could be no ascetics and therefore no transmission of the sacred 
doctrine. But dana in its largest sense may include the giving of 
one’s daughters to wife and the transmission of property to one’s 
heirs (in other words questions of marriage and succession), the 
exercise of charity to relieve want even outside one’s own com- 
munity (a form of ahimsa ), the construction of temples and com- 
munal institutions such as posadha-salas, and even the performance 
of piija (viewed as the giving of flowers, incense, flagstaffs, and 
similar offerings to the Jina). In the categories used to elaborate the 
doctrine dana also figures as one of the six karmans to be carried 
out continually by the layman and as one of the constituents of the 
fourfold dharma. 

The designation usually applied to this vrata is atithi-samvibhaga 

Handiqui, p. 28 3. 

P (A) 29. 

150 J 

(‘sharing with the guest’). The word atithi has in fact been special- 
ized by the Jainas to signify a sddhu on his almsround and is ex- 
plained to mean ‘one who has no tithi\ i.e. who is unfettered by the 
fixed dates— the parmn days or the festivals {atsava)— which are 
important in the secular life. Samantabhadra replaces the term 
atithi-samvibhaga by vaiyavrttya which is more generally used to 
indicate the physical services rendered by laymen or monks to 
other monks in need. Kundakunda and Karttikeya prefer the 
form atithi-piija and Amrtacandra atithi-dana ; whilst Somadeva is 
alone in employing the simple expression dana. 

Though agreeing on essentials Svetambaras and Digambaras 
differ considerably in their formulation of the subject. It is generally 
recognized that five factors have to be considered: 1 

(i) the recipient ( pair a ) ; 

(ii) the giver (ddtr ) ; 

(iii) the thing given ( datavya , dravya ) ; 

(iv) the manner of giving (dmia-vidhi) ; 

(v) the result of giving ( dana-phala ). 

The first four of these are set out in a separate siitra at the end of 
the seventh adhydya of the Tattvartha-sutra. 2 P ujyapada, comment- 
ing on this, states that the recipient is of superlative quality if 
possessed of attributes which lead to moksa, the giver if devoid of 
envy and dejection, the thing given if it conduces to study and 
religious austerities, the manner of giving if the atithi is welcomed 
with fitting reverence. He adds that the excellence of the reward 
is proportionate to these qualities just as a rich harvest depends 
on the fertility of the soil, the grade of the seed, and similar factors. 

The 3vetambaras regard dana as conditioned by five factors to 
which it must be appropriate (the enumeration is canonical and is 
found in all their sravakacara texts from the Sravaka-praj hapti 
onwards) : 

(i) place ( desa ), i.e. whether the area produces rice or wheat or 
other cereals or pulses ; 

(ii) time ( kala ), i.e. whether there is famine or abundance; 

(iii) faith {sraddha), i.e, whether the giver is in a state of purity 
of mind ; 

1 &r (V) 320. 

2 T (P) vii. 39. 


(iv) respect (satkara), i.e. whether due attention is shown to the 
atithi ; 

(v) due order (krama), e.g. whether the boiled rice ( odana ) or 
the rice gruel ( peya ) is offered first. 

The Tattvartha-bhasya refers to these factors as the vidhi and 
Siddhasena Ganin 1 interprets them rather differently from the 
other deary as. For him the mention of desa means that the spot 
must be free of sthdvara-jivas and trasa-jivas, kdla implies a meal- 
time by day and not by night or a suitable occasion for offering 
clothes and begging bowl, sraddha signifies a desire to give alms, 
whilst by krama are intended the traditional usages of a country 
in such matters as apparel or else the classification of patras into 
uttama , madhyama , and jaghanya. Like the other £vetambaras he 
understands by satkara what the Digambaras call the puny as. 

With this goes a conventional description 2 enjoining that the 
alms offered must be nyayagata (‘righteously acquired’ by oneself 
or by one’s forebears and not the product of reprehended occupa- 
tions) and kalpanlya (‘suitable’, i.e. in the case of food, in confor- 
mity with the canonical prescriptions as to what may be eaten) ; and 
that they must be given with deep devotion, in the consciousness 
that it is the atithi who confers rather than receives a favour. In 
fact, as the Tattvdrtha-sutra? says, ddna is an outpouring of one’s 
substance to benefit both the recipient who takes food and drink 
and the giver who finds the recompense of his action in another 

To return to the five topics enumerated by Vasunandin both 
Svetambaras and Digambaras recognize a classification set out in 
full by Amrtacandra , 4 Amitagati,* Vasunandin , 6 and Asadhara into 
three or, if the undesirable types are included, five patras : 

(i) the best recipient (1 uttama-patra ) — a Jaina ascetic ( sakala - 
virata ) ; 

(ii) the next best recipient (madhyama-patra) — a Jaina layman 
who is mounting the ladder of the pratimas (viratavirata ) ; 

(iii) the least satisfactory recipient ( jaghanya-pdtra ) — a non- 
practising layman who has the right belief ( avirata-samyag - 
drsti ) ; 

1 T (S) vii, 34 (p* JI 9)- 3 ( H )| P* 837^* 

3 T (S) vii. 33. 4 PASU 171. 5 & (A) x. 1-38. 

6 &r (V) 221-3. 


(iv) a poor recipient ( ku-pdtra ) — a person of righteous life but 
without right belief (samyaktva-vivarjita) ; 

(v) a wrong recipient ( a-patra ) — a person devoid of right belief 
and of all good qualities, delighting in meat, alcohol, and 
honey (, samyaktva-sila-vrata-varjita ). 

Somadeva 1 seems to be the originator of another classification of 
the patras designed to put a premium on erudition: 

(i) ascetics and laymen who are the support of the faith 
( samayin ) ; 

(ii) astrologers and specialists in other sciences of practical 
utility {sadhaka) \ z 

(iii) orators, debaters, and litterateurs (samaya-dipaka or satnaya- 
dyotaka ) ; 

(iv) ascetics and laymen who have accomplished austerities and 
observe the mula-gunas and uttara-gunas (; naisthika , sadhu ) ; 

(v) leaders of the community in the field of religion ( ganadhipa , 
suri ). 3 

Asadhara 4 has incorporated this classification into his own work, 
slanting it slightly by substituting naisthika for sadhu and ganadhipa 
for suri % since both these terms may be understood to cover laymen 
as well as ascetics. 

Somadeva 5 seems also to be responsible for a general classifica- 
tion of dana not found elsewhere except as a quotation in the 
commentary to the Sagdra-dharmamrta . 6 

(i) sattvika — alms offered to a worthy recipient by a giver 
possessed of the seven datr-gunas ; 

(ii) rajasa — alms offered in self-advertisement for momentary 
display and in deference to the opinion of others ; 

(iii) tamasa — alms offered through the agency of slaves or ser- 
vants without considering whether the recipient is good or 
worthy or unworthy and without showing marks of respect. 

Of these the first is the best and the last the worst. Here as else- 
where Somadeva shows his indebtedness to vedantist influences. 

1 Handiqui, p. 384, 

2 The meaningless sravaka of the printed text should certainly be emended to 

3 These patras cover the same categories of individuals as those listed by 
Hemacandra as prabhavakas (p. 45), 

4 SDhAii. 51. 5 Handiqui, p. 385. 6 SDhAv. 47. 


He goes on to explain 1 that a meritorious ascetic is the most de- 
serving of all pdtras but where no sadhu is available charity may be 
given to any co-religionist. To test the worthiness of the recipient 
is unnecessary since the mere act of giving purifies the layman; he 
will in any event have to disburse money, and dana is the best way 
of employing his wealth. Almsgiving to adherents of other faiths 
can do little good, and they should never be entertained in one’s 
own house as their presence there might vitiate the ritual of the 
nine puny as. In particular a rigorous ban is placed on all contact 
with Buddhists, Carvakas, Saivas, and Ajivakas. 

The Digambaras have established a list of qualities which should 
be manifested in a giver. These seven datr-gunas are : 

(i) faith ( sraddha ) — confidence in the result attained by the 
alms given; 

(ii) devotion ( bhakti ) — love for the virtues embodied in the 

(iii) contentment (tiisfi ) — -joy in giving; 

(iv) zeal (sattva) — even when one is not rich, that energy in 
practising dana which excites the admiration of the very 

(v) discrimination (vijndna ) — awareness of what is fit or unfit to 
be given; 

(vi) disinterestedness (lobha-p arityaga , alubdhata , alaulya ) — lack 
of desire for worldly reward; 

(vii) forbearance ( ksama ) — absence of anger even when there are 
grounds for it. 

Such is the list given by Devasena, 2 Amitagati, 3 and Camundaraya. 4 
A less developed 3vetambara version of this is found in Siddha- 
sena Ganin’s commentary on the Tattvartha-sutra'.s sraddha, sattva, 
vitrsnata, ksama, vinaya , sakti. 

Another Svetambara version is given in the Taitmrtha-bhasya : 6 

(i) absence of ill will towards the 

recipient (anasuya) ( anasuyatva ) 

(ii) absence of dejection in giving 

(< avisada ) (avisaditva) 

(iii) absence of condescension to- 
wards the recipient (aparibhavita) (nirahankaritva) 

1 Handiqui, pp. 284-5. 2 BhS ( 0 ) 496. 3 Sr (A) ix. 3-10. 

4 CS, p. 14. 5 T (S) vii. 33 (p. 1 17). 6 Ibid. 34 (P* 13 °)- 

C 737 M 


(iv) j oy in giving (priti-yoga) 

(v) auspicious frame of mind (kusa~ 

(vi) lack of desire for worldly result 

(vii) straightforwardness ( nirupa - 

(viii) freedom from hankering for an- 
other rebirth ( anidanatva ). 

The forms given in brackets on the right belong to the list of 
seven datr-gunas of the Digambara Amrtacandra.^It is apparent, 
therefore, that the datr-gunas vary between six and eight in number, 
with the figure of seven stabilized in the standard list of the later 
Digambara texts. 

Amitagati 2 considers that the best giver is a man who practises 
dana merely from hearing about it, the next best he who practises 
it because he has seen it carried out, and the least satisfactory he 
who fails to practise it even though he has both seen and heard of it. 
Almsgiving is totally ineffective if performed by one who beats or 
hurts or intimidates others or commits such offences as theft. It 
must always be accompanied by fair words for, offered ungra- 
ciously, it provokes enmities. If a giver still regards what he has 
given as his own property all his possessions will be stolen from 
him by his sons or wives or by thieves. 

The Digambaras give a fourfold classification of the datavya : 3 

(i) shelter to living beings in fear of death ( abhaya ) ; 

(ii) food ( ahara , anna) ; 

(iii) medicaments (< ausadha ) ; 

(iv) knowledge (jhdna). 

Naturally this caturvidha-dana represents a purely conventional 
division and applies only in part to the atithi-samvibhaga-vrata. 

A variant classification of the caturvidha-dana is given by 
Pujyapada and Camundaraya : 4 

(i) food (bhiksd) ; 

(ii) religious accessories ( dharmopakarana ) which fortify the 

3 &r (A) ix. 40-43. 

4 CS, p. 14. 

( muditva ) 


( aihika-ph alanap eksa) 

1 PASU 169. 

3 e.g, £r (V) 333-8. 



(iii) medicaments ( ausadha ) ; 

(iv) shelter ( pratisraya ). 

This schematization of course restricts the concept to alms- 

The concept of what may licitly be given varies. As suitable for 
almsgiving Haribhadra 1 recommends food and drink, clothes, 
almsbowls, and medicaments ( ausadha , bhesaja ), and expressly 
excludes money (Mr any a), Siddhasena Ganin 2 enumerates food, 
clothes, almsbowls, and staves (dandaka). The food should be rice, 
wheat, or other cereals, excellent of its kind, well-cooked, and well- 
flavoured. Devagupta 3 lists food such as sweetmeats, drink such as 
milk or grape-juice, clothes, almsbowls, medicaments, blankets, 
and lodging (sayya explained as vasati), Abhayadeva* and Ya^odeva 
repeat Haribhadra’s list of datavya again insisting that no money 
may be given. 

Hemacandra 5 remarks that it is sometimes suggested that there 
is no canonical authority for dana in any form other than food and 
drink and goes on to quote texts permitting the offering of clothes, 
blankets, bedding, rajo-haranas y and other necessary accessories, to 
ascetics. Such gifts are justified because the monk is thereby 
enabled through care for his body to pursue the religious life. 
Clothes obviate the need to seek the warmth of a fire which would 
destroy brushwood and they help him to concentrate his mind on 
sukla-dhyana and avoid the disturbance of sickness. The use of an 
almsbowl makes it easier for him to avoid swallowing food which is 
impure or water in which there are minute forms of aquatic life. 
It is irrelevant to say that there is no record of the tirthankaras 
possessing clothes or almsbowls and that accordingly their dis- 
ciples do not need them, since by their supernatural knowledge 
the Jinas can distinguish between tainted and untainted food and 
between sterile water and water containing living creatures, and 
so do not need almsbowls. Again when sadhus are obliged to go 
outside during the rainy season the blanket helps to avoid the 
destruction of ap-kayas whilst the merciful purpose of the rajo - 
harana is too well known to need description. Similarly the mukha- 
vastrika serves to preserve sampatima-jwas, saves vayu-kayas from 
perishing in the stream of hot air emanating from the mouth, and 

1 Av (H), p. 8376. 
3 NPP iai. 


3 T (S) vii. 34 (p. H9). 

5 YJ§ iii. 87 (pp. 521-6). 


prevents prthvi-kayas entering in the form of dust. In the rainy 
season, too, the use of planks ( phalaka ) and stools (pitha) to lie and 
sit on is essential, since it is forbidden to lie on ground which is 
covered with mould ( panaka ) and tiny living creatures ( kuntlm ), 
whilst bedding is required in the hot and cold seasons. Most 
beneficial to the life of the ascetics is the provision of lodging, for 
an upasraya furnishes them with food and drink and clothing and 
beds at the same time, and protects them from cold and heat, and 
thieves, and stinging insects. In fact it can be said that there is 
no objection to any article required for the religious life and the 
giving of such articles is therefore meritorious. 

Hemacandra 1 is equally explicit in his definition of undesirable 
gifts ( kn-dana ). Gold and silver inflame the passions of anger, 
greed, and lust, iron provokes the death of living beings, sesamum 
seeds afford a breeding ground for the spontaneous generation of 
living organisms. Nor can there be any merit in the gift of a cow 
which destroys living creatures with its hooves, eats unclean 
things (even though its dung is esteemed holy), and is the cause of 
suffering to its calf each time it is milked; go-dana is therefore a 
form of miidhata , of foolish superstition. Similarly kanya-dana the 
gift of a daughter in marriage cannot be regarded as meritorious : 
whatever fools may think, even the dowry given at a wedding is no 
more than an oblation that falls in the dust, for a woman is the key 
to the door that leads to an evil destiny and bars the way of salva- 
tion, it is she who steals away the treasure of the religious life. 
Offerings to the spirits of the ancestors are equally vain : those who 
seek to nourish the dead are in effect watering a wooden club in the 
belief that it will sprout into growth. It is absurd to imagine that 
the ancestors will derive sustenance from food given to brahmins. 
Offerings made or ascetic practices pursued by a son cannot 
absolve a parent from sin. Special condemnation is reserved for 
the offering of meat to recipients of alms. 

Devendra 2 recommends as licit alms for a sadhu , in addition to 
the fourfold aliments, medicaments, clothes, woollen or cotton, 
almsbowls, books, staves of wood or bamboo, blankets, and 
rajo-haranas. But the best of all forms of dana is the gift of a 
dwelling-place ( vasati ) for in addition to food and shelter this 
gives the possibility for study and meditation and development 
of the righteous life, 

1 YS iii. 87 (the antara-Uokdh on pp. 527-32). 

SrDK 176-8. 



Among Digambara acaryas Amitagati 1 furnishes the fullest in- 
formation about what may or may not be given. Forbidden objects 
include anything by which a living being may be killed, by which 
harmful activities may be provoked, through which misfortune is 
occasioned or disease spread, or as a result of which fear is inspired 
or the recipient ruined. There is an express ban on the gift of land 
— the earth is compared to a pregnant woman whose foetus, repre- 
sented by th tjivas living within it, is destroyed by ploughing — and 
houses, as in them harmful activities which prolong the cycle of 
transmigration are carried on. The other items on his list are 
virtually the same as those enumerated by Hemacandra : iron, gold, 
money, sesamum seed, meat, kanya-dana (marriage is the concen- 
tration of all harmful activities) offerings to the pitr, and go-dana 
(the cow is the object of false beliefs and is given by people who fol- 
low a false path). Licit dana 2 on the other hand includes anything 
which destroys disease, has a beneficial effect for another person 
or strengthens devotion to religion; and in addition to the catur- 
vidha-dana, clothes, almsbowls, and shelter ( asraya ) as distinct 
from landed property. 

Somadeva , 3 after listing the catiirvidha-dana , remarks, in con- 
nexion with ahara-dana, that food offered as alms should not have 
been touched by evil persons or consecrated to devas or Yaksas; 
nor should it have been bought in the market or be prepared with 
unseasonable commodities. Food, shelter, and books are to be sup- 
plied to the monks so that they can devote themselves to study and 
meditation which are impossible without comforts. Physical toil 
and the career of arms demand less effort from a man than intel- 
lectual concentration. 

In contrast to Somadeva, who mentions only the caturvidha-dana 
to ascetics, Vasunandin* enjoins the giving of food not only to the 
monk on his almsround, but to the very young and the very old, the 
blind, the dumb, and the deaf, strangers from another land, and 
sick people; this is the practice of karuna-dana. To all who are 
weakened by disease, fasting, fatigue, or anxiety, salutary medi- 
cines are to be given. Jnana-dana implies arranging for the study 
and recitation of the scriptures as well as the distribution of texts 
that have been copied out. 

In the treatment of ku-dana Asadhara propounds certain 

r £>r (A) ix. 44-69. 2 &r (A) ix. 81-107. 

3 Handiqui, p. 284. 4 £r (V) 335-7. 


distinctions. In agreement with Amitagati he lays down that a nai- 
sthika layman may give nothing that is prejudicial to right conduct 
and right belief. Offerings to the spirits of the ancestors, donations 
of lands to brahmins for the performance of special ceremonies, gifts 
made to ward off untoward consequences at eclipses of the sun or 
moon, and astrological conjunctions all come under this ban. It 
applies also to gifts of land and gold on the occasion of the marriage 
of a daughter where the recipients may make evil use of them so 
that in general the ku-dana for a naisthika includes land, houses, 
iron, cattle, and horses . 1 However, a paksika layman is not only not 
forbidden but is enjoined to give his daughter and with her lands, 
house, gold, jewels, horses, elephants, and carriages to suitable 
co-religionists. Such kanya-dana is a form of sama-datti 2 As an 
expression of haruna-dana? one should support those who are in 
need because they have no livelihood, whether or not they are 
one’s dependants, by giving them food by day, and water, betel, 
cardamums, and medicines even by night. 

The primary form of dana is of course food and as an ascetic 
must live by begged food it must always be the most important. 
The Dvadasanupreksa * affirms that the giving of food embodies all 
gifts since the diseases of hunger and thirst occur every day. It pre- 
serves life and through the strength given by it sadhus study the 
scriptures night and day. 

The abhaya-dana } extolled as the noblest of all gifts and re- 
peatedly illustrated by the famous apologue 5 of the four queens and 
the robber, is only in name a form of dana and belongs properly 
to the sphere of ahimsa. 

Successive Svetambara writers 6 give a ritual for dana quoted 
from the Avasyaka Curni. When a layman has completed the 
posadhopavasa he is under an obligation to feed monks before he 
breaks Iris fast but at other times he may eat either before or after 
the almsgiving. When the mealtime approaches he puts on his 
best clothes and ornaments and goes to the sadhus ’ lodging to invite 
them to come and accept alms. If able to, they accept and two of 
them — one should not go alone — return with him, walking in front 
with the layman behind them. Directing them to his house he in- 

1 SDhA vi. 53. 2 SDhA ii. 56-57. 3 SDhA 75-76. 

* KA 363-4- 

5 A summary of this tale in English is to be found in Jacobi’s introduction to 
his edition of the Samaraditya-katha . The Prakrit text appears on pp. 785-7. 

6 e.g. iii. 87 (pp, 536-7). 



vites them to sit down. Either he himself gives them food and drink 
or else he holds the platter whilst his wife offers the alms. Then he 
makes obeisance to them and accompanies them for a few steps as 
they leave, after which he may take food himself. If there are no 
sadhus in the village where he lives he should go to the door when 
it is time to eat and look carefully in all directions giving expression 
to the pious wish : Tf only there were sadhus then I should find the 
way to salvation ( nistarito * bhavisyam ).’ The layman should in any 
event only consume the same food as has been offered to the monks, 
but the food should not have been specially prepared for them, 
though what is given must be of the best quality. 

Devendra 1 describes the layman as making puja to the house- 
hold images when the time to eat comes. Having prepared the best 
gruel he invites the sadhus , and as soon as he espies them coming 
towards his house he goes to meet them. Surrounded by his house- 
hold he makes obeisance to them. Then like a physician to a sick 
man he should apply the treatment of dana , taking into considera- 
tion time and place and circumstances ( avastha — explained as 
‘whether there is famine or abundance’), and the individual (• purusa 
— explained as signifying whether he is acarya, upadhyaya , young, 
old, in good or in ill health). These elements recall the five factors 
listed earlier as conditioning the giving of alms. 

The Digambaras treat the ritual ( dana-vidhi ) as made up of nine 
elements termed puny as : these are mentioned by Karttikeya and 
Samantabhadra and enumerated by Vasunandin, Asadhara, and 
Vamadeva as follows : 

(i) reception ( pratigraha , sthapana) — seeing the monk at the 
door of his house or inviting him from a distance the lay- 
man should welcome him with the words: Namo *stu 
tisfha ; 

(ii) giving a seat of honour (ucca-sthana> yogyasana) — if he 
accepts the proffered alms he is to be brought into the 
house and led to the best seat; 

(iii) washing the feet (andhri-ksalana, car aria- ksalana , padodaka) 
— his feet are then reverently washed; 

(iv) worship {arcana) — the layman then pours the padodaka 
(water in which the feet have been washed) on his own 
head and makes puja to the sadhu with perfumes, flowers, 
aksata , naivedya , incense, fruits, and lamps ; 

1 £rDK 171-5* 


(v) obeisance {anati, pranama ) — next after putting on him a 
garland of flowers and reciting the panca-namaskara he 
bows down to him; 

For the act of dana purity under four aspects is necessary, the first 
three referring to the donor : 

(vi) purity of mind (manah-suddhi) — freedom from arta-dhyana 
and raudra-dhyana ; 

(vii) purity of speech ( mcana-mddhi ) — the avoidance of harsh 
words ; 

(viii) purity of body (kaya-suddhi) — firm control of the senses ; 

(ix) purity of food ( anna-hiddhi ). 

The sixth, seventh, and eighth items of this list represent another 
manifestation of the familiar category of the tri-yoga — mind, 
speech, and body. 

The impurities of food (pinda-dosa) in other words the defects 
that preclude its acceptance as alms by monks form a canonical 
category familiar both to $vetambaras and Digambaras. They 
belong rightly to the field of yaty-acara but are enumerated by 
some writers on the lay life. A figure of fourteen is usually set for 
them though a late Digambara writer, Vamedeva 1 notes sixteen. 
Here is the list as given in a verse quoted by Vasunandin from 
the Mulacara : 2 nails, living organisms, bones, excrement, hair, 
specks of dirt, meat, blood, skin, tubers, roots, fruits, seeds, and 
particles of grain. 

In their developed form as a category of nine the punyas are 
peculiar to the Digambaras ; however, the Svetambaras include the 
same elements under what they term satkara. Thus Haribhadra 3 
mentions standing up (< abhyutthana ), offering a seat {asana-pradana), 
worship ( vandana ), and following the departing guest ( amwrajana ). 
To these Siddhasena Ganin 4 adds massaging the feet (carana- 
pramarjana) the final adi indicating that the enumeration is not 
complete. Siddhasena Ganin 5 notes that any gift may be either 

(i) solicited {prerita) like the food begged by a sadhu; or 

(ii) accepted ( anumata ) like the clothes given to an acarya who, 
desirous to show favour to the giver, approves the offering 
made; or 

1 Bh (V) 530. 

4 T (S) vii. 16 (p. 94). 

Mulacara, 484. 

3 Av (H), p. 8376. 
1 Ibid. 34 (p. 1 1 8). 


(iii) not rejected ( anirakrtd ) like the offerings of flowers or in- 
cense made to the Jina. 

As a postcript to the discussion of the ddtavya it is worth noting 
that a fifteenth-century writer Ratnadekhara 1 distinguishes three 
types of licit dana : first, the fourfold aliments; secondly, clothes, 
almsbowl, blanket, and rajo-harana ; and thirdly such articles as 
needles ( suci ), sewing-thread ( pippalaka ), nail-cutters, and ear- 
cleaners. In his view 1 there should be annually a presentation of 
certain articles including clothes, blankets, rajo-haranas , thread, 
wool, almsbowls, jugs (• udankaka ), water jars ( tumbaka ), staves, 
needles, and pins ( kantaka ). 

The insistence on the results of dana is proportionate to its pre- 
eminence among religious duties. Like other meritorious acts it can 
contribute to the extinction of karma or to the amassing of a favour- 
able karma or may find requital in the present life. Even though the 
scriptures teach that all almsgiving is vitiated if done for worldly 
fame it is still true, as Vasunandin 2 says, that the ignorant are loath to 
perform any action from which they can expect no material result. 
Samantabhadra 3 has written that the feeding of ascetics wipes 
away the karma heaped up by the activities of the household life just 
as water washes away blood. 

Though the older texts mention various auspicious results from 
almsgiving the Digambaras 4 come more and more to associate 
dana with rebirth in the fairy-tale world of the bhoga-bhumis. In 
fact a regular equation is established: gifts to an uttama-patra 
bring rebirth in an uttama- bhoga- bhumi, to a ku-pdtra in a hi- 
bhoga-bhumi , and so on, whilst gifts to an apatra lead to no result 
whatever; Amitagati, Vasunandin, A^adhara, Devasena all dwell on 
this theme. The Svetambaras do not seem to regard this kind of 
reincarnation as having any special connexion with dana. 

Amrtacandra , 5 concerned as always to stress the unique im- 
portance of ahimsa and its permeation of every vrata, affirms that, 
since acquisitiveness ( labha ) which is a manifestation of hima is 
overcome by dana , almsgiving brings about a cessation of himsa. 
That man is full of lobha who fails to feed the monk who comes 
to his house like a bee in flight without causing injury in his 

1 Sraddha-vidhi , p. 161a. 2 Sr (V) 239. 3 RK iv. 24. 

4 5 r(A) xi. 62-88; $r(V) 239-70; BhS 497-533* 5 PASU 172-4. 


The aticaras of the atithi-samvibhaga-vrata are enumerated 
similarly by all writers, ^vetambara and Digambara, except 

(i) depositing alms on sentient things (sacitta-niksepa ) ; 

(ii) covering alms with sentient things (sacitta-pidhana) ; 

(iii) transgressing the appointed time (kaldtikrama ) ; 

(iv) pretending that the alms belongs to others ( para-vyapadesa ) ; 

(v) jealousy in almsgiving (matsarita). 

Samantabhadra 1 replaces the third aticara by anadara (lack of 
respect) a vague term taken from the samayika- and posadhopavasa- 
mat as. 

(i) Sacitta-niksepa. Siddhasena Ganin 2 explains this as the 
depositing of the licit fourfold aliments on sentient uncooked 
grains of rice, wheat, or barley with the intention of avoiding alms- 
giving since such dana , though offered, cannot be accepted by the 
sadhu ; thus the fame of an almsgiver will be obtained at no cost. 
Haribhadra 3 takes the same view. Abhayadeva 4 and Ya^odeva in- 
terpret as ‘depositing on the earth’ (which is full of prthvi-kayas). 
Hemacandra 5 offers the choice of both explanations. Pujyapada 6 
and Camundaraya consider that the aticara refers to the placing of 
food on a lotus leaf or other leaf; this would be a mistake on the 
giver’s part but not necessarily evidence of a niggardly intention. 
A^adhara 7 suggests that it may mean ‘depositing on the ground, on 
water or on plant leaves’. 

(ii) Sacitta-pidhAna. The &vetambaras all interpret this in 
the same way: covering the alms offered with fruit, leaves, flowers, 
or roots with the same intention as in the previous aticara . The 
Digambaras Pujyapada and Camundaraya 8 speak only of lotus 

(iii) KAlatikrama. The Svetambaras understand by this the 
offering of dana either when the time has passed for the monks to 
eat or when the time has not yet come, so that in either case they 
are obliged to refuse. As before, the covert intention is to avoid 
almsgiving. Haribhadra , 3 in fact, quotes a verse to the effect that the 
real value of giving lies in giving at the right time. The Digambaras 
describe this aticara as ‘offering alms at an unfitting time ’. 8 

1 RK iv. 31. 2 T (S) vii. 31. 3 Av (H), p. 8386. 

4 P (A) 33 * 5 Yg iii. 1 19. 6 T (P) vii. 36. 

7 SDhA v. 54. 8 CS, p. 14. 


(iv) Para-vyapade^a. For Haribhadra 1 and Siddhasena 
Ganin 2 this implies an artifice of the following kind: if a monk 
arrives in quest of alms at the time that a layman is breaking his 
fast after the posadhopavasa he is merely told ‘this does not belong 
to us but to someone else* or ‘this belongs to so-and-so, go and ask 
him 5 . This interpretation is followed by the later Svetambaras and 
by A^adhara. Pujyapada 3 and Camundaraya suggest that the 
aticara consists in offering some other person’s alms as if it were 
one’s own. 

(v) Matsarita. Two possibilities of interpretation are uni- 
formly admitted by the Svetambara authorities . 2 Either matsarita 
means a state of resentment or anger aroused by the monk’s solici- 
tation even though alms are actually given; or a feeling of envy 
(defined as ‘dejection at the excellence of an another person’) pro- 
voked by the sight of a well-to-do neighbour giving generously. 
This again will stimulate egoistic emulation. Pujyapada and 
Camundaraya 4 understand by matsarita a lack of respect in alms- 
giving even though an offering is made. A^adhara 5 combines the 
&vetambara and Digambara versions. 

All these offences are aticaras because whatever the artifices 
adopted the rightness of dana is never called in question and the 
external marks of respect for the mendicant which constitute the 
satkara are observed; actual impediments to the giving of alms or 
dejection of mind for that cause would, as Devagupta 6 points out, 
constitute a bhanga. 

There is another general classification, again Digambara, of the 
act of giving, in this case more usually termed datti: 

(i) almsgiving ( patra-datti ) ; 

(ii) giving shelter ( daya-datti ) equivalent to abhaya-dana or 
karuna-dana ; 

(iii) transfer of one’s entire property to a son or kinsman before 
abandoning the lay life (sakala-datti or anvaya-datti) ; 

(iv) gifts to equals (sama-datti) covering such subjects as trans- 
fers of property during one’s lifetime or the marriage of a 

The distinction of the first and fourth types is inevitably blurred at 
many points. 

* Av (H), P . 8386. 

3 T (P) vii. 36. 

6 NPP 137. 

4 CS, p. 14. 

T(S) vii. 31 (p. 115)- 
* SDhA v. 54* 


This fourfold datti is perhaps best defined as the treatment 
given to dana when regarded as one of the six daily duties. The 
classification introduced, it would seem, by Jinasena 1 is taken up by 
Camundaraya , 2 who is indebted on more than one score to the 
Mahapurana, and later by Asadhara, and finds a last distant echo in 
Medhavin. Of its four elements patra-datti has already been dis- 
cussed, daya-datti belongs really to ahimsa , and sakala-datti will 
be dealt with later under the kriyas. Sama-datti is defined by Jina- 
sena 3 as the giving to an excellent recipient — similar to oneself in 
respect of kriya, mantra, and vraia — of land, and gold, and horses, 
and elephants, and chariots, and daughters ; such anuttama-patr a is 
styled nistaraka (one who assists or rescues). If no person equal to 
oneself in these respects is to be found such dana may be made to 
a madhyama-patra . Asadhara* understands by kriya such cere- 
monies as the garbhadhana described in the Mahapurana , by mantra 
the panca-namaskara and other ritual formulae, and by vrata the 
piija and the mula-gimas. The distinction between patra-datti and 
sama-datti is pointed again by Asadhara 5 in a verse which pro- 
claims that a dharma-patra is to be entertained for the sake of one’s 
well-being in a future life and a karya-patra for the sake of one’s 
repute in this world. Kanya-dana , so strongly condemned by 
Hemacandra or by Amitagati , 6 is extolled on the other hand from 
the angle of sama-datti as the path to happiness in this world, since 
a wife, says Asadhara , 7 punning in a way that reflects a turn of 
phrase of the neo-Indian languages, is called a house ( grha ), but a 
mere mass of walls and matting cannot be called a house. 

The question how much of one’s property is to be devoted to 
dana is raised with increasing frequency in the later texts. The 
earliest writer to give a clear-cut answer to this question seems to 
have been Devasena , 8 who takes the view that a wise man should 
divide his property into six parts. The first is for the dharma , the 
second for the upkeep of his family, the third for luxuries ( bhoga ), 
the fourth for maintaining his servants, and the fifth and sixth 
shares together are to be used for performing puja. 

It would appear that Hemacandra 9 is the author of a more 

1 MP xxxviii. 35. 2 CS, p. 30. 3 MP xxxviii. 38-39. 

* SDhA ii. 57* s Ibid. 50. 6 £>r (A) ix. 57-58. 

7 SDhA ii. 59. The phrase is borrowed from Somadeva. 

8 BhS (D) 578-80. Other views on. the proper distribution of one’s material 
wealth are given by Jinamandana (£rGuV, p. 34^). 

5 YS iii. 120 (pp. 583-95)- 



schematic presentation of dana in the form of the seven fields 
(ksetra), though the term ksetra at least is older for Haribhadra uses 
it twice in the Dharma-bindu : vibhavocitam vidhina ksetra-danam 1 
c give alms in proportion to one's substance, and in accordance 
with the ritual, to the ksetras ’ and vitaraga-sadhavah ksetram 2 'the 
ksetra is made up of those who excel in the law of the Jina\ The 
commentator here explains ksetra as ‘a recipient worthy to be given 
alms’. Hemacandra describes as an illustrious disciple (■ maha - 
sravaka ) the man who abides by the vratas and sows his wealth on 
the seven fields with compassion for those in great misery . 3 The 
seven ksetras are: 

(i) Jaina images ( Jina-bimba ) — wealth is sown on them by 
setting them up, by performing the eightfold puja , by tak- 
ing them in procession through the city, by adorning them 
with jewels, and by dressing them with fine clothes. 

(ii) Jaina temples ( Jina-bhavana ) — new ones are to be built and 
old ones restored. 

(iii) Jaina scriptures ( Jinagama ) — the copying of the sacred 
texts and the giving of them to learned monks to commen- 

(iv) Monks (sadhn) — ordinary almsgiving. 

(v) Nuns ( sadhvi ) — ordinary almsgiving. 

(iv) Laymen (sravaka) — the inviting of co-religionists to birth 
and marriage festivals, distributing food, betel, clothes, 
and ornaments to them, constructing public posadha-salas 
and other buildings for them, and encouraging them in reli- 
gious duties. Charity is to be extended to all those who 
have fallen into evil circumstances. 

(vii) Laywomen (sravika) — all the duties under the last head 
apply equally in respect of women, who are not naturally 
more perverse than men. 

The last four ksetras are the familiar four limbs (catur-anga or 
catur-varna) of the Jaina community. 

Hemacandra* goes on to say that a maha-iravaka should use his 
wealth indiscriminately to assist all who are in misery or poverty, 
or who are blind, deaf, crippled, or sick, irrespective of whether 
recipients or not. Such sowing of one’s substance is to be made 

1 DhB iii. 71. 3 Ibid. 73. 3 Yg iii. 120 (verse). 

4 Ibid, (p, 595). 


with limitless compassion but not with devotion ( bhakti ) as in 

Subsequent Svetambara writers take over from Hemacandra the 
seven ksetras as a convenient method of treating the subject of 
dana and A^adhara 1 refers to them when discussing the appro- 
priateness of giving alms to laywomen and nuns. 

A later development is apparent in the sahgha-piija or distribu- 
tion of blankets, cloth, needles, thread, staves, almsbowls, rajo - 
haranas, and other objects useful to an ascetic. Ratnasekhara 2 and 
Caritrasundara 3 recommend that this should be carried out 


Sallekhana , 4 generally interpreted as ritual suicide by fasting, 
the scraping or emaciating of the kasayas forms the subject of a vrata 
which, since it cannot by its nature be included among the formal 
religious obligations, is treated as supplementary to the twelve vratas ; 
however, in a few cases — by Kundakunda, Devasena, Padmanandin, 
and Vasunandin — it has been incorporated, rather anomalously, 
into the twelve as the last tiksa-vrata . Early in the 3vetambara 
tradition the £ravaka-praj napti* expressly states that sallekhana is 
not restricted to ascetics; but already in the Sravaka-dharma- 
pahcaiakaP it is given only a perfunctory mention ; it is absent com- 
pletely from those chapters of the Dharma-bindu which deal with 
the lay life; even Hemacandra, 7 despite the amplitude of his 
coverage of sravakacara , devotes only a very short space to the 
subject, and after his day the sravakacara texts are in general silent. 

The Nava-pada-prakarana 8 seems to be the only Svetambara 
sravakacara to treat sallekhana in detail. It lists the seventeen 
possible forms of voluntarily chosen death of which three only are 
permissible for a Jaina. 9 In fact these three are fused together but 
the name of only on e—prayopagamana (by the later Svetambaras 
often falsely sanskritized from Prakrit paovagamana as padapa - 
gamana and by the Digambaras sometimes abbreviated to pray a ) — 

1 SDhA ii. 73. 2 Sraddha-vidhi, p. 161 a. 3 AU vi. 19. 

4 CS, p. *3. s g rPr 382. 0 P (g r Dh) 40. 

7 Yg iii. 149-53* 8 NPP 129-35. 

9 For a consideration of these see von Kamptz, Vber die vom Sterbefasten 
handelndert dlteren Painna des Jainci-Kcinons, Hamburg, 1929. 


is retained to become synonymous with sallekhana itself, which is 
also often called samadhi-marana. 

Various reasons may decide a man to perform sallekhana. The 
3vetambara Tattvartha-bhasya 1 mentions time (explained as time 
of famine), physical weakness (samhanana-daurbalya), calamity 
( upasarga ), and the approach of death which renders the perfor- 
mance of the avasyakas impossible. Hemacandra insists on this last 
motivation. Devagupta 2 suggests that the rite should take place in 
a Jaina temple or at a kalyana-sthana( place of birth, ordination, en- 
lightenment, or nirvana of a ttrthahkara) f or if this is impracticable, 
in one’s own house (grha) or in the wilderness ( arayya ). In default of 
a kalyana-sthana Hemacandra 3 advocates grha or aranya ; but by 
the former he understands a monks’ lodging and by the latter a place 
of pilgrimage such as Satninjaya. Whatever the place chosen, the 
piece of ground on which the prospective suicide is to lie down 
must be devoid of living organisms and pratilekhana and pramar - 
jana must have been performed. 

For the ^vetambaras the actual practice of sallekhana seems, as 
in the canonical sources, to begin with a progressive withdrawal of 
food. The Tattvartha-bhasya 1 speaks of a gradually increasing 
severity of fasting of the avamattdarya type (in which one meal is 
missed and then another taken) culminating in complete abstinence 
from food and drink. The Nava-pada-prakarana 4 prefers the 
canonically approved method of first abandoning all solid food 
and then making the fast complete by extending it to include 
liquids. The confession of one’s faults (alocana) and forgiveness of 
all offences committed against oneself (ksamana) make a man fit for 
the so-called samstara-dxksa or death-bed consecration expressed 
in a special form of confession (vikafana) and reinforcement 
( uccarana ) of the vows (not, however, the administration of the 
maha-vratas ). His last moments on earth will then be spent in 
concentration on the pahca-namaskara and on the catnh-sarana 
and in meditation on the anupreksas and on all that is covered by 
the term aradhana J And even in these last moments he will need 
to be steadfast to withstand the assaults of parisahas and npasargas . 6 

There are some variations in the presentation of sallekhana by 

1 T (S) vii. 17 (p. 95). 2 NPP 129. 3 Yf 5 iii. 150. 

4 NPP 131. 5 YS iii. 151 (p. 757). 

6 For these see Glasenapp, Der Jainismus p. 207. Hemacandra lists and 
describes them: Y& iii. 153 (pp. 758-61). 


the Digambaras, the generally current views being exemplified by 
Samantabhadra 1 and Camundaraya , 2 who would seem to enjoin the 
same ritual for layman and ascetic. In a rather brief reference 
Vasunandin 3 describes a rite appropriate to sravakas only; and a 
distinction between sravaka and yati is maintained in Asadhara’s 
long and detailed treatment of the theme. 

Samantabhadra 4 prescribes sallekhana when the individual is 
overcome by calamity (; upasarga ), famine, old age, or incurable 
disease. In this last rite (anta-kriya) he is to put aside affection and 
enmity, and all attachment and acquisitiveness, and then to seek 
forgiveness of his kin and his household and his friends, at the same 
time expressing his forgiveness to them in gentle words. Only 
when he has confessed without any concealment all his transgres- 
sions, krta , karita, or anumata, is he fit to assume the maha-vratas 
in their entirety for as long as his life lasts. Abandoning dissatis- 
faction, sorrow, fear, defection, and turpitude, and stimulating 
courage and steadfastness he is to soothe his mind with the nectar 
of the scriptures. Once he has taken the maha-vratas he begins the 
fasting ritual which is in three stages, involving a gradual reduction 
in the intake, first of solid food, then of fatty liquids ( snigdha-pana) y 
then of acid liquids (khara-pana), until finally all nourishment is 
abandoned. As he repeats the panca-namaskara he is to keep his 
mind fixed on the five paramesthins until at last he abandons his 

Sallekhana in Vasunandin’s 3 conception differs little from the 
Jovetambara model and does not imply for a layman the assumption 
of the maha-vratas. He is to abandon all parigraha except for cloth- 
ing and after making alocana in the presence of a guru is to perform 
the rite in his own home or in a temple, abstaining first from solid 
food and then fasting completely. 

A^adhara 4 devotes a whole adhyaya to the consideration of 
sallekhana and the accompanying aradhana meditations and, it 
would seem, regards it as the normal conclusion of human life 
except where sudden death makes this impossible. Preparation for 
it is to be made when the individual is afflicted by old age or 
calamity and the actual fast will begin when the physical deteriora- 
tion of the body or omens, obtained from astrological data or from 
ornithomancy, indicate that the moment has come. He is, if pos- 

1 RK v. 1-7. 2 CS, pp. 22-24. 3 00 271-2. 

4 SDhA viii. 



sible, to repair to a place of great sanctity such as a kalyana-sthana or 
else to a Jaina temple, in which case, even if he dies on the way, the 
intention in his mind will have a very favourable effect on his next 
reincarnation. Then he is to make alocana to a guru (remaining 
exempt thereafter from the three salyas) and to forgive all offences 
against himself. He is now fit to receive the maha-vratas but if he 
feels a sense of shame either because he has been very rich or 
because his family are unbelievers or because nudity offends his 
sense of propriety he may avoid a frequented place and choose a 
solitary spot for this smnstara-diksa which entails nakedness. 1 In 
this last hour it is proper even for a woman to divest herself of all 
clothes. 2 For the performance of the death fast external and 
internal expressions of purity, in each case fivefold, are required ; 
these refer to the following points: 3 

External ( hahirahga ) 

(1) the bed (samstara) 

(2) the monkish insignia 


(3) the confession ( alocana ) 

(4) food (anna) 

(5) vaiyavrttya 

Internal ( antarahga ) 
right belief (samyag-darsana) 
right knowledge (samyag- 

right conduct ( samyak - 

the six avasyakas 

Whether the aspirant has taken the maha-vratas or whether, unable 
to give up attachment to clothes, he has retained his lay status he is 
now ready to undertake the fast which is carried out in stages as 
described by Samantabhadra. In very hot weather or in a desert 
climate or in the case of certain diseases the dying man may be 
permitted to go on drinking water almost until the last and only in 
extremis will he relinquish completely the four aliments A Then 
all those present will stand in the kayotsargato promote the success- 
ful outcome of this holy death and the guru will whisper in the 
dying man’s ear a few last words of exhortation : ‘Vomit forth un- 
belief and imbibe pure religion, make firm your faith in the Jinas, 
have joy in the namaskara , guard the maha-vratas , overcome the 
kasayas , tame the sense organs and by yourself see yourself within 
yourself (atmanam dtmanatmani pasyd )' 4 5 

1 SDhA viii. 37. 3 Ibid. 38. 3 Ibid. 42-43. 

4 Ibid. 63-64. s Ibid. 68-69. 


0 737 


Five aticaras are recorded for the sallekhana- as for other 

(i) desire for a fortunate rebirth as a man (iha-lokasamsa ) ; 

(ii) desire for a fortunate rebirth as a divinity (para-lokasamsa) ; 

(iii) desire for continuing life (jwitasamsa ) ; 

(iv) desire for death (maranasamsa) ; 

(v) desire for sensual pleasures (kama-bhogasamsa). 

For the last aticara of the ^vetambaras the Digambaras use the 
term nidana , already familiar as one of the salyas , which is practi- 
cally identical with one interpretation of knma-bhogdsamsa. The first 
and second infractions are given by the Digambaras as : 

(i) attachment to comfort (sukhanabandha) ; 

(ii) affection for friends (mitranuraga). 

Samantabhadra 1 is alone in regarding bhaya (fear) as the first 
aticara. The Nava-pada-prakarana 2 would consider as a bhanga of 
sallekhana any request for food or proposal to eat again, once the 
fast has been begun. 

(i) Iha-loka£amsa. This is the desire to be reborn in a human 
incarnation in which one may enjoy the good things of the world — 
as a guildsman or a king’s minister, says Iiaribhadra, 3 as a universal 
monarch, suggests Devagupta, 2 or in Hemacandra’s 4 phrase, in any 
position of wealth and fame. 

(ii) Para-loka6amsa, This is the desire to be reborn in the 
deva-loka and more particularly in a high position among the devas. 

(iii) JIVita^amsa. The Svetambaras 3 and Asadhara 5 explain 
this as meaning either a general desire for continuing life or as a 
wish to go on enjoying the high consideration accorded to a per- 
son engaged in the rite of sallekhana , with many people about him 
engaged in reciting the scriptures and performing vaiyavrttya for 
him and extolling his great qualities. Pujyapada and Camundaraya 6 
regard this aticara as ‘reluctance to abandon this body which is as 
ephemeral as a bubble of water’. 

(iv) Maranasamsa. This is, for the Svetambaras, the direct 
antithesis of the preceding aticara . 3 It means that a man conceives 
the desire to die as quickly as possible because he is disappointed 
that no one comes to wait on him and pay him respect on his 

1 RK v. 8. a NPP 135, 3 Av (H), p. 840#. 

4 YS iii. 152. 5 SDhA via. 45. 6 CS, p. 23, 


deathbed. Pujyapada and Camundaraya understand by it the hope 
of speedy death in order to put an end to the miseries of disease or 
calamity . 1 

(v) KAma-bhoga^amsA or nidana. The same interpreta- 
tion 2 may be given to kama and bhoga as in the fifth aticara of the 
brahma-vrata , but the ^vetambaras in general 3 specify here a 
desire for rebirth as a Vasudeva, or as a very handsome or very rich 
man. The Digambaras 4 understand by this aticara a desire that the 
performance of the grim rite of sallekhana may result in unbounded 
satisfaction of sensual desires in another incarnation. 

(i) Sukhanubandha. This is to be understood as the recol- 
lection of the comforts and the pleasures one has enjoyed in former 
days . 4 

(ii) Mitranuraga. This is the recollection of the friends one 
has loved, of the games of childhood, of merry festivities, and of 
shared pleasures of all kinds . 4 

It is not surprising that the duty, or at least the recommended 
practice, of ritual suicide is an aspect of Jainism that has been 
remarked and reprobated by non-Jainas. Some acaryas— Ampta- 
candra 5 and Pujyapada, for example — have therefore felt it neces- 
sary to defend sallekhana . Pujyapada 6 maintains that it cannot be 
called suicide because of the complete absence of raga which is 
always present when a person under the sway of passion or hate or 
delusion poisons or otherwise destroys himself. He compares the 
layman undertaking sallekhana to a householder who has stored 
goods in a warehouse. If danger threatens he tries to save the whole 
building but if that proves impossible he does his best to preserve 
at least the goods. The householder’s warehouse is the body and 
his goods the vratas. He does not seek the destruction of his body 
but if he cannot maintain it he tries at least to safeguard the vows 
he has taken. Asadhara 7 employs a rather similar turn of phrase : it 
is the dharma , he says, which fulfils the desires of the necessarily 
perishing body ; the body itself is recuperable in another incarnation 
but the dharma is very hard to recover. Sallekhana. alone, according 
to Amrtacandra , 8 will enable a man in dying to take away with him 
all his stock of dharma . 

1 T (P) viii. 37. 2 UD 57- 3 iil ' 5 *- 

4 CS, p. 24, s PASU 177-80. 6 T (P) viii. 22. 

’ SDhA viii. 7- 8 PASU *75- 


The underlying motive for sallekhana is perhaps best put by 
Asadhara : 1 if at the hour of death there is an offence against the 
dharma a lifetime of religious observance and meditation will be 
vain, but if the final meditation is pure even deeply encrusted sin 
will be eradicated . 2 It is the physical weakness and the mental 
delusion that are often associated with old age or grave infirmity 
that provoke the evil forms of dhyana and make it difficult or im- 
possible to keep up the daily avasyakas that help to make firm the 
mind. A healthy body is to be guarded from disease but one that 
fails to respond to treatment is to be rejected just as an evil man is 
shunned by the good . 3 In such circumstances it is easier to let the 
body waste away than to attempt to maintain the religious life ; and 
sallekhana will be, in Hemacandra’s 4 vivid phrase, in some sort an 
udyapana 5 for the whole sravaka-dharma. 

And when this body, which is like a withering leaf or like a lamp 
in which the oil is running low , 6 is at last abandoned, there is hope 
that the jwa may burst asunder the cage of existence or at least 
abridge by many hundreds of incarnations his wanderings in the 
samara P In default of moksa , it is abundantly stressed, the correct 
practice of sallekhana will certainly lead to rebirth in the deva-loka. 


The eleven stages of spiritual progress — the word pratima means 
a statue and is used in another specifically Jaina sense to designate 
the kdyotsarga — have been described by Schubring 8 as, so to speak, 
a vertical projection of the horizontally conceived vratas ; their 
enumeration would represent partly a theoretical graduation and 
partly the possibility of choice. The medieval acaryas , however, 
quite plainly conceive of th zpratimas as forming a regular progress- 
ing series in Amitagati’s words, a sopana-marga , a ladder on each 
rung of which the aspirant layman is to rest for a number of 
months proportionate to its place on the list before he is fit to 

1 SDhA viii, 1 6. 

* For some literary parallels illustrating the significance of the hour of death, 
see K. Bruhn, Silankas Cauppannamahapurisacariya, pp. 107-8. 

3 SDhA viii. 4. * YS iii, 149 (p. 755). 

5 For the meaning of this word see p. 231. 

6 Handiqui, p. 287. 7 SDhA viii. 28. 

8 Schubring, Die Lehre der jfainas, pp. 180-1. 



supplement and reinforce his achievement by the practice of the 
succeeding stage. 

The pratimas are listed below in the Svetambara (including the 
Avasyaka Curni ) and the Digambara enumerations, which diverge 



Avasyaka- Curni 

(1) darsana 



(2) vrata 



(3) samayika 



(4) posadha 



(5) kayotsarga 


ratri-bhoj ana-parij ha 

(6) abrahma-vaijana 



(7) sacitta-tyaga 



(8) arambha-tyaga 



(9) presya-tyaga 



(10) uddista-tyaga 



(11) sramana-bhuta 




The differences in these lists are more apparent than real and in 
fact concern two points : the position of sacitta-tyaga in the series 
and the insertion of parigraha-tyaga by the Digambaras. What is 
called the kayotsarga-pratima or pratima-pratima embraces a pro- 
vision for continence by day and moderate sexual congress by 
night; in other words it is equivalent to the ratri-bhakta-pratima 
as understood by the majority of Digambaras. The point at issue 
therefore is simply whether the cessation of sexual relations is to 
precede or to follow the abandonment of sacitta foodstuffs. Not 
even all the Digambaras are in agreement here for Somadeva 
reverses the positions of sacitta-tyaga and arambha-tyaga in the 
table. In regard to the second point the Digambaras would seem, 
even if they have deliberately inserted the parigraha-tyaga, to have 
eliminated the sramana-bhuta only in name, for from the time, at 
least, of Yasunandin onwards, the eleventh pratima is divided into 
two grades to which in modern times the terms ailaka and ksullaka 
are attached and the second of which seems to correspond to the 
canonical descriptions of the Sramana-bhuta. 

In reality the most important divergence on the list is that which 
the nomenclature conceals : whether the ratri-bhakta-pratima is to 
be interpreted as the restriction of sexual relations to the night 
time or as the abandonment of eating by night. In view of the 


commentators’ descriptions of the kdyotsarga-pratima there is little 
reason to question the former explanation and it would seem 
probable that Karttikeya and Samantabhadra 1 (in this as in so 
many other matters an innovator) were led to their view by the 
ambiguity of the term bhakta and by the importance ascribed to the 
avoidance of night eating. 

The Dvadasanupreksa 2 is exceptional in referring to twelve 
stages of the lay life, the first pratima implying the possession of 
samyaktva and the second the avoidance of the grosser faults 
( sthula-dosas ) such as drinking alcohol (in effect the practice of the 
mula-gunas). Generally the Digambaras regard both of these quali- 
fications as implicit in the darsana-pratima. Karttikeya lists the 
remaining pratimas in their normal Digambara order. 

In the following discussion of the individual pratimas the Svetam- 
bara view will be represented by the Pratima-pancasaka and by 
Abhayadeva’s commentaries on this and on the Upasaka-dasah , 
since later Svetambaras appear to attach little importance to this 
formulation of the layman’s duty. Even Hemacandra seems to have 
omitted it from the section of the Yoga-sastra devoted to the srava- 
kacara , and the belated description of the pratimas furnished 
apparently for the sake of completeness by Ya^ovijaya in the seven- 
teenth century is no more than perfunctory. 

i. The stage of right views (darsana-pratima) 

The Pratima-pancasaka 3 begins by explaining the word pratima 
as meaning ‘body’ (Prakrit bondt ), that body which is the vehicle of 
the human incarnation and which in the darsana-pratima is purified 
from misconceptions ( ku-graha ) through the elimination of mithyatva 
which is compared to a poison infecting the system. The characteris- 
tic of this stage is the avoidance of the aticaras of samyaktva. 

The Digambaras from Samantabhadra 4 onwards add to this a 
second requirement: the observance of the mula-gunas. (Karttikeya, 
of course, as was noted above, makes these into two separate 
pratimas .) Samantabhadra 4 further stipulates for this stage a lack 
of attachment to creature comforts and worldly life, and devotion 
to Jina and gurus. Amitagati 5 speaks of fostering the gunas of 
samyaktva , Vasunandin 6 stresses particularly the eschewing of the 
seven vyasanas, and A^adhara 7 insists in more general terms on 

1 RK v. 2r. ^ KA 305. 3 P (SrUP) 4-6. * RK v. 16. 

s gr (A) vii. 67. 6 Sr (V) 57. ’ SDhA iii, 7-8. 


purity of moral conduct; whilst the Sravaka-dharma-dohaka 1 
characterizes the first pratima very simply as ‘refraining from eating 
the udumbara fruits’. 

2. The stage of taking the vows (vrata-pratima) 

This in the Pancasaka 2 is described as the assumption and 

observance of the vratas and the avoidance of their aticaras and the 
comprehension that the essence of the law is compassion. Abhaya- 
deva makes it plain that here the anu-vratas are intended. 

Samantabhadra , 3 however, states unambiguously that this pra- 
tima implies also the observance of the guna-vratas and siksa - 
vratas , and from the statements of other deary as this may be taken 
as the generally accepted Digambara view. Freedom from the 
three salyas is, of course, a prerequisite for the taking of the vows. 

3. The stage of practising the samayika {samayika- 

When his observance of the anu-vratas is satisfactory the aspirant 
to spiritual progress is fit to perform the samayika , which, as the 
commentators never tire of repeating, temporarily assimilates him 
to the status of an ascetic. The frequency with which this is to be 
carried out is not clearly defined. Abhayadeva 4 considers the morn- 
ing and evening twilight periods as the proper times. 

Where the &vetambaras see in the samayika a purification of the 
soul by meditation some Digambaras like Samantabhadra 3 regard 
it as an act of worship of the Jina comprising the gestures of 
reverence associated with the vandanaka , and performed thrice 
daily. Others such as Somadeva seem to extend the concept to 
cover the full ritual of the caitya-vandana . 

4. The stage of fastin g (posadha-pratima) 

This involves the keeping of four fasts in each month . 6 The 
differences in observance are noted under the head of the posa- 

5. The stage of continence by day (kdyotsarga-pratima, 

According to Abhayadeva 7 the requirements of this pratima are 
that on th eparvan days when fasting a man should spend the whole 
night in the kdyoisarga posture, steadfast in heart and conscious 

1 Doha 10. 2 P(SrUP) 10. 3 RK v. 17. 4 P (SrXJP) 11 - 12 . 

s RK v. 18. 6 RK v. 19. 7 P (SrUP) 18. 


of his aim, and that at other times he should avoid sexual congress 
by day and ‘make only moderate use’ of his wife by night. He 
should also, in the words of the Pancasaka , be vikata-bhojin (ex- 
plained as ‘refraining from night eating’). 

Amongst the Digambaras Karttikeya 1 and Samantabhadra 2 (fol- 
lowed by Rajamalla) interpret this pratima to mean the refusal to 
take food by night. The existence of this view is noted by Asadhara 3 
but he, with Camundaraya, 4 Somadeva, Amitagati, and Vasunandin 
(and also Medhavin and Vamadeva), prefers to understand by it the 
abstinence from sexual relations during the day. Asadhara 5 indeed 
would seem to extend this interdiction at this stage to cover all 
intercourse unless during the rtu and expressly for the procreation 
of children. 

6 . The stage of absolute continence ( abrahma - 

In this pratima according to the Pancasaka 6 the layman is to 
avoid not only all physical contact with a woman, but he is never to 
allow himself to be alone with a woman, nor to engage in con- 
versation about women; and he must also avoid any care for his 
personal appearance or for the clothes and ornaments he wears. 

The Digambaras 7 * take the opportunity here to stress the value 
of meditation on the impurity of the human body (the literature is 
very rich in verses on this theme) and the inborn wickedness of 
women, as an aid to carrying out this pratima , in which of course 
are also comprised the cessation of all sexual activity and the 
extinction of all desire. 

7. The stage of purity of nourishment (sacitta- 

The Pancasaka 8 explains that from among the fourfold aliments 
the layman must now avoid in the asana category, inter alia , tandula , 
wnbika , 9 chick-peas (canaka), and sesamum (tila ) ; in th zpana cate- 
gory all unboiled water as well as liquids that contain salt; in the 
khadima category the five udumbara fruits and cirbhatika ; 10 and in 
the svadima category myrobalans {haritaki), betel, and the use of a 

1 KA 382-3- 3 RKv. ai. 3 SDhAvii. 13. 

4 CS, p. 19. s SDhAvii. 14. 6 P (&rUP) 20-21. 

7 e.g. RK v. 22. 8 P (SrUP) 23-25. 

9 The lexicographers explain this to mean ‘fried stalks of wheat or barley*. 

10 Cucumis utilissimus . 



toothpick. As Abhayadeva points out he would also have to refrain 
from eating any grains or pulses, uncooked or insufficiently cooked, 
and any of the foodstuffs that are styled tucchausadhis . 

The Digambaras 1 , who nearly all make this pratima the fifth on the 
fist, exclude here the consumption of all roots and tubers, green 
leaves and shoots, and seeds and fruits in an uncooked state. 
Asadhara 2 comments that the man who would hesitate to crush a 
growing plant with his foot should not be ready to pick and eat that 
same plant. By this pratima the layman in fact engages himself to 
observe the same food restrictions as are incumbent on a monk. 

8. The stage of abandonment of activity (arambha- 

In this stage the layman must relinquish all harmful activity 
done by himself, but is not yet strongwilled enough to abandon all 
activity exercised indirectly through agents or servants for the 
sake of a livelihood . 3 

The Digambaras state that in order to avoid himsa all activity 
exercised for a livelihood — commerce equally with agriculture — 
is to be abandoned, but from this prohibition the arambha inherent 
in such religious practices as puja is expressly excluded . 4 

9. The stage of breaking the ties with the house- 
hold life (Svetambara presya-tyaga-pratima , Digambara 
parigraha-tyaga-pratima and aniimati-tyaga-pratima) 

The description of the ninth stage in the Pancasaka s is fair war- 
rant for asserting that it corresponds both to the ‘abandonment 
of acquisitiveness 5 and the ‘abandonment of approval for the house- 
hold life 5 which figure in the Digambara enumeration. In this 
pratima when he ceases to have work done by servants the layman 
is to lay down the burden of worldly cares on his sons or brothers 
or on other members of his household (this would in effect corre- 
spond to what the Digambaras call sakala-datti ), to reduce to 
the minimum his acquisitive hankerings (mamatvd) and to foster 
the longing for final release ( samvega ). 

For the Digambaras parigraha-tyaga is the abandonment of the 
ten external attachments since in Camundaraya’s 6 words parigraha 
is the begetter of the four kasayas , of drta - and raudra-dhyana, and 

* e.g. RK v. 20. * SDhA vii. 9. 3 P (SrUF) 26. 

4 SDhA vii. 21. - s P (SrUP) 29-31- 6 CS, p. 19. 


of fear. Asadhara 1 takes up the question of sakala-datti and pre- 
scribes the formalities for its accomplishment: they are, he says, 
required to prevent the resurrection of the tiger of delusion. 
Samantabhadra 2 notes that anumati-tyaga is expressed in three 
ways : the refusal to approve attachment to possessions ( parigraha ), 
harmful activities (arambha), or the affairs of this world {aihika- 
karmari). At this stage says Asadhara 3 the layman should spend his 
time in the temple carrying out svadhyayci and after the midday 
vandana should take his meal, when summoned, in his own or in 
somebody else’s house, reflecting that soon he will no longer be 
eating specially prepared food but only what is given as alms. This 
stage is essentially one of preparation for the eleventh pratima 
when the world is renounced. Vasunandin 4 comments that the only 
parigraha permissible from the ninth stage onwards is attachment 
to clothes, this being gradually reduced in the succeeding pratimas. 
In this stage the layman is to refuse to express any opinion on 
household affairs even when it is sought by those dearest to him. 

io and n. The stage of renunciation of the world 
(uddista-tyaga-pratimd and sramana-bhuta-pratima) 

In the uddista-tyaga-pratimd 6 the layman, according to the 
Pahcasaka , avoids all food specially prepared for him and goes 
about with shaven pate or wearing a top-knot, indifferent to mun- 
dane business. In the sramana-bhuta 6 stage he is either to keep his 
head shaven or to perform the loca — the tearing out of the hair, 
traditionally in five handfuls, supposedly obligatory on every monk 
on ordination — and to carry the monastic requisites — the broom 
(rajo-harand) and the begging-bowl ( avagraha ). He is then said to 
be touching or supporting the dharma with his body. Even if on his 
almsround he goes to his own kith and kin he may only beg his food 
and eat only what is licit for a sadhu. 

The earlier Digambaras know only one form of the eleventh 
pratima. Kundakunda 7 lays down that the layman is to make the 
begging round practising irya-samiti. Samantabhadra 8 says that he 
is to repair to a sylvan retreat of ascetics (muni-vana) and to assume 
the vratas ; he will then live by alms begged, wearing but one piece 
of cloth and pursuing asceticism. Camundaraya 9 agrees that he is 

1 SDhA vii. 37-28. ^ RK v> 25t 3 SDhA vii, 31-33. 

4 &(V) 299 . 5 P (SrUP) 32 - 33 . 6 P (&UP) 35-37- 

7 Siitra-prabhrta , 31. 8 RK v. 26. 9 CS, p, 19. 



to live by alms and to wear only one piece of cloth and adds that 
he is to eat from the hollow of his hand and to reject food or any 
other form of dana that has been specially reserved for him. 

The first text to mention two divisions of the eleventh pratima 
seems to be the Sravaka-dharma-dohaka'. 1 in the former, one piece 
of cloth is worn, in the second, only a loincloth ( kanpina ), the hair 
of the head being removed either by tonsure or by the loca. It is not, 
however, until the sixteenth century that the names by which these 
two types of laymen are still known are applied to them for the 
first time: Rajamalla, in the Lati-samhita , 2 calls the former kmllaka 
and the latter ailaka. The word kmllaka is used as a Jaina tech- 
nical term from an early date and undoubtedly the sense to be 
ascribed to it is that later attested in the Acara-dinakara 3 where the 
ksallakatva-vidhi— of which ample details are given — appears as a 
sort of provisional ordination which does not bind the ordinand to 
the monastic life if he has not the vocation (tatah samyamasya 
yathokta-palane pravrajya , vrata-bhange punar gdrhasthyam). The 
meaning is not peculiar to the Svetambaras for it is clearly thus 
that Camundaraya 4 uses the term kmllaka-rupena in describing the 
avalamba-brahmacarin ; whilst he applies to what is today called the 
kmllaka the designation naisthika-brahmacarin, a layman pledged 
to chastity, shaven save for a top-knot, and wearing only a loin- 
cloth ; in the provision that it is to be either white or red lies per- 
haps a hint of the subsequent distinction of kmllaka and ailaka , s 
for according to Medhavin 6 the former wears white and the latter 
is clad in red. Medhavin though he distinguishes two types of 
the eleventh pratima still uses the word kmllaka in the older 
sense . 7 

1 Doha 17. 2 Lati-samhita t vii. 55-56. 

3 Acara-dinakara , pp. 726-36. 4 CS, p. 20. 

5 Hiralal Jain, in his introduction to the Vasunandi-sravakdcara> has discussed 
at length the meaning and origin of the terms kftdlaka and ailaka . Basing himself 
on the views expressed in the Adi-purana and on the use of the word k$idlaka in 
a work the Prayaicitta-culika to which he perhaps ascribes too early a date, he 
would consider k$ullaka or ksudraka to designate a person unworthy and in- 
eligible to become a monk owing to lowly birth. This argument can with diffi- 
culty be sustained, for in the tenth century Katha-kosa of Iiari§ena, in the tale of 
Ya^odhara, the young prince and princess who are Jaina devotees appear as 
k$ullakas in the train of an dcdrya. In regard to the suggested derivation of 
ailaka from acelaka it can only be pointed out that — leaving aside the philolo- 
gical difficulty — the ailaka is in fact expressly described as cela-khanda-dhara. 
See Sr (V) : Bhtimika, pp. 60-64. 

6 Dharnia-satjigraha-srdvakdcara , viii. 7 Ibid. ix. 21. 


From Vasunandin 1 and Asadhara 3 onwards the Digambara 
authorities all describe the two varieties of the uddista-tyaga- 
pratima and the general delineation remains the same. The ksullaka 
is to wear one piece of cloth (Asadhara speaks of a white loincloth), 
to cut off his hair and beard either with scissors or with a razor, 
to take food seated, either from a bowl or from the hollow of his 
hand, and to perform pratilekhana with a soft piece of tissue. The 
ailaka may wear no more than a loincloth, must make the loca and 
eat from the palm of his hand, and will carry a peacock’s feather 
rajo-harana to make pratilekhana. 

Both ksullaka and ailaka are enjoined to observe rigidly the 
complete posadhopavasa on the parvan days, and both must beg 
their food according to the following routine. The quasi-ascetic 
when he goes, begging-bowl in hand, to a layman’s house is either 
to show himself and wait silently or to pronounce the dharma- 
labha (the benediction used by a monk in greeting to a layman) ; 
and if he receives no alms he must not be dispirited but is to 
repeat the request elsewhere. When he has obtained enough food 
to satisfy the craving of hunger he should eat no more. He may 
drink only water that has been rendered sterile by boiling (prasuka). 
Then having washed his almsbowl he should go back to his guru 
to make pratydkhyana followed by alocana or confession of his 
faults . 3 But the ksullaka or ailaka may, if he chooses, make a vow or 
niyama to beg only from one house (eka-bhiksa-niyama) ; in that 
event he is to follow a monk on his begging round and if he meets 
with a refusal must of necessity fast . 4 Again he may prefer to stay 
all the time in a muni-vana engaging in tap as and performing the 
ten kinds of vaiyavrttya for the ascetics . 5 

Certain features of the monk’s life remain forbidden to the lay- 
man even in the eleventh pratima. He is not allowed to study the 
mysteries of the sacred texts. He may not engage in the kayotsarga 
for a whole day (dina-pratima), nor pursue the almsround (vira- 
carya) as does a monk, nor practise the tri-kala-yoga, the form of 
asceticism which consists in meditating on a hill-top in the hot 
season, under a tree during the rains, and by a river’s bank in 
winter. Pride in one’s own knowledge or asceticism is severely 

1 Jr(V) 301-13. 4 2 SDhA vii. 34-50. 

3 Sr (V) 303-10. It is curious to find the term dharma-labha used in a Digam- 

bara text. 

4 SDhA vii, 46. 

5 Ibid. 47. 



to be condemned and the form of greeting used by the laity iccha- 
kara remains the only one which ksullaka and ailaka may properly 
use. 1 

The conception of the pratimas seems to have suffered certain 
modifications in the history of Jainism. As delineated in the 
Upasaka-dasah they are a means to achieve a spiritual development 
which will in the end lead the devotee to take his own life by 
sallekhana. It is therefore natural to expect that in course of time 
if fewer Svetambara laymen tend to have recourse to ritual suicide 
the pratimas lose their significance. Where among the Digambaras 
sallekhana remains at least in an attenuated form (‘in the event of 
mortal illness or famine or calamity’) 2 part of the pattern of life, for 
the ordinary layman great importance continues to attach to the 
pratimas. By placing them in the sallekhanadhikara of his srava- 
kacara Samantabhadra clearly emphasizes the connexion whilst 
Asadhara expressly states that the ksullaka and ailaka should 
always keep in mind the possibility of recourse to sallekhana , 
or put in other terms, the naisfhika-fravaka has still to become a 
sadhaka-sravaka . 3 In fact, for various reasons in the Digambara 
community — some have suggested that the conquest of large 
areas of India by Moslems who disapproved of nudity was respon- 
sible — laymen in the eleventh pratima came, to a large extent, to 
take the place of monks. Perhaps because of the importance of 
these quasi-monks the sequence that led, through the pratimas , 
automatically to sallekhana was broken. 

There is, as certain Digambara acaryas* imply, a special con- 
nexion between the pratimas and the siksa-vratas : the third and 
fourth pratimas are at the same time siksa-vratas and the fifth, sixth, 
and seventh all relate to the paribhogopabhoga-vrata , food being 
the main paribhoga and women the principal upabhoga ; and even 
the last three pratimas are concerned, inter alia, with the progressive 
diminution of attachment to another upabhoga — clothing. Classi- 
fications of sravakas according to their progress through the 
pratimas are offered by some Digambaras such as Somadeva and 

1 SDhA vii. 49-50. 3 RKv. 1. 3 SDhA vii. 61. 

4 SDhAiii. 1-8. For an elaboration of this subject see Sr (V): Bhumika , 
pp. 54-58. 




After outlining the traditional pattern of the layman’s duties as 
expressed in the vratas , Hemacandra lays down that if he fulfils 
these and also practises charity reverently to the seven ksetras and 
compassionately to the needy he is to be designated a maha-bavaka , 1 
a term, not it would seem, previously employed but adopted later 
by Asadhara and by some Svetambaras. This ideal layman is 
expected to carry out the obligations of his religion in a uniform 
round which Hemacandra calls the dina-carya 2 and which serves 
as a framework for a description of the piijd and caitya-vandana 
and the various avaiyakas . 

If the expression is Hemacandra’s the idea is very much older. 
As early as the Sravaka-praj fiapti the exposition of the vratas is 
followed by a rather rough-and-ready description of the abhi- 
grahas . 3 This word, which in normal usage is the equivalent of 
niyama (a vow), appears already in this text, specialized in the 
meaning of any duty incumbent on a layman : it may include even 
such obligations as the provision of ghee for monks who have just 
performed the loca . It reappears in this sense in such later works 
as the Sraddha-dina-hrtya.* 

In the Sravaka-dharma-pancasaka 5 the picture of the dina-carya 
is already taking shape. The pious Jaina is to recite the panca- 
namaskara on waking and to say to himself: T am a sravaka and 
have taken the vows.’ Before starting his work he goes to the 
temple and performs the piijd and caitya-vandana . When he returns 
home he eats at the fitting time and again repairs to the temple to 
listen to the scriptures, perform puja, and wait on the ascetics. At 
night he will go to sleep, as he woke, with the 7 lamaskara. 

The sutras of the Dharma-bindu 6 offer a concise notation of all 
the daily duties ; and on this description Hemacandra 7 has drawn 
largely. The sravaka is to get up at the brahma-muhurta (the four- 
teenth of the night) with the namaskara on his lips and recalling 
his vows. A long description of the caitya-vandana follows and 
then of the pratikramana and pratyakhyana. After the morning’s 
work the layman is to make the midday piija before taking his meal. 

1 Y£d iii. 120. 2 Y£ iii. 122 (p, 597). 3 &rPr 376. 

4 &*DK s6g. s P (grDh) 42-46. e DhB 46 ff> 

7 YS iii. 122-32, 



The afternoon he spends in questioning the monks about the 
scriptures after which he performs the evening puja and the 
avasyakas . He will now, if he is in the habit of eating twice a day, 
take his second meal. When he lies down to sleep he is to pursue 
his meditations on the scriptures, avoiding if he can all sexual 
relations and indeed all erotic ideas. 

In the sixth adhyaya of the Sagara-dharmamrta Asadhara 1 took 
over Hemacandra’s picture of the dina-carya beginning with the 
moment of waking when the srdvaka asks himself: ‘Who am I? 
What are my vows? What is my dharmaV but he did not find 
imitators among the later Digambaras, and there is only a faint echo 
of Hemacandra in Medhavin’s 2 use of the expression maha-sramka . 

The real importance of the dina-carya lies in its adoption as the 
preferred model for the later sravakacaras . The most important, 
and one of the first works constructed on these lines, is the Sraddha- 
dina-krtya of Devendra. In general terms the abhigrahas which he 
prescribes for laymen may be set out as follows . 3 

The srdvaka awakens with the namaskara and as the torpor of 
sleep falls away calls to mind the religion to which he belongs, the 
family into which he has been born and the vows which he has 
assumed. When after defecation, tooth-cleaning, tongue-scraping, 
mouth-rinsing, and bathing he is in a state of cleanliness, of ritual 
purity, he is to make dravya-puja and bhdva-pujd to the Jina image 
in the chapel of his own home and to undertake the form of pratya- 
khyana appropriate to the time of day. Before engaging in this act 
of worship he should if possible perform the six avasyakas . The 
adoration of the Jina is then repeated in the form of puja and caitya- 
vandana in the temple. The devotee then seeks out the religious 
teachers and, repeating the pratyakhyana before them, listens to 
their exposition of the scriptures. He is enjoined to inquire form- 
ally after their well-being and to perform for them various per- 
sonal services, including the provision of medicaments for the sick. 
His work must then claim his undivided attention. 

When he returns from his place of business he is to carry out the 
noon puja and, after providing alms for any monks who may require 
to be fed, he is to take his midday meal, eating in moderation. He 
will then reaffirm the pratyakhyana and meditate on the meaning 
of the scriptures. At the close of the afternoon he performs the 

1 SDhA vi. 1-9. 4 £>r (M) vii. 136. 

3 SrDK 2-7 : these opening verses summarize the dina-carya. 


evening puja and the six dvasyakas. He is then to engage in sva- 
dhydya and if necessary to minister to the bodily needs of the ascetics 
(yati-visramana) by massaging their limbs and in other ways. 

Finally he will go home and, after giving religious instruction to 
his household, lie down to sleep: sleep, like food, is to be indulged 
in with moderation. If possible he should abstain from sexual 
intercourse and to this end he should, during the intervals of sleep, 
direct his mind to meditation on the impurity of the human body 
and the innate wickedness of women and to emulation of those 
who have renounced the world. 


The six daily dvasyakas 1 or necessary duties are traditionally: 

(1) samayika — this is the subject also of a vrata and of a pratimd\ 

(2) caturvimsati-stava — praise of the twenty-four Jinas (this is 
comprised in the catty a-vandana ) ; 

(3) vandanaka — worship (generally restricted to the ritual ex- 
pression of respect to a monk or to the community of 
monks) ; 

(4) pratikramana — the recitation of the formulae of confession 
of past faults ; 

(5) pyatyakhydna — the recitation of formulae for the forfending 
of future faults generally expressed in the form of abstinence 
from food and drink and comforts ; 

(6) kayotsarga — ‘the abandonment of the body’ for a limited 

The numbering of the dvasyakas is that of the Svetambaras ; the 
Digambaras reverse the positions of kayotsarga and pratyakhyana. 

This list was perhaps never wholly satisfactory. In particular the 
kayotsarga is different in its nature from the other dvasyakas to 
which it is properly an adjunct; keeping the body motionless for a 
limited period of time serves as an aid to concentration of mind but 
is not an end in itself. To judge from the details of the mediaeval 
texts the Svetambaras would probably have regarded the most im- 
portant dvasyakas as puja , caitya-vandana, and guru-vandana and 
even the notion of ‘daily’ duties must have tended to be lost, if the 

1 See Schubring, Die Lehre der Jainas, p. 170. 


fifteenth-century Ratnasekhara, 1 who includes the samayika and 
the caitya-vandana among the religious practices recommended 
specifically for the enforced leisure of the rainy season, is to be 
regarded as reflecting the practice of his age. 

The Digambaras seem tacitly to accept that the dvasyakas are 
rather a matter for the ascetic than for the layman and writers like 
Camundaraya 2 and Asadhara, who treat both of sravakacara and 
yaty-acara refer, their readers to the latter for information about 
these rites. Those deary as who follow the tradition of Jinasena 
have virtually replaced the avasyakas by a list of six daily karmans 
to be performed by the layman: 3 

(1) pujd — which in fact covers the samayika , caturvimsati-stava, 
and vandanaka ; 

(2) vartta — the exercise of an honest livelihood; 

(3) dana — almsgiving; this is the subject also of a vrata\ 

(4) svadhyaya — study of the scriptures ; 

(5) samyama — the carrying out of the five ammatas with com- 
plete self-discipline; 

(6) tapas — which includes pratikramana, pratyakhyana , and 


The basic ritual formula of Jainism is the panca-namaskara or 
panca-paramesthi-stutip the invocation which runs : 
namo arihantdnam namo siddhanam namo aydriydnam namo uvajjhaydnam 
namo loe savva-sahunam 

to which is sometimes added the complementary verse: 
eso panca-namokkaro savva-pava-ppanasano 
mangalanam ca savvesim padhamam havai mangalam 
Hail to the Jinas, to those who have attained moksa, to religious 
leaders, to religious teachers and to all monks in the world. This fivefold 
salutation which destroys all sin is pre-eminent as the most auspicious of 
all auspicious things. 

1 Sraddha-vidhi , p. 1 58a. 

z Thus CS, p. 26 : vandana . . . tat-prapancas tiittaratra vak$yate. This refer- 
ence is taken, up on p. 69 of the section anagara-dharme tapo-varnanam where 
details of the vandana are given. 

3 MP xxxviii. 24; CS, p. 21. ' 4 See Glasenapp, op. cit., p. 367. 

C 737 O 


‘This supreme prayer, this best object of meditation ’ 1 serves as 
a quarry for magic formulae of varying lengths and different 
potency: thirty-five syllables — or sixty-eight if the complementary 
verse is added — are counted in the full namaskara (sarvaksara- 
mantra) but various abbreviations, of which the most popular is 
the use of the initial aksaras of the five paramesthins (mukhyaksara- 
mantra ), are employed to give totals of sixteen, six, five, and two 
aksaras . 2 The whole namaskara can also be concentrated in the 
single syllable om which is held to be a contraction of the mukhyak - 
sara-mantra , siddha being replaced by asarira and sadhu by muni to 
give a , a, a, u, m. Audibly muttered in an unending repetition, 
these formulae play an important part in the pada-stha-dhyana. 
This practice of jap a (as it is called) is accompanied by the telling 
of the beads, which may be of gold or gems or merely of lotus seeds . 3 

The recitation of the panca-namaskara, the aparajita-mantra as 
it is styled, comes to be synonymous with acceptance of the Jaina 
creed and it is with this prayer on his lips that the pious layman 
should wake each morning . 4 Twice a day at the morning and 
evening twilights he is to meditate on the excellent protection 
derived from it. s Its magic powers grow in the popular imagination 
as witness the late Ratna-mala which says that whoso remembers 
this imperishable mantra will never be seized by rdksasas or bitten 
by cobras . 6 

With the namaskara is associated the catuh-sarana, the recourse 
to the four refuges of the arhats , the siddhas , the deary as, and the 
community, and both are mentioned particularly as a source of 
support in the final trial of the sallekhana , 7 when they form the 
symbolic quintessence of the scriptures, which are too long to be 
borne in mind in that hour. The catuh-sarana runs as follows : 

arahante saranam pavvajjami, siddhe saranam p avvajjdmi, sahii saranam 
pavvajjami , kevali-pannattam dhammam pavvajjami 

The use of mantras as a feature of worship develops more and 
more, under the influence of Hinduism. The biggest impetus to 
this trend seems to have come from Jinasena, who prescribed their 
use with all kriyas . 8 

1 I0 ‘ 2 P* 466. 3 Handiqui, p. 272. 

4 SrDK 2. 5 Dharma-rasayana , 152. 6 Ratna-mala, 43. 

7 Y& iii. 151 (p. 758). 8 MP xxxviii. 75. 

(i 87 ) 


The caitya-vandana , which comprises elements of the samdyika, 
caturvimsati-stava, and vandanaka , the first three necessary duties, 
is given an extensive treatment in the Avasyaka literature. Under- 
stood as the ‘veneration of the Jina’s image’, it is closely associated 
with the puja ‘the making of offerings to the Jina’, and Devendra 
defines it as the combination of the dravya-puja (actual offerings) 
and bhava-puja( hymns of praise and mental concentration), Hema- 
candra, it must be admitted, describes the puja only as an element 
of the caitya-vandana , but in the much earlier Prakrit Pancasakas 
the two topics are kept separate in different sections. It would seem 
more appropriate to follow the Pancasakas in restricting the term 
caitya-vandana to the bhava-puja and to what in effect constitutes 
the Jaina liturgy, and to apply the designation puja to the bathing 
and adorning of the images and the making of offerings to them, 
both in the temple and in the home. The following consideration 
of the caitya-vandana is virtually limited to Svetambara sources, 
since, at least during the medieval period, the Digambara treatises 
on the lay life barely touch on the subject. 

From the Avasyaka texts onwards the acaryas divide the caitya- 
vandana into twelve sections devoted to specific objects of worship 
iadhikard) and five chants ( dandaka ) : 

(i) Bhava-jina 
(3) Dravya-jina 

(3) Eka-caitya-sthapana-jina 

(4) Nama-jina 

(5) Tri-bhuvana-sthapana- 


(6) Viraharnana-jina 

(7) Sruta-jnana 

(8) Sarva-siddha-stuti 
(g) Tirthadhipa-vlra-stuti 

(10) Ujjayanta-stuti 

(11) A§t§pada-stuti 
(13) Sudp?ti-smarana 

Dandaka Appropriate passage 








Sakra-stava without final 

final verse of §akra-stava 

nama-stava 1 

caitya-stava preluded by the 
words savva-loe 
first verse of sruta-stava 
rest of sruta-stava 
first verse of siddha-stava 
second and third verses of 

fourth verse of siddha-stava 
fifth verse of siddha-stava 

1 This is the caturvvrisati-stava . For a translation and discussion see Leumann, 
Vbersicht iiber die Avasyaka-Literatur, pp. 6-7. 


Each adhikara concerns a special object of worship : 

1. Bhava-jina — this implies the visualization of the Jinas en- 
dowed with kevala-jnana as they are present in the sama- 

2. Dravya-jina — this is the worship of the arhatva-dravya , the 
raw material of the quality of Jina, i.e. th ejina-jivas who will 
one day in this or in another life attain to final release. 

3. Eka-caitya-sthapana-jina— the worship of Jina images in 
temples everywhere. 

4. Nama-jina — worship of the names of the twenty-four Jinas 
who have appeared in the present era in Bharata-ksetra, 
This corresponds to the second avasyaka , the caturvimsati- 
stava , in its narrower sense. 

5. Tri-bhuvana-sthapana-jina— the worship of Jina images in 
sasvata and asasvata temples in the three worlds. 

6. Virahamana-jina — worship of the infinite number of absent 
Jinas, past and future, in the universe. 

7. Sruta-jnana — worship of the holy writ. 

8. Sarva-siddha-stuti— worship of all those beings who have 
attained to moksa. 

9. Tirthadhipa- Vira-stuti — worship of Mahavira the last Jina. 

10. Ujjayanta-stuti— worship of the twenty-second Jina Arista- 
nemi, who entered into nirvana on Mount Ujjayanta. 

1 1 . Astapada-stuti — worship of the other twenty-two Jinas, who 
entered into nirvana on Mount Astapada. 

12. Sudrsta-smarana — worship of those dev as who like the 
Gomukha Yaksas attained to samyaktva and performed 
vaiyavrttya to Mahavira. 

Haribhadra recognizes only nine adhikaras, the second, tenth, 
and eleventh being omitted, but the dandakas and the pattern of the 
ritual of course remain the same. In fact the ritual as set forth in the 
Vandana-vidhana-pancasaka, in such Avasyaka commentaries as 
the Lalita-vistara of Haribhadra and the Caitya-vandana-bhasya 
of Devendra, and in Hemacandra’s Yoga-sastra 1 shows almost no 
variation. It is given a numerical framework by division into five 
preparatory features ( abhigama ) and ten triads (trika) or groups of 
three related actions, or of actions requiring to be performed three 
times : 

1 Y& iii. 124 (pp. 599-644). 



The five a b hi gam as 1 (which are extracted from the conven- 
tional descriptions of the ruler or rich man arriving to perform the 
samayika) are: 

1. Discarding of all sentient ( sacitta :) objects such as flowers, 
betel, sid'dharthaka, durva grass, that may be on one’s person. 

2. Retaining of certain non-sentient ( acitta ) objects. There is 
some uncertainty on this point but in any event vehicles, 
footwear, swords, knives, camaras , and chattras are to be 
left behind on entering the temple, whilst it would appear 
that all ornaments except diadems are to be retained. 

3. Donning of an outer garment in the form of a wide piece 
of cloth. 2 

4. Making the anjali at sight of the Jina image with the words 
‘Hail to the friend of the world’ ( namo bhumna-bandhave). 

5. Concentrating one’s mind on worship. 

The ten triads ( trika ): 3 

1. Three naisedkikts: 

(i) The first naisedhikis signifies the relinquishment or 
prohibition {nisedha) of the mundane activities (, grha - 
vydpara). It is to be pronounced on entering the main 
gate of the temple. 

(ii) The second naisedhiki implies the abandonment of all 
activities connected with the temple ( Jina-grha-vyapara ) 
and is spoken when one enters the inner sanctuary 

(iii) The third naisedhiki expresses the end of activities (Jina- 
puja-vyapdra ) connected with the puja ceremony (which 
must of necessity involve some harmful arambha). It is 
pronounced before carrying out the actual caitya-vandana, 

1 CVBh 19-20. 

2 The commentaries make it clear that a man is therefore expected to wear 
two pieces of cloth and a woman three, of which one will be the kahcuka or 

3 The clearest description of these is to be found in the Sanghacara com- 
mentary of Dharmagho$a : CVBh 6-19. 

+ The symbolism of the naisedhiki , as interpreted in the Volksetymologie, 
is lost if the correct sanskritization of nisihiya is restored. For a discussion of the 
subject see Leumann, op. cit., pp. 9-10 (who explains): ‘ Man hat tinier die 
Avassiyd eine leise V erabschiedimg und unter die Nisihiya eine leise Begriissung zu 
verstehen . Ebenso soil man bei jeder Ankunft mil dem Wort nisihiya eine gewisse 
Weihe verbreiten,’ 


2. Three circumambulations ( pradaksina ). 

3. Three reverences {pranama) : l 

(i) The anjali. 

(ii) The pancdnga , i.e. a reverence in which the five limbs 
— head, two hands, and two knees — all touch the 

(iii) The ardhavanata, i.e. a reverence in which the body is 
‘half-bent’, the head and hands touching the ground. 

These are each to be made three times and to be accom- 
panied by the words ‘Hail to the Jinas’ ( Jinebhyo namah). 

4. Three forms of piijd : 

(i) anga-puja ; 

(ii) agra-puja ; 

(iii) bhdva-pujd. 

These are discussed at length in the section on puja : it is only the 
third — the immaterial acts of worship in the form of stuti — that 
belongs to the caitya-vandana in its narrower sense, embracing the 
twelve adhikaras and five dandakas listed above. 

5. Meditation ( dhyana ) on the three states ( avastha ) of the Jina: 

(i) on the chadma-stha state in which he is still travestied 
as an ordinary mortal. To this the pinda-stha-dhyana 
applies. It is again divided into three phases : 

(a) birth — the meditation is stimulated by the images of 
the snapakas , the gods mounted on elephants, who 
pour water from ewers ( kalasa ) ; 

(b) kingship — the meditation is stimulated by the im- 
ages of the arcakas , the votaries who bring garlands ; 

(c) the monkish condition — the meditation is provoked 
by the sight of the Jina’s hairless head ; 

(ii) on the kaivalya state in which he has attained infinite 
knowledge. To this belongs thz pada-stha-dhyana, which 
arises from the vision of the eight pratiharyas , 2 the 
miraculous manifestations which took place when the 
Jina attained to kemla-jnana; 

1 The D’t'tV— IV 4 f ■. s kinds of pranama (Sr (A) viii. 62-64). 

z ! V- op. cit,, p. 253. 


(iii) on the siddhatva state in which he has reached nivvcina* 
Here the meditation, the rupattta-dhyana, , is to be 
achieved by performing the kayotsarga in the parya- 
nkasana posture. 

(The rupa-stha-dhyana, 1 which arises from the mere sight of 
the image, is expressly excluded from this trika.) 

6. Abstention from looking in the three directions (tri-din-niri- 
ksana-virati). The worshipper is not to look to the right or 
to the left or behind him (in another interpretation neither 
upwards nor downwards nor transversally) but is to keep his 
gaze fixed on the image. 

7. Making pramarjana three times of the ground under foot 
( pada-bhumi-pramarjana ) . 

8 . F ulfilling the three requirements of the liturgy (yarnadi-trika ) : 

(i) reciting distinctly and without omissions or additions the 
words of the stutis ; 

(ii) reflecting 011 their meaning; 

(iii) representing to oneself mentally the objects of adoration. 

9. The three mudras: 2 3 

(i) Jina-nmdra — the two hands hang down loosely and the 
feet do not touch. The purpose of this ?midra is to remove 

(ii) yoga-mudra — the two hands are joined with the fingers 
interlocking and the elbows resting on the abdomen. 
The inudrd is calculated to achieve all desires. 

(iii) inukta-sukti-mudra — the two hands are clasped evenly 
together and raised so as to touch the middle of the fore- 
head. (A divergent view holds that they should be close 
to the eyes without actually touching the forehead.) 

10. The threefold final prayer (pranidhma)* the concentration 
of mind, body, and speech in the form of caitya-vandana , 
guru-vandana 1, and prarihana (invocation). 

1 The four types of dhydna are described by Amitagati (&r (A) xv. 30-56). 

21 Amitagati describes in addition to these three a vandana-mudra (Sr (A) viii. 
53-56) and many other mudras are found in the ritual literature. 

3 The term pranidhana seems to be used approximately in this sense in the 
Srdvaka-prajnapti (368-73). 


(i) the first pranidhana y called from its opening words the 

javanti ceiyaim uddhe ya ahe ya tiriya-loe ya 
samaim tdim vande iha santo tattha santaim 
From here I adore all such images as exist there in the upper world 
and the middle world and the nether world ; 

(ii) the second pranidha?ia, called the javanta-kei-sahil 

javanta kei sahu Bharah' -Eravaya-Mahavidehe ya 
savvesim tesimpanao tivihena ti-danda-virayanam 
I bow down to all those sadhus averse from evil in word, in thought, 
or in act who are to be found in Bharata, Airavata, and Mahavideha; 

(iii) the third pranidhana, called the jdya~myaraya or prani - 

The text of this is given below in its place at the end of the liturgy. 

The numerical plan of the caitya-vandana includes in addition 
to the five abhigamas and ten trikas a mention of three avagrahas 
(utkrsta, madhyama , and jaghanya), the distance from the image at 
which the votary is to stand — the best avagraha is six hastas away — 
and of the vama-dik and daksina-dik. Men, it is said, are to stand on 
the right of the image when worshipping, because of their pre- 
eminence in the dharma y and women on the left. 

From the elaborate details the sequence of the elements of the 
vandana would seem, at least in Devendra’s picture, to be as follows ; 

On arriving at the temple and catching sight of the image above 
the door, the worshipper makes the ahjali. As he enters, and leaves 
behind the cares of the world, he utters the first naisedhiki . I-Ie goes 
into the sanctuary and, as he circumambulates the images, he pro- 
nounces the second naisedhiki. He then carries out the puja for 
which he has brought with him the necessary materials, first bath- 
ing and dressing the image, and then setting the offerings before it, 
and burning incense and waving lamps. When this is done he utters 
the third naisedhiki , makes the pancahga-pranama , and, adopting 
the yoga-mudra, commences the recitation of the Sakra-stava , re- 
placing it by the Jina-mudra for the caitya-stava. When the five 
dandakas are completed he recites the three pranidhanas accom- 
panying them by the znukta-sukti-mudrd. The caitya-vandana is then 
at an end. 


The caitya-vandana liturgy in its narrower sense may be out- 
lined as follows : 

The worshipper recites the panca-namaskara , performs prati- 
kramana and alocana using the airydpathiki-mtra * and then en- 
gages in the kdyotsarga reciting the uttari-kararia-sutra 2 ' an dkayo- 
tsarga-siitra . 3 He concentrates his mind and his gaze on the Jina, and 
‘his body horripilating from the force of samvega and vairagya and 
his eyes moist with tears’-* he makes the pancanga-pranama and 
using the yoga-mudra starts to recite the pranipata-dandaka. 

i. Pranipata-dandaka.s 

The Sakra-stava , so-called because in the legends it is usually 
spoken by Indra , 6 runs as follows : 

natno ’ tthu arihantdnarn bhagavantanam, aigaranam titthayaranam 
sayaimamhuddhanam , puris’ -uttamanam purisa-sihanam purisa-vara- 
pundariyanam purim-vara-gandha-hatthinam , log* -uttamanam loga-ndha- 
nam loga-hiycinam loga-pawdnamloga-pajjoya-gardnam , abhaya-dayanam 
cakkhu-dayanam magga-dayanam sarana- daydnam bohi-daydnam, 
dhamma-dayanam dhamma-desayanam dhamma-ndyaganam dhamma- 
saraJnnam dhamma-vara-cduranta-cakkavattinam , appadihaya-vara - 
ndna-damsana-dhardnam viyatta-chaumanam, jindnam jdvayanam 
tinnanam tdraydnam buddhanam bohaydnam muttanam moyaganam, 
savvanniinam savva-darismam sivam ayalam aruyam anantam akkha- 
yam avvdbdham apunardvitti-siddhi-gai-ndmadheyam thanam sampatta- 
nain namo jindnam jiya-bhayanam 

je ya aiya siddhaje ya bhamssanti ’ nagae kale 
sampai ya vattamdnd savve tivihena vandami 

Praise to the arhats, the blessed ones, who are the cause of the begin- 
nings, who provide the path across, who have of themselves attained 
enlightenment, the best among men, the lions among men, the lotuses 
among men, the gandha-hastins 1 among men, the best of those in the 
world, the lords of the world, the benefactors of the world, the lights 
of the world, the irradiators of the world, those who give freedom from 
fear, who give insight, who give the right direction, who give refuge, 
who give enlightenment, who give the sacred doctrine, who expound 
the sacred doctrine, who are the authorities on the sacred doctrine, the 
guides to the sacred doctrine, the oecumenical monarchs of the sacred 
doctrine, those who maintain the irrefutable knowledge and insight, 

1 Seep, 163. z See p. 173. 3 See p. 173. 4 YS, p. 612. 

5 Y&, pp, 612-29; LV, pp. 7(1-766. 6 p. 629. 

7 The gandha-hastin or ‘perfume-elephant’, a familiar creature of legend, is 
regarded as the noblest of beasts. 


who have thrown off all travesties, the Jinas, who drive away evil, who 
have crossed over, who aid others across, the enlightened and the 
enlighteners, the liberated and the liberators, the omniscient, the all- 
seeing, those who have reached that place that is called siddhi-gati 
from which there is no return, and which is bliss immutable, inviolable, 
endless, imperishable, and undisturbed; praise to the Jinas who have 
overcome fear. 

In the threefold way I worship all the siddhas , those who have been, 
and those who are, and those who in future time will be. 

Haribhadra and Iiemacandra have felt it necessary to give a very 
detailed interpretation of this and the following stavas, and it is 
possible here to mention only a few of the points made. Special 
interest attaches to the popular etymologies, almost invariably false, 
by which the associations of a word are evoked. 

Thus the arhat is explained either as the one who is worthy (arha) 
of vandana and puja\ or (in the form of Prakrit arihanta ) as the de- 
stroyer of the enemies (an), 1 these being the evil qualities such as 
moha which are responsible for the growth of karma, or karma itself 
in its various forms; or again (in the Prakrit variant aruhanta) 
those in whom the seed of karma can no longer grow (ruhati). The 
bhagavat is the possessor of bhaga defined lexically by fourteen 
terms which (after subtraction of the inappropriate meanings arka 
and yoni) become the twelve alapakas to be recorded in the praise 
of the Jina: knowledge (jnana), glory (mahatmya), fame (yasas), 
asceticism ( miragya ), final release ( mukti ), beauty ( nipa ), courage 
(virya), energy ( prayatna ), longing ( icchd ), religion (dharma), abun- 
dance (sri), wealth (aweary a). The tirthankaras are lions because of 
their courage in combatting the enemy that is karma, they are 
lotuses because they have made to blossom in the mire of the 
samara the flower of the dharma , whilst all calamities are driven 
away by the presence of the tirthahhara just as lesser elephants are 
driven away by the gandha-hastin. 

2. Arhac-caitya-stava-dandaka 2 
The worshipper, making the Jina-mudra, recites the caitya-stava : 
arihanta-ceiyanam karemi kayussaggam vandana-vattiyae puyana- 
vattiyae sakkdra-vattiyae sammdna-vattiyae bohi-laha-vattiyae niruva- 
sagga-vattiyde saddhae mehae dhite dharanae anuppehae vaddhamame 
thdmi haussaggam 

1 For these see p. 229. 

YS, pp. 629-32; LV, pp. 766-896. 


For the sake of the images of the arhats X make the kayotsarga , for the 
sake of worship, for the sake of making offerings, for the sake of making 
gifts, for the sake of making praise, for the sake of obtaining enlighten- 
ment, for the sake of final release, I stand in the kayotsarga with faith, 
with intelligence, with steadfastness, with mindfulness, with reflection, 
with intensity. 

Hemacandra understands here by pujana the offering of flowers 
and garlands, by satkara the giving of ornaments and clothes, and 
by sammana hymns of praise (in other words the three forms of 
pilja). These are legitimate for a layman; and an ascetic, though he 
may not make dravya-puja himself, may yet approve it or get others 
to perform it. 

When several worshippers are engaged in the caitya-stava 
together, one only will recite the words whilst the others stand 
silent in the kayotsarga. On completion of the kayotsarga the 
panca-namaskara is to be repeated. The next phase is the praise of 
the twenty-four tirthankaras of the present era, 

3. Nama-Jina-stava-dandaica 1 

r. logassa ujjoya-gare dhamma-titthayare jine 
arihante kittaissam caxmsam pi kevali 

2. Usabham Ajiyam ca vande Sambhavam Abhinandanatn ca Sumaini 


Paumappaham Supasam jinam ca Candappaham vande 

3. Suvihim ca Pupphadantam Siyala-Sejjamsa-Vasupujjani ca 
Vimalam Anantam ca jinam Dhammam Santim ca vandami 

4. Kunthwn Aram ca Mallim vande Munisuvvayam N ami- jinam ca 
vandami Ritthanemim Pasarn taha Vaddhamdnam ca 

5. evam mae abhithua vihuya-raja-mdla pahma-jara-marana 
caavisam pijina-vara titthayara me pasty antu 

6. kittiya-vandiya-mahiya jee logassa uttamd siddha 
drogga-hohi-ldham samahi-varam uttamam dentu 

7. candesu nimmalayara aiccesu ahiyam payasayara 
sagara-vara-gambhlra siddha siddhim mama disantu 

I shall praise the twenty-four Jinas, the arhats of perfect knowledge, 
who have illuminated the world and created the sacred doctrine as a way 
across . . . [The names are listed ]. . . . Thus I have extolled the twenty- 
four Jinas who have shaken off impurities and defilements and rejected 
old age and death; may they, the tirthankaras , be gracious to me; may 

Yf 3 , pp. 632-43; LV, pp. 896-966. 


they, the siddhas, the best of beings give me enlightenment and tran- 
quillity and final release, they who have been praised and worshipped 
and adored. May the siddhas , purer than the moons, more radiant than 
the suns, and profound as the oceans, give me bliss. 

After this nama-stava the caitya-stava is repeated, the words 
$avva~loe being prefixed to it. 

4. Sruta-stava-daijdaka 1 

1. Pukkhara-vara-div* addhe Dhayaikhande ya Jambadive ya 
JBharah? -Eravaya- Videhe dhamm' -digare namamsami 

2. tama-tiinira-padala-viddhamsanassa sura-gana-narinda-mahiyassa 
sma-dharassa vande papphodiya-moha-jalassa 

3 . jai-jara-marana-soga-pandsanassa kalldna-pukkhala-visdla-suhcwa- 


ko deva-danava-narinda-gan'-acciyassa dhammassa saram uvalabbha 

4. siddhe bho payao jina-mae nandi say a samjame devam-ndga-suvanna- 

logo jattha paitthio jagam inam telokka-macd -asuram dhammo 
vaddhau sasao vijayao dhamm* -uttaram vaddhau 
suyassa bhagavao karemi kaussaggam 

I bow down to those who have established the sacred doctrine in 
Puskaradvlpa, in Dhatakikhanda and injambudvipa, inBharata, Airavata, 
and Mahavideha, 

I worship the iruta-dharma , which contains the rules of conduct, 
which dispels the veil of the darkness of ignorance, which is adored by 
gods and kings, which rends asunder the net of delusion, which ends the 
sorrows of birth, old age, and death, which brings the full and ample 
bliss of final release. Who, if he understands its essence, can be neglectful 
of the sacred doctrine worshipped by gods and demi-gods and kings ? 
0 siddhas , I am devoutly attached to the Jaina creed; well-being always 
lies in the religious life extolled with veritable devotion by devas, nagas, 
jyotiskas , and kinnaras . May the eternal sacred doctrine prosper this 
world of devas , mortals, and asuras where the people are firmly estab- 
lished in it, may it be victorious and may it prosper the primacy of the 

The first verse is devoted to the infinite number of absent Jinas 
in other continents of which there is no knowledge ; the rest is in 
praise of the holy writ. 

1 YS, pp. 642-6; LV, pp. 96&-io6a. 



1. siddhanam buddhanam pdra-gaydnamparampard-gaydnam 
loy'-aggam uvagayanam namo saya savva-siddhdnam 

2. jo devana vi devojam devo panjali namaqisanti 
tam deva-deva-mahiyam sirasa vande Mahamram 

3. ekko vi namokkdro jina-vara-vasahassa Vaddhamdnassa 
sainsdra-sagarao tarei naram va narim va 

4. Ujjenta-sela-sihare dikkha nanam nisihiya jassa 
tam dhamma-cakkavattim Aritthanemim namamami 

5. cattari attha dasa do y a vandiya jina-vara caumsam 
paramattha-nitthiy * -attha siddha siddhim mama disantu 

Praise to the siddhas, the enlightened ones who have gone to the 
further shore, who have gone there by stages, who have reached the 
summit of the worlds, praise always to all siddhas, 

I bow down my head to Mahavira, who is the god of gods, who is 
adored by lords of gods, and whom gods worship joining their hands. 
Even one namaskara offered to the excellent Jina Vardhamana will carry 
a man or a woman across the ocean of the cycle of transmigration. 

I worship Aristanemi that oecumenical monarch of the sacred doctrine 
who on the summit of the Ujjayanta mountain received the initiation and 
attained to kevala-jhdna and to moksa. 

May the twenty-four siddhas — the twenty-two Jinas and the two 
others who have been celebrated-— whose significance is firmly estab- 
lished in reality, show me final release. 

These verses make up the siddhi-stava ; and the dandaka is 
completed by an invocation of the vaiyavrttya-karas which is 
sometimes styled the sura-smrti-siitra, 

veyavacca-garanam santi-gardnam sammad-ditthi-samahi-garanam 

karemi haussaggam 

I make the kayotsarga for those who render service, who create 
tranquillity, who create absorption in right belief. 

Hemacandra explains that the parampard-gatdnam of verse 1 
refers to the progression through the gunasthdna , the Jina is called 
devanam deva because he is worshipped by devas such as the 
Bhavana-vasis and he is also worshipped by the deva-devas such as 
3 akra. He is called Mahavira because he directs (irayati) to moksa. 
To the words narim va there attaches a special importance. In this 
connexion both Haribhadra and Hemacandra quote a passage from 
the lost Yapaniya-tantra stressing that women equally with men 
1 Yg, pp. 646-53; LV, pp. 1066-1186. 


can reach the summit of the religious life. Hemacandra says that 
the last two verses of the siddha-stava are not, in the opinion of 
some authorities, an essential part of the ritual but may be omitted. 

When the siddha-stava-dandaka and the accompanying kdyot- 
sarga are completed the worshipper is again to recite the Sakra-stava 
and then, making the mukta-snkti-mudrd to pronounce the pram- 

1. jay a viya-raya jaga-guru hon mama tuha ppahavao bhayavani 
bhava-nivveo magganusariya ittha-phala-siddhi 

2. loga-viruddha-ccao guru-jana-piia pad -atlha-karanam ca 
suha-guru-jogo tav-vayana-sevana a-bhavam akhanda 

Hail, Jina, preceptor of the world, through your grace, blessed lord, 
may I achieve these things : disgust for the world, regular pursuit of the 
right path, attainment of desired results, abandonment of whatever is ill- 
famed in the world, respect for preceptors and parents, practice of help 
to others, attachment to a good guru, and full obedience to his words for 
all existence. 

It is evident from this description of the ritual that a considerable 
amount of time is required to carry out the caitya-vandana . In 
theory the layman should imitate the monk in performing it seven 
times a day, or if that is not possible five times, or if that too is 
beyond his powers, at least three times — at dawn, noon, and dusk. 
Not surprisingly therefore from an early date an abbreviated ritual 
is admitted. Three possibilities are in fact envisaged; 1 

(i) the best (uttama)— the complete ritual of the five dandakas 
preceded by the airyapathiki-pratikramana ; 

(ii) the next best (madhyama) — this is considered to be either 
one chant ( dandaka ) (the arhac-caitya-stava), and one verse 
(staff); or two dandakas (arhac-caitya-stava and £akr a- stava), 
and two stutis ; 

(iii) the least satisfactory (jaghanya) — the namaskara alone, or 
the Sakra-stava alone. 

1 CVBh 23; Ratnasekhara, Sraddha-vidhi , p. 56 b) Vandhcinci-vidhanci- 
pancasaka, 2. 

C 199 ) 


By its basic meaning of reverent salutation (vandana or vandanaka), 
the third avasyaka would apply equally to the worship paid to the 
Jina, to the guru, or to the sacred scriptures; but though the 
Vandana-vidhana-pancasaka , for example, is actually devoted to 
the caitya-vandana, this term is usually specialized in the sense 
of guru-vandana. In his explanation of the subject Hemacandra 1 
notes that, although in the texts quoted by him the person perform- 
ing the vandanaka is always referred to as a monk, the ritual can 
equally well be carried out by a layman ; yet it has to be admitted 
that of all the elements transferred from the monastic ritual this has 
been the least successfully accommodated to the sravakacara. 

In the form in which it appears in the works of Hemacandra 2 
and Devendra 3 the ritual has been subdivided into twenty-five 
essential constituents or avasyakas (not of course to be confused 
with the six daily necessary duties). The Digambaras, though not 
adhering to this figure, give a very similar classification: 


2 avanamana 

1 yatha-jata 

12 avartana or avarta 
4 siras, or siro-’vanati 

3 g u P ta 

2 pravesa 

1 niskramana 

2 nisadya or asana 
1 yatha-jata 

12 avarta 

4 namaskara or pranama 

3 suddhi 

Hemacandras’s list is in fact, save for the last three items which 
are not counted by the Digambaras, identical with those given by 
Samantabhadra* and Camundaraya. 5 

The ritual passage to be recited by Svetambaras during the 
vandanaka is known as the dvadasavarta-vandanaka-sutra or (from 
the phrase of address which recurs in it) ksama-sramana. It runs as 
follows: 6 

icchami khama-samano vandium jdvanijjde nisihiyae (the guru: chan - 
dend) anujanaha me miy y -oggaham (the guru : anujdnaini) msihi aho kdyam 

1 YS iii. 130 (p. 679). 2 YS iii. 130 (pp. 659-86). 

3 Guru-vandana-bhasya, 4 RK v. 18. 5 CS, p. 69. 

6 Both text and translation of this ritual passage are given with extensive 
explanatory details in Leumann, op. cit., pp. 7-10. 



kdya - . ' 7 7 7 7 . . ■ “* 7 * ' 7 ’ 7 . ' “ : 1 7 . 7 

dwasc ■ ■ ■■ 

vattai) javanijjam ca bhe (the guru : evam ) khdmemi khamd-samano devasi- 
yam vaikkamam (the guru : ahmn avi khdmemi) avassiyae padikkamdmi 
khamd-samananam devasiyde dsdyanae iettis ’ annayarae jam kiinci micchae 
mana-dnkkadae vaya-dukkadae kaya-dukkadae kohae manae mayae lohhae 
savva-kaliyae savva-micchovayarae savva-dhammaikkamanae jo me aiydro 
kao tassa khamd-samano padikkamamininddmigarihami appanam vosirdmi. 

I desire to worship you, forbearing monk, 1 with very intense con- 
centration. (The guru: Willingly.) Allow me to enter the measured 
space. ( The guru : I allow you.) Allow my bodily contact on the lower 
part of your body. Please suffer this annoyance. You will have spent the 
whole day fortunately little disturbed. (The guru: Yes.) You are making 
spiritual progress. ( The guru : Yes and so are you.) You are unperturbed 
by your sense organs } (The guru: Yes.) I ask pardon, forbearing monk, 
for my daily transgressions. (The guru: I too ask pardon.) Necessarily I 
make pratikramana to you, forbearing monk, for any day-by-day lack 
of respect, for any of the thirty-three aidtands , anything done amiss 
through mind, speech, or body, through anger, pride, deceit, or greed, 
through false behaviour and neglect of the sacred doctrine at any time; 
whatever offence may have been committed by me, forbearing monk, I 
confess and reprehend and repent of it and cast aside my past self. 

The stages or sthanas of the vandanaka are marked by the re- 
sponses (abhildpa) of the guru, which have been given the following 
labels, taken from the expressions used in the text : 

(1) iccha; (4) yatra; 

(2) anujhapana; (5) yapana; 

(3) avyabadha; (6) aparadha-ksamana. 

The following description of the ritual is furnished by Hemacan- 
dra : as he intends it to apply to the lay life the word sisya (neophyte) 
is here throughout replaced by ‘layman’ : 

The layman who wishes to perform the vandanaka waits some 
distance away from the monk, holding a rajo-harana in his hand 
and wearing a mukha-vastrika , which he has subjected to pratilek- 
hana . He begins to recite the formula and when the guru says 
( chandeiia 5 he makes the first avanamana or reverence and comes 
up to him making pratilekhana and pramarjana. Putting his 
rajo-harana on the ground close to the monk and taking off his 
mukha-vastrika , he leaves it on his left knee. He then touches the 
1 This rendering is chosen to harmonize with Hemacandra’s interpretation. 



rajo-harana with his hands and then his own forehead. Six avartas 
— this is the name given to a gesture in which the joined palms of 
the hands are moved from right to left — are made whilst he slowly 
repeats the third sthana. Then keeping his gaze fixed on the guru 
and making the anjali he continues to recite. The movement of 
hands between rajo-harana and forehead is resumed as the recita- 
tion continues until he has completed the sixth sthana . At the 
words khamemi khama-samano he applies both his hands and his 
forehead to the rajo-harana and when reaches the phrase tassa 
khama-samano padikkamami he gets up and moves out of the 
proximity of the monk. After this exit and a second entry he re- 
peats the same ritual. 

Hemacandra’s description apparently refers to the third variety 
of vandanaka mentioned at the commencement of Devendra’s 
Guru-vandana-bhasya, 1 where the following types are listed: 

(i) spheta (Prakrit phitta) — consisting of inclinations of the head 
(addressed to the congregation of monks) ; 

(ii) chobha — a double recitation of the ksama-sramana (addressed 
to ordinary individual monks) ; 

(iii) dvadasavarta—t he full ritual, this too being repeated 
(destined for ascetics of higher standing). 

Certain elucidations of the ritual are available from the texts 
particularly from Hemacandra 2 and from Siddhasena Suri’s com- 
mentary on the Pravacana-saroddhara. 3 Thus the expression 
ksama-sramana is understood by the former as implying that an 
ascetic is possessed of the ten elements making up the dharma 
the first of which is ksama ‘forbearance’. One avanamana or 
obeisance is made at the end of the first sthana in each 
recitation of the ksama-sramana. By yatha-jata is meant the full 
accoutrement of the monk: rajo-harana (the little broom that is 
used to carry out pratndrjana ), mukha-vastrikd (the strip of cloth 
worn in front of the mouth), and the pieces of material allowed 
— at least by the ^vetambaras — for clothing. The monastic initia- 
tion is conceived of as a second birth, the hands clasped in the 
anjali being held to symbolize the folded hands of the child issuing 
from the womb. Whether the layman should make use of the rajo- 
harana and mukha-vastrikd , the special symbols of the ascetic con- 
dition, is sometimes questioned but the Svetambara texts used in 

* Guru-vandcma-bha$ya> i. 2 iii. 130 (PP* 665-76). 3 PS 93~* 74- 


0 737 


this study depict them as essential in a number of rites. The six 
avartas of each repetition are to accompany the following words 
or phrases of the ritual: aho, kayam y kaya-samphasam, jatta bhe } 
javanijjam bhe y two being assigned to the last. Two sir as (inclina- 
tion of the head) are to be made in each repetition of the ritual : one 
by the layman when he recites khamemi khama-samano devasiyam 
vaikkamam and one by the monk when he replies aham avi khd- 
memi tume. At the first sthana of the ksama-sramana the monk may, 
if he is not in a position at the moment to accept the vandanaka, 
reply tivihena (‘Make your reverence in mind, speech, and body’) 
thereby cutting short the ritual. The repetition which is character- 
istic of the full ritual is explained on the analogy of an envoy bring- 
ing a message to a king and making obeisance both before and 
after speaking. 

Other elements of the vandanaka are given the form of numerical 
apothegms, in particular the thirty-two faults (dosas) 1 and the 
thirty-three failures to express respect (asdtands) 2 but, devoted as 
these are to the minutiae of monkish life, they cannot be said to 
have any real existence in the lay ritual though enumerated by 
Hemacandra and Devendra. It will be enough to mention here the 
division of th gurv-asatanas into three types : 3 

(i) most conspicuous (utkrsta) — those concerned with actions 
contrary to the guru’s command ; 

(ii) next most conspicuous (madhyama) — those referring to 
contact with impurities ; 

(iii) least conspicuous (jaghanya) — those concerned with touch- 
ing the feet or other limbs of the guru. 

The vandanaka is associated with a number of other rites such 
as the pratikramana, in fact it might be said to be implicit in any 
rite which involves the concourse of the guru. If no monk is present 
a convenient device for which canonical authority is claimed* exists 
to ensure the satisfactory completion of the rite : this is the fiction 
of the sthapanacarya. 

Just as the Jina can be conceived in terms of nama, sthapana , 
dravya , and bhdva so can these categories be applied to the acdrya, 
and the sthapanacarya will then signify the guru represented by a 
statue or by some symbolic object. To this the worshipper performs 

1 Y 3 iii. 130 (pp. 661-4). a Ibid. (pp. 676-8). 

3 £raddha-vidhi, p. 71 a. 4 j§rDK 230. 



the vandanaka , keeping the guru present in his mind. Special 
asatanas are devised to cover actions implying lack of respect to the 
sthapanacarya . 1 * 3 The practice is clearly set out in Devendra’s 
$raddha-dina-Jirtya z and Hemacandra 5 had earlier laid down that 
one should imagine in one’s mind an embodiment of the guru if he 
is not himself present {guru-virahe guru-sthapanam manasikrtva). 


The pratikramana, the fourth of the avaivakas, generally linked 
with an avowal of past transgressions ( alocana ) is a manifestation 
of contrition and desire for amendment expressed by the recitation 
of certain confession formulae.* Various types of pratikramana y 
mainly based on the period of time to which the confession refers, 
are recognized: 5 

(1) performed at nightfall and referring to the past day ( daiva - 
sikd ) ; 

(2) performed at dawn and referring to the past night (prabha- 
tika or ratrika ) ; 

(3) covering the past paksa or half-month ( paksika ) ; 

(4) covering the past four months ( caturmasika ); 

(5) covering the past year (varsika) ; 

(6) referring to the unwitting harm caused by all movement 
( airyapathiki ). 

The acceptance of pratikramana only as an annual duty or as a duty 
to be carried out only during the additional leisure of the caturmasa 
or rainy season is a characteristic of later texts. 6 

It will be convenient to deal first with the airyapathiki-pratik- 
ramanap which has a special importance notably as forming the 
prelude to the caitya-vandana . The airyapathiki-sutra runs as 
follows : 

icchdmi padikkamium iriyd-vahiyde virahanae gamarp -agamane pdn'- 
akkamane biy’-akkamane hariy' -akkamane osay'-uttinga-panaga-dagp- 
matti-makkada-santdna-satnkamane je me jlvd virdhiyd eg’-indiyd 

1 Sraddha-vidhiy p. 736. 

z grDK 230, where the term sSri, explained as sthapanacarya , is used. 

3 YS iii. 124 (p. 61 1). 4 See Schubring, Die Lehre der Jainas, p. 177* 

s Y£ iii. 130 (p. 687). 6 Sraddha-vidhi, p. rs8&. 

7 Y£ iii. 124 (pp. 605-7). 


he-indiyd te-indiyd caur-mdiya pane’ -indiya abhihaya vattiyd lesiya 
sahghaiya sahghattiya pariyaviya kildmiyd uddaviya thanao thanam 
samkamiyd jiviyao vavaroviya tassa micchami dukkadam 

I want to make pratikramana for injury on the path of my movement, 
in coming and in going, in treading on living things, in treading on seeds, 
in treading on green plants, in treading on dew, on beetles, on mould, on 
moist earth, and on cobwebs ; whatever living organisms with one or two 
or three or four or five senses have been injured by me or knocked 
over or crushed or squashed or touched or mangled or hurt or affrighted 
or removed from one place to another or deprived of life — may all that 
evil have been done in vain. 

Hemacandra says that irya-patha may be taken in the literal 
sense as ‘the path of one’s going 5 or it may be understood to mean 
‘the line of conduct of an ascetic 5 the primary infraction of which 
would be the destruction of any form of life: the import of the 
siitra remains in either case the same. The avasyaya (Prakrit osayci) 
is explained as a jala-visesa; the uttinga is an insect of the form of 
a dung-beetle which makes holes in the ground; panaka is ex- 
plained as panca-varnolli; the moist earth will contain ap-kayas 
and prthvi-kayas. The phrase which recurs in all the pratikramana 
formulae micchami dukkadam is given its proper sanskritization 
mithya me duskrtam (‘may the evil of it be in vain 5 ) but at the same 
time the individual aksaras are said to have the following symbolic 
meaning : 1 

mi — miu-maddava 
chd—dosdnam chayana 
mi y me — a-merde thiya 
du — dugahehami appanam 
ka — kadam me pdvam 

‘gentleness 5 
‘the veiling of faults 5 
‘abiding in the limitless 5 
‘I loath myself 5 
‘I have committed sin 5 

da — devemi tam uvasamenam ‘I go beyond it through attaining to calm 5 

In general, apart from the recitation of the airyapathiki formula, 
the performance of pratikramana requires the presence of a guru. 
The ritual passages used for this and for the alocana are given 
below in the sequence in which they normally follow the vandanaka 
formula, beginning with the aticaralocana : 2 

iccha-karena samdisaha hhagavam devasiyam dloium (the guru : aloaha ) 
iccham aloemi jo me devasio aiyaro kao kaio vaio manasio ussutto ummaggo 
akappo akaranijjo dujjhdyo dwovicintio anayaro anicchiyawo asavaga- 

1 Y& iii, 124 (P> 607). 2 Y£ iix. 130 (pp. 679-82). 


paoggo ndne damsane cdrittacaritte sue samdiye tinham guttvnam caunham 
kasayanam pahcanham anu-vvaydnam tinham guna-vvaydnam caunham 
sikkhd-vayanam barasavihassa savaga-dhammassa jam khandiyam jam 
virdhiyam tassa micchdmi dukkadam. 

Instruct me, lord, at my own desire to make dlocand for the day. {The 
guru : Do so.) I wish to make dlocand: whatever fault has been committed 
by me during the day in body, speech, or mind, in contravention of the 
scriptures and of right conduct, unfitting and improper to be done, ill 
meditated and ill conceived, immoral and undesirable, unbecoming for a 
layman, in regard to knowledge and philosophy and the lay life and the 
holy writ and the samayika , and whatever transgression or infraction 
I may have committed in respect of the three guptis and four kasayas, and 
the five anu-vratas , three guna-vratas, and four iityd-vratas, that is to 
say, the layman’s twelvefold rule of conduct — may that evil have been 
done in vain. 

Hemacandra explains that cdritracaritra is equivalent to desa- 
virati. Khandita implies a partial violation of the religious duties 
and mradhita a more serious violation but neither of them amounts 
to a complete bhaiiga. 

After this dlocand formula the worshipper is to recite the prati- 
kramana-bija-sutra : 1 

savvassa vi devasiya duccintiya dubbhasiya duccetthiya iccha-kdrena 
sandisaha bhagavam (the guru : padikkamdha ) tassa micchdmi dukhadam 

Instruct me at my own desire to mdkepratikramana for all that I have 
done amiss this day in thought, in speech, and in act {The guru: Do so) 
— may that evil have been done in vain. 

Then comes the request for forgiveness, the ksdmand-sutra: z 

iccha-kdrena sandisaha bhagavain ahbhutthio ’ mhi abbhintara-devasiyam 
khdmeum iccham khdmemi devasiyam jam kimei apattiyam para-pattiyam 
bhatte pane vinaye veyavacce alave samlave ucc'-asane saml-asane antara - 
bhasae uvari-bhdsae jam kimei majjha mnaya-parihinam suhumam va 
bayaram va tubbhe janaha aham najdndmi tassa micchdmi dukkadam 

Instruct me, lord, at my own desire; I am come forward to seek for- 
giveness for what is within the day: I want to seek forgiveness for what- 
ever unfriendly or excessively unfriendly thing I have done this day in 
regard to eating and drinking, in regard to vinaya and vaiyavrttya > in 
regard to speech and conversation, in regard to seating oneself at a 
higher or at the same level as the guru, or in interrupting him when he 

1 Ibid. (pp. 682-3). a Ibid * (PP* 68 3 -S)* 


is speaking, or in speaking louder than he, may whatever offence against 
vinaya, great or small, which you know and I do not know, have been 
done in vain. 

In all these formulae the word daivasika will be replaced by the 
appropriate variant if the pratikramana refers to the night or to some 
other period. 

The great importance of the, pratikramana in Jainism is evident 
from the way in which the meaning of the term is extended to cover 
all edifying religious practices, the scope of the numerous prati - 
kramana-siitras being very wide indeed. 1 Amongst the faults to be 
avowed are all forbidden things done and all duties left undone, all 
infringements of the twelve vratas , all offences against the ratna- 
traya, all the evil results of parigraha and arambha , all actions 
motivated by passion and hate, all partiality for false creeds and 
dissemination of false dogmas, and all wrong done in the course of 
one’s daily business or one’s household duties. 

The best-known pratikramana commentary is the V andaru-vrtti 
of Devendra. Here as elsewhere pratikramana for the eighteen 
sources of sin (papa-sthanas) is recommended. It may therefore be 
not inappropriate to list these here: 2 

(1) killing (j brani-vadha, himsa) 

(2) lyin g (asatya) 

(3) thieving ( adattadana ) 

(4) unchastity (abrahma, maithuna) 

(5) acquisitiveness ( parigraha ) 

(6) anger ( krodha ) 

(7) pride (mdna) 

(8) deceit (maya) 

(9) greed ( lobha ) 

(10) attachment (raga, preman) 

(11) hatred (dvesa) 

(12) disputation ( kalaha ) 

(13) false accusation ( abhyakhyana ) 

(14) backbiting (paisunya) 

(15) denigration (parivada, ninda) 

1 The pratikramana is sometimes given a more ornate literary form as in. the 
elegant Paficavimiatika of Ratnakara Suri. In this poem the Jina is invoked 
almost as a personal god. 

a See PS 1351-3 and iorDK 300-3. 

I the themes of the five 

| the four kasayas 


(16) depression and elation ( arati-rati ) 

(17) deceitful speech (mdya-mrsd) 

(18) false belief {mithyatva). 

In another version 1 of the eighteen papa-sthanas eating by night 
( ratri-bhojana ) is inserted in the list after parigraha and arati-rati 

The keynote of the pratikramana is best expressed in the well- 
known verse from the sutra: 

khdmemi savva-five same five khamantu me 
metti me savva-bhuesu veram majjha na kenavi 2 

I ask pardon of all living creatures, may all of them pardon me, may I 
have friendship with all beings and enmity with none. 

It is probably because in this way the pratikramana represents 
the pervasion of the mind by the feeling of ahimsd that it comes to 
be regarded as the central feature of the avasyakas. Like the other 
avasyakas it may be performed either in the temple or in a posadha- 
sala, or in the presence of a monk or at home, and like them it re- 
quires the elimination of all arta-dhyana . It is sometimes said that 
like pratyakhydna it is best expressed three times, first mentally 
when alone, then before the image of the Jina, and finally aloud 
before the guru. It is not always necessarily confined to past time 
and may therefore overlap with pratyakhydna. 

Together with alocana it is often given the designation of pray a- 
scitta but the kdyotsarga too is a form of prayaicitta. 


This, the fifth, or, according to the Digambaras, the sixth, dvasyaka 
has been defined by Amitagati 3 as the avoidance of what is unfitting 
in order to prevent the commission of sin in the future. In a sense 
it is the equivalent of pratikramana translated into future time. 
Ideally it should be performed three times 4 in solitude, before the 
Jina image and in the presence of a guru when it is linked with the 

1 Siddhasena Suri on PS 
3 &r (A) viii. 35 - 

2 Pratikramana-sutra , 49. 
♦ Sraddha-vidhi , p. 73 &- 


Pratyakhyana 1 2 3 4 is said to be of two kinds according to whether 
it relates to the mula-gunas (i.e. in the case of laymen the ann- 
vratas) or to the uttar a-gunas (i.e. the gitna- and siksa-vratas ), many 
of which may in fact be regarded as expressions of pratyakhyana ; 
that is particularly true of the dig-, desavakasika-, bhogopabhoga -, 
and posadhopavasa-watas. Renunciation of any form of enjoyment 
is implicit in the concept but in practice it most often implies 
abstention from food, or from a particular kind of food, for a cer- 
tain period of time. 

There are traditionally ten categories of pratyakhyana ; but 
Hemacandra, 1 recognizing that these are without relevance for the 
lay doctrine, has preferred to discuss only the ninth and tenth: 
sahketa-pratyakhyana and addha-pratyakhyana , which, he says, are 
in daily use. The former, as its name indicates, is symbolic; the 
devotee refrains from taking food for as long, for example, as he 
keeps his hand clenched, and by this renunciation he recalls his 
mind to his religious duties. Eight types of sahketa-pratyakhyana 
are listed: 1 

(1) ahgusfha — ‘as long as I do not unclasp my thumb’ ; 

(2) musti — ‘as along as I do not unclench my hand’ ; 

(3) granthi — ‘as long as I do not loosen this knot’ ; 

(4) gvh a — <as long as I do not enter my house’ ; 

(5) sveda — ‘as long as these sweat drops do not dry’ ; 

(6) ucchvasa — ‘as long as these respirations continue’ (i.e. for a 
given number of them) ; 

(7) stibuka — ‘as long as the drops of moisture do not dry on this 

(8) jyotiska — ‘as long as this lamp is not extinguished.’ 

Much more important is the addha-pratyakhyana for which a full 
ritual appropriate rather to the monastic, than to the lay, life, 
exists. This is classified into ten categories i 1 

(1) namaskara-sahita — abstention from food for the duration of 
a mnhurta , ) 

(2) paurusi — abstention from food for the duration of a paurusv, 

(3) dina-piirvarddha — abstention from food for the first half of 
the day; 

(4) ekasana — eating only one meal during the day; 

1 Y§ iii. 130 (p. 697). 



(5) eka-sthana 1 — taking food only in one position, i.e. without 
moving any limbs except the hands and mouth; 

(6) acamamla — eating only acamamla ; 

(7) abhaktartha ( upavasa ) — fasting from the fourfold aliments or 
from three of them ; 

(8) carama — abstention from f 00 d until the end of the twenty-four- 
hour period, or from certain things until the end of one’s life; 

(9) abhigraha — a special vow of some kind ; it may cover various 
types of kala-niyama or any of the forms of sahketa-pratya- 
khyana previously listed ; 

(10) vikrti-nisedha — abstention from consuming any of the 

The formulae used in each case are as follows: 2 

1. uggae sure namokkara-sahiyam paccakkhdmi cauvvihani pi ahdram 
asaitam panam khdimam saimam annatth * andbhogenam sahasdgarenam 

When the sun is risen I renounce for as long as the namaskdra lasts 
the fourfold aliments and except for cases of unawareness or of force 
majeure abandon them. 

Hemacandra here refutes the argument that as no period of 
time is mentioned this should be properly called a form of sanketa- 
pratyakhyana. There are two licit grounds for breaking this 
pratyakhydna termed akaras . 3 

. 2. porisiyam paccakkhdmi uggae sure cauvviham pi ahdram asana?n 
panam khdimam saimam annatth * andbhogenam sahasdgarenam pacchanna- 
kdlenam disa-mohenam sahu-vayatie?iain savva-samdhi-vattiy' -agarenam 

When the sun is risen I renounce for the duration of a paurusi the 
fourfold aliments and except for cases of unawareness or of force majeure 
or of overcast skies or of confusion of north and south or of instructions 
from a monk or except in order to attain full tranquillity of mind I 
abandon them. 

The possibilities of legitimately breaking this pratyakhydna are 

1 In. the Digambara tradition this is held to mean ‘taking only once from a 

2 Y!o iii. 130 (pp. 698-710) and SrDK 79 (pt. i, pp. 228-35). 

2 This word seems to have acquired the sense here of ‘contingency because 
of its repeated occurrence in the compounds which express the possibilities of 
exception to the vow. 


six in number. The third and fourth are admitted because the 
passage of time has to be calculated from the varying length of one’s 
shadow. The last is designed to provide for the contingency that a 
person may be suddenly afflicted by an acute pain provoking arta- 
dhyana or raudra-dhyana; his tranquillity of mind is lost until he 
takes medicine to alleviate it. 

3. sure uggae purinC -addham paccakkhami cauvviham pi aharam 
asanam pdnam khaimam saimam annattti anabhogenam sahasagarenam 
pacchanna-kalenam disa-mohenain sahu-vayanenam mahattar' -agarenam 
savva-samdhi-vattiy' -agarenam vosirdmi 

An additional contingency (akara) is inserted: ‘or except for 
more important business’, this being understood to mean something 
done on behalf of the community that a third party could not 
perform and of equal spiritual merit with the pratyakhyana. 

4. egasanam paccakkhami cauvviham pi aharam asanam pdnam khai- 
marri saimam annattti anabhogenam sahasagarenam sagdriy' -agarenam 
auntana-pasarenam guru-abbhutthanenam paritthavaniy ’-agaren am ma- 
hattar 1 agarenam savva-samahi-vaUvf -agarenam vosirami 

I take only the ekasana otherwise renouncing the fourfold aliments 
and except for cases of unawareness or of force majeure or of house- 
holder’s business or except when the food offered has to be rejected or 
except for more important business or except in order to attain full 
tranquillity of mind I abandon them, not moving except for contor- 
tions and stretchings of the body or in rising to salute the guru. 

There are now eight dkaras in this form of pratyakhyana . It is 
noted that the Prakrit egasana may be interpreted either as ‘eating 
one meal’ or ‘eating in one posture’. Certain of the akdras refer to 
posture and not to actual fasting. 

5. ega-ihanatn paccakkhami cauvviham pi aharam asanam pdnam 
khaimam saimam annattti anabhogenam. sahasagarenam sagariy* -agarenam 
guru-abbhutthanenam paritthavaniy^ -agarenam m ahattar' - agarenam 
savva-samdhi-vattiy '-agarenam vosirdmi 

This is identical with the preceding formula except for the 
omission of auntana-pasarenam. 

6. ayambilam paccakkhami annattti anabhogenam sahasagarenam 
levalevenam gihattha-sartisatthenam ukkkitta-vivegenam pdnUhdvaniy , - 
agarenam, mahattar 1 -agarenam savva-samdhi-vattiy' -agar e?iam vosirdmi 


For the dcdmdmla-pratydkhydna I renounce and abandon everything 
and except for cases of unawareness or of force majeure or where other 
food has stuck to or been scraped off the platter or where other food has 
not been separated or where the householder’s pot contains other sub- 
stances or when the food offered has to be rejected or for more im- 
portant business or in order to attain to full tranquillity of mind I 
abandon them. 

7. sure uggae abhatt' -attham paccakkhami cauvvihampi aharam asanam 
pdnam khdimam saimam annattti andbhogenam sahasagareriam parittha- 
vaniy' -agar enam mahattar' -agar enam savva-samdhi-vatiiy' -dgdrenam vosi - 

When the sun is risen I renounce for this fasting the fourfold aliments 
and except for cases of unawareness or of force majeure or when the food 
offered has to be rejected or except for more important business or 
except in order to attain full tranquillity of mind I abandon them. 

Here the paristhapanika contingency is not in fact applicable if 
the fourfold aliments are renounced. 

panassa levddena vd alevadena vd acchena vd bahulena vd sasitthena vd 
asitthena vd vosirami 

I abandon the fourfold aliments except for liquids viscous or non- 
viscous or transparent or turbid or mixed with rice grains or not mixed 
with rice grains. 

These six akaras are formulated to cover the case of the modified 
form of fasting in which liquids may still be taken. 

8. divasa-carimam bhava-carhnam vd paccakkhami cauvvihain pi 
aharam asanam pdnam khaimam saimam annattK andbhogenam sahasa- 
gdrenam mahattar' -agar enam savva-samahi-vattiy’ -agar enam vosirami 

Whether this is to last till the end of the day or to the end of 
one’s life four akaras apply, and for this reason it is in the former 
meaning distinct from ekasana-pratydkhyana. On the other hand 
abstention from ratri-bhojana is an expression of bhava-carima- 
pratyakhydna . 

9. For the various types of kala-niyama and sanketa-pratydkh - 
ydna four akaras prevail: annattK andbhogenam sahasagareriam 
mahattar ’ agarenam savva-samahi-vattiy' -agarenam. However, in 
the case of a vow to renounce clothing ( apravaranabhigraha ) a 
fifth akdra ‘ cola-pattag' -agar enam' is also operative. 


io. vigaio paccakkhami annatth * andbhogenam sahasagarenam levdle- 
venam gihattha-samsaUhenam ukkhitta-vivegenam paducca-makkhienam 
paritthavaniy' - dgarenam mahattaf -agar enam savva-samahi-vattiy 5 -agare- 
nam vosirami 

I renounce the vikrtis and except for cases of unawareness or of force 
majeure or where other food has stuck to and been scraped oft the 
platter or where the householder’s pot contains other substances or 
where other food has not been separated or because the butter has been 
kept beyond its due time or when the food offered has to be rejected or 
except for more important business or except in order to attain to full 
tranquillity of mind I abandon them. 

A rough-and-ready test is applied in the case of the sixth of these 

As has already been noted, the bhogopabhoga-vrata is one of the 
vratas expressing forms of pratyakhyana. Th eyamas mentioned by 
Samantabhadra 1 would belong under bhava-carima-pratyakhyana 
and the niyamas under abhigraha-pratydkhydna. Corresponding 
to the latter the Svetambaras have a traditional list of fourteen 
niyamas expressed in the following verse : 


vdhana-sayana-vilevana-bambha-disi-nhdna-hhatte$u z 

The two lists are closely related, both of course depending ulti- 
mately on the twenty-one abhigrahas or undertakings to observe 
restraint, which are accorded an important place in the Upasaka- 

dasah : 



(i) sacitta (green leaves and 

sangita (instrumental music) 


(2) dravya (food other than 

gita (singing) 

sacitta and vikrti) 

(3) vikrti (the licit six) 

(4) upanah (sandals) 

(5) tambola (betel) 


(6) vastra (clothes) 


(7) kusuma (flowers) 


(8) vahana (vehicles, riding 



1 RK iii. 42. 

2 Quoted by Ratnasekhara (Sraddha -vidhi 

, p. 73 a) and Yasovijaya ( Dharma - 

sanigraha, i. 73). 


(9) sayana (beds) 

(10) abrahma (sexual intercourse) 

(11) vilepana (cooling pastes and 


(12) dik 1 (restriction of move- 

ment to fixed limits) 

(13) snana (bathing) 

(14) bhakta (restriction of food to 

fixed quantities). 








The kdyotsarga , the fifth, or for the Digambaras the sixth, 
avasyaka is also for the £vetambaras the fifth pratimd. Despite its 
status in the literature as a separate avasyaka it is, in reality, an 
adjunct to other rites, in Amitagati’s 2 words ‘the undisturbed 
abandonment of the body in all avasyakas \ 

The so-called kdyotsarga-sutra runs as follows: 3 

tassa uttari-karanenampayacchitta-karanenam visohl-karanenam visallt- 
karanenam pavdnam kammanam nigghayan* -atthae thami kdussaggam 
annattha usasienam nisasienam khasienam chienamjambhaienam udduenam 
vaya-nisaggenam bhamalte pitta-mucchae suhumehim anga-sancdlehim 
suhumehim. khela-saiicalehim suhumehim ditthi-sahcalehim evam-aiehim 

appanam vosirami 

Making an additional effort, making penance, making purification, 
extracting evil from myself, I stand in the kdyotsarga in order to make an 
end to sinful acts. With the exception of inhaling and exhaling, coughing 
and sneezing, yawning and hiccoughing, breaking wind, giddiness, and 
swooning, very slight movements of the limbs, the eyes, and the saliva, 
and similar involuntary acts may my kdyotsarga be unbroken and un- 
impaired; until I have completed the recitation of the namaskdra to the 
blessed arhats I shall cast aside my body in the standing position, in 
silence and in meditation. 

Hemacandra etymologizes prayascitta as ‘that which in general 
(pray as) purifies the mind (cittdf By the final phrase he understands 

1 This of course is, in effect, the dig~vrata. 

2 &r (A) viii. 36. 3 Yg iii. 130 (pp. 607-11). 


that the termination of any kayotsarga is to be marked by the 
recitation of the pahca-namaskdra. He further notes that the word 
appanam is omitted in some texts : if it is to be retained it must 
mean ‘body’. 

In another passage Hemacandra defines the kayotsarga 1 as 
‘standing silent in meditation without other fnovement than the 
involuntary movements of the body such as breathing, for a 
definite time until the panca-namaskara is recited’. It may be 
performed either: 

(i) because of activities (< cestd ), for example, in connexion with 
the airyapathiki-pratikramana\ or 

(ii) for the sake of self-mastery (abhibhava), i.e. to win victory 
over up as ar gas . z 

The former type is always brief, varying from eight to a thousand 
ucchvasas. The latter will not be less than a muhurta and may, as 
in the case of Bahubali , 1 2 3 last for as long as a year . 4 

Numerous forms of the kayotsarga , characterized by slight 
differences of posture, are noted in the monastic discipline. For the 
layman Hemacandra 4 recognizes three main types: upright, 
(ucchrita), seated (upavista), and recumbent ( sayita ). Each of these 
again can be subdivided into four categories which for the upright 
position would be: 

(i) upright physically and upright spiritually (the mind being 
in dharmya- or sukla-dhyana ) ; 

(ii) upright physically but not spiritually; 

(iii) upright spiritually but not physically ; 

(iv) upright neither spiritually nor physically. 

This classification, for which there are many parallels in other 
spheres of Jainism, lies at the basis of that used by Amitagati : 5 

(i) upavistopavista — a seated posture with drta- or raudra- 
dhyana ; 

(ii) upavistotthita — a seated posture with dharmya - or sukla- 

1 Y5 iii. 130 (p. 693). 

2 For a description of the upasargas see YS iii. 153. 

3 The figure whose kayotsarga is represented in the famous statue of loravana 

Belgola. 4 yg m 130 ( p . 694). 

5 Sr (A) viii. 57-61. 



(iii) utthitopavista — an upright posture with arta- or raudra - 
dhyana ; 

(iv) utthitotthita — an upright posture with dharmya- or sukla- 

But such classifications represent little more than the subtleties of 
the schoolmen; the essential, it is stressed, is that without pure 
meditation the kayotsarga can serve no purpose. 

As has already been noted the kayotsarga is, properly, an acces- 
sory to the performance of the dvaiyakas and of such rites as the 
posadhopavasa. Amitagati 1 and Asadhara , 2 for example, prescribe a 
total of twenty-eight kayotsargas for the necessary duties : six for 
the vandanaka, eight for the pratikramana, two for the yoga-bhakti, 
and twelve for the smdhyaya ; and the precise duration of each of 
them in ucchmsas is also fixed. The same minutiae of detail are 
found in the descriptions of the blemishes (do?as) of the kayotsarga : 
Hemacandra 3 * notes twenty-one such faults, the MuUcara gives 
twenty-three, and Amitagati* raises the figure to thirty-two. All 
these lists relate in fact to the monastic life and have no real rele- 
vance to the sravakacara. 

When the layman engages in the kayotsarga particularly, as 
Abhayadeva 5 notes, by night at a crossroads he will need to be of 
stout heart for he will be assailed by upasargas and parisahas . 6 
These he must withstand but there are some legitimate reasons for 
interrupting the exercise: he is to be excused if he utters a cry 
because he himself or another person has been bitten by a snake 
or because bandits make an incursion or again if he interposes 
himself to save a living creature, as, for example, a mouse from the 
claws of a cat.^ But the ideal picture of the kayotsarga remains that of 
Hemacandra’s verse : ‘At dead of night he stands in the kayotsarga 
outside the city wall and the bullocks taking him for a post rub 
their flanks against his body .’ 8 

1 gr (A) viii. 66-67. 

3 Yg iii. 130 (pp. 694-6). 
s P (grUP) 17. 

7 Yg iii. 124 (p. 610). 

2 SDhA vi. 27. 

4 gr(A) viii. 88-98. 

6 For the parisahas see Yg iii. 153. 

8 Yg iii. 144. 




PojA, often called ijya oxyajna , the one form of ‘sacrifice’ possible 
to a Jaina, is the only major element of the layman’s religion which 
is not discussed in the canonical works and the only one which 
may be said to belong exclusively to the lay life. Closely associated 
with the avasyakas , z it is often by the Svetambaras voluntarily 
confounded with the caitya-vandana , which is sometimes held to be 
equivalent to dravya-piijd and bhdva-puja together, sometimes 
to bhava-puja alone. It will be convenient to make a distinction by 
treating under the head of puja those matters which form part of 
the Puja-vidhana-pahcasaka and under caitya-vandana those which 
make up the subject-matter of the Vandana-vidhana-pancasaka. 

Puja is not of course restricted to the adoration of the Jina’s 
image, the caitya, either in the temple or in one’s home ; it may be 
offered to all those who, like the Jinas, have attained to final release, 
to monks whether sadhus or acaryas, to the holy writ, and even to 
parents and elders . 1 2 Sometimes the meaning of the word is 
arbitrarily expanded to include the construction of temples and 
images, the carrying out of pilgrimages, the copying of the scrip- 
tures, the foundation of almshouses, the recitation of mantras , 
even the giving of alms (regarded as th Qpuja of the atithi ). 3 4 On the 
other hand it may be presented as a mere aspect of dana — in 
Hemacandra’s terms, the sowing of wealth on the Jina-bimba- 

The custom of puja is manifestly one of Jainism’s earliest con- 
scious imitations of the Hindu world around, a transference which 
was all the easier because the ceremony can be conceived as a 
simulacrum of the samavasarana , that gathering where the Tirth- 
ankara preached to men and gods who rendered puja to him with 
all that was most priceless. On entering the temple, advises 
A^adhara,s one should say to oneself, ‘This is the samavasarana , 
this is the Jina, and these are they who sit in the assembly’. Med- 
havin even devotes the first three or four adhikaras of his srava - 

1 It has already been mentioned that the sdmayika, originally conceived of 

as a period of meditation, gradually took on the character of a formal act of 
worship, in which praise was offered to the Jina. It was then but a step to the 
offering of material objects — the puja. 

z YS iii. 124 (p. 655). 3 SDhA ii. 25. 

4 Y& iii. 120 (p, 584). 3 SDhA vi. 10. 

THE PtJjA ai7 

hacara to a description of a samavasarana. But this worship of the 
Jina, even if it responds to a basic human need, can yield only a 
subjective satisfaction. The Tirthankaras , immersed in their time- 
less beatitude, are inaccessible to human entreaties, derive no satis- 
faction from the offerings of their votaries . 1 And, since neither the 
lifeless image nor the being it represents are benefited by the 
puja } how can this be commendable since it inevitably involves 
destruction of life ? To this objection the reply is that the individual 
who offers the puja achieves through viewing the image a tran- 
quillity that is a source of puny a. For those therefore whose liveli- 
hood necessarily provokes the destruction of living creatures it 
is hypocrisy to shy at the Jina-pfija on the ground that it involves 
himsa. z 

Certain Digambaras — Jinasena , 3 Camundaraya,* and A^adhara 5 
(as well as Medhavin and Vamadeva) — give a rather unreal division 
of puja into five types : 

(i) the daily worship (nitya-maha) — the ordinary puja in one’s 
home or in the temple. This term is also used to cover the 
construction of temples ; 

(ii) puja made by diademed kings ( caturmukha or sarvato - 
bhadra or maha-maha ); 

(iii) puja made by cakravartins to fulfil all desires ( kalpa-druma ) ; 

(iv) puja lasting for eight days ( astdhniki ) offered by the rulers 
of the devas in Nandismra-dvipa or by mortals during the 
Nandtsvara-parvan ; 

(v) puja offered by the devas at the five kalyanas and in uncreate 
temples (aindra-dhvaja). 

Of these the first type alone is germane to the discussion; the 
fourth is best considered under the head of ydtrd with other festi- 
vals ; and the other three have but a theoretical significance, the 
third and fifth belonging really to the realm of mythology. 

The daily puja, like the avasyakas, may, as in Vasunandin’s work, 
be classified on rather artificial lines according to the categories of 
ndma, sthapand, dravya , ksetra, kala, and bhava: 

(i) reciting the names of the Jinas (ndma-puja) ; 6 

1 Haribhadra’s commentary on 5 rPr 34s. 

2 P (Puja) 41-45 and &rPr 344-50* 

4 CS, p. 21. 5 SDhA ii. 24-28. 

0 737 Q 

3 MP xxxviii. 26-32. 
6 gr (V) 382. 

2l8 jaina yoga 

(ii) representing the Jina in an image (sthapana-puja). 1 This may 
be either : 

(a) sad-bhava— the attribution of the Jina’s qualities to an 
object haying form ; or 

(b) asad-bhava — the imagining mentally of a divine presence 
in the aksata or other objects offered in the puja; 

(iii) offering in an act of worship substances such as perfumes 

(i dravya-puja ) ; 2 f 

(a) sacitta— to the Jina or to the gurus; 

(b) acitta— to the holy writ; 

(iv) worshipping places associated with the Jinas, their kalyana- 
sthanas (ksetra~puja) ; 3 

(v) making puja on the anniversaries of the kalyanas or on such 
occasions as the Nandtivara-parvan ( kala-puja );4 

(vi) worshipping mentally or by muttering formulae (japa) or by 
dhyana ( bhdva-puja). 5 

More significant in fact, however, is the simpler division, as given, 
for example, by Amitagati, 6 into worship with offerings {dravya- 
puja) and worship by mental concentration {bhdva-puja). 

Various lists of the offerings which should constitute the puja 
are given by different writers often with indications of their 
symbolism; but before comparing them it is well to note the con- 
stituents of the act of worship at least as understood by the Digam- 
baras : 7 

(i) bathing the image (snapana, abhiseka) ; 

(ii) making the offerings {ball, area, puja) ; 

(iii) chanting the praise of the Jina {stava y stuti) ; 

(iv) muttering the sacred formulae (jap a). 

The Svetambaras have a rather similar basic threefold division of 
puja which figures in all the descriptions of the caitya-vandana . 8 

(i) anga-puja symbolized by puspa — flowers, clothes, orna- 
ments, unguents; 

(ii) agra-puja symbolized by dhara — water, fruit, rice, lamps; 

(iii) bhava~puja symbolized by stuti — hymns of praise. 

1 fr (V) 383-4. 3 Sr (V) 448-51. 3 Sr (V) 453 . 

4 Sr (V) 453-5. 5 Sr (V) 456-8. 6 £r (A) xii. 12. 

7 SDhAv. 31. 8 CVBh 10. 

THE PttjA 


At the same time there exist the distinctions of snapana (bathing) 
and sthapana (making offerings) and of dravya-puja and bhava- 

Here for purposes of comparison are the fsvetambara lists of 
8, 17, and 21 forms of piija , the unnumbered list of the Pancdsaka 
and the Digambara list of 1 1 given by Vamadeva, as well as some 
items mentioned by Vasunandin 3 and in the Sravaka-dharma- 
dohaka (see p. 220). 3 

The eightfold worship ( astopahara ) is the commonest numerical 
form given to the elements of the piija: it has superseded an earlier 
fivefold classification identical with the first five items on the list 
of eight, and has obtained general acceptance among Digambaras 
as well as ^vetambaras, being noted at a rather earlier date by the 
former. Devasena, 4 Hemacandra, 5 Devendra, 6 and Aiadhara 7 are 
amongst the writers who give the list. The figure is expanded in 
subsequent times ; thus Vamadeva among the Digambaras prefers 
a figure of eleven whilst among the $vetambaras the Puja-praka- 
rana, which has been fathered on Umasvati but can scarcely be 
older than the fourteenth century, catalogues twenty-one elements 
of puja which are almost identical with those noted by Caritrasun- 
dara in the Acaropadesa . 8 The other list with seventeen items 
which appears to be anterior to the list of twenty-one is quoted by 
Yadovijaya. 9 

The earliest work devoted exclusively to the piija would seem to 
be the Puja-pancasaka. The author introduces the subject with 
some prudence: just as the labours of agriculture yield a good 
return if performed in due season so all religious duties should be 
carried out at the right times, these being in the case of the puja the 
three sandhyas. 10 If done in such a way that the householder s 
livelihood is interrupted they will in the end lead to no good, for 
the full religious life is possible only for the ascetic. 11 But when 
the householder makes puja even the servants assisting him have 
a share in its good results whilst those who continue their normal 
duties have only toil. 13 , 

The first requisite for the votary is purity of body and mind. 

* P (Puja) 14-15. 2 (V) 483-92. 3 Doha 181-204. 

+ BhS(D) 461-87. However, in this list for naivedyci is substituted the triad ol 

milk products : milk, curds, ghee. 
s Y& iii. 124 (p. 601). 

8 AU ii. 3 S“ 36 . 

10 P (Puja) 4-5* 

6 SrDK 26. 7 SDhA ii. 30. 

9 Dhama-sarrigraha , p. 134** 

P (Puja) 7. «P (Puja) 21. 



Other Digambaras 
(Vasunandin, etc.) 


















1 3,1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M M 

lo.'I'oJS io, S,g,!i& 


gandha, gorocana 













List of 




















List of 






















Standard list 



6 g 

J l Mil M M M M 1 

1143411 4 

h tt tn 4 in'O b co O' d h n w 4 'oyd o' h 




His normal livelihood must be unobjectionable, he must put away 
all evil and improper thoughts, concentrating his mind on religion, 
and he must avoid all actions within the temple that can be con- 
sidered as asatanas. Whilst taking precautions to minimize the 
himsa inherent in bathing he must wash himself before making 
the puja since physical cleanliness for the layman both fosters and 
symbolizes spiritual purity through the destruction of papa . 1 
Asadhara 2 mentions five forms of bathing (snana) : as far as the feet, 
the knees, the loins, the neck, or the head; ranging in other words 
from the mere washing of the feet to the full cleansing. As a pre- 
liminary to the puja one must bathe as far as the head or at least as 
far as the neck; or else its performance will have to be delegated to 
another person. Caritrasundara 3 recommends bathing as far as the 
neck: only in cases where this is ritual pollution in the home is 
bathing as far as the head desirable. For going to the temple clean 
clothes are always to be worn and muddy paths avoided. 

A special ritual 4 is laid down for the setting up ( pratistha ) of a 
Jina image, which is accounted a form of puja, in its larger signiii- 
cance, and here again the concept of a representation of the sama- 
vasarana dominates. 

The ritual for the occasion, as described by Vasunandin , 4 is of 
a rather special kind but its elements are those which recur in all 
descriptions of puja , 3 Digambara and Svetambara. 

Hemacandra 5 sites the puja within the caitya-vandana ceremony 
after the triple circumambulation of the Jina image. It commences 
with the bathing ceremony followed by the designing of the tilaka 
with sri-khanda sandalwood paste and by the burning of incense. 
The image is then placed in a kalasa full of water to which various 
herbs have been added, garlands of flowers are set before it, it is 
bathed with milk and ghee together with water perfumed with 
camphor, saffron, sri-khanda , agallochum, and other scents, and 
anointed with the finest sandal paste. Then garlands of jSH t cam- 
paka, satapattra , vicakila, and kamala flowers are placed before the 
Jina; it is dressed with clothes and with ornaments of gems, gold, 
pearls ; the eight mahgalas are designed with siddharthaka, sali, and 
tandula seeds; lamps, and offerings of ghee and curds and sweet 

1 P (Puja) 9-13. 2 SDhA ii. 34* 3 -&U ii. 3-8. 

4 Vasunandin says that what he describes here is a form of sad-bhava- 
sthapana-puja as the asad-bhava form is dangerous in a world deluded by false 

5 Y& 124 (pp. 600-1). 



cakes are placed before it; a tilaka is made with sandal paste on 
the forehead, and lamps are waved before it in the aratrika cere- 

The eight mangalas 1 are : 

(1) svastika; 

(2) ^ri-vatsa; 

(3) nandyavarta; 

(4) vardhamanaka; 

(5) bhadrasana (throne) ; 

(6) kalasa; 

(7) matsya (two fishes); 

(8) darpana (mirror). 

A description and explanation of these is given by Kirfel.* 

Devendra, in the Sraddha-dina-krtya , notes that for piija in the 
home the worshipper is to be clad in white and to wear a mukha- 
vastrika. Bathing of the image in water perfumed with sandal and 
camphor and inunction with go-strsa sandal are enjoined. Clothes 
and ornaments are to be put on it and flowers and fruit offered.* 
A similar but more elaborate procedure is to be followed for piija 
in the temple. The limbs of the image are to be rubbed with a 
delicate cloth well perfumed and smeared with a paste of sandal, 
camphor, and saffron. The eight mangalas are to be designed with 
aksata and piija. then made to them with five-coloured flowers. 
Incense is to be burned, and the devotee, if he has the necessary 
talent, will himself dance before the Jina. 4 After the recitation of 
the pranidhana-sutra he is to make apuspa-grha (flower-house) with 
fragrant blossoms of many colours, this once again being a symbol 
of the samavasarana* And finally the worshipper plays or gets 
others to play various musical instruments. 6 

Probably because of the absence of a rigidly fixed canonical 
tradition the piija has continued to develop with increasing com- 
plexity since the medieval period. Thus the Puja-prakarana 
assigns different types of offerings to different hours of the day: 
perfumes at dawn, flowers at noon, incense and lamps at eventide, 
and requires the marking of the image with no less than nine tilakas P 
Piijd is to be made in the padmasana posture with downcast eyes 
and in silence ; the worshipper should face the west and if he fails 
to observe this rule various ills such as poverty will befall him. 8 

The Acaropadesa gives details of the piija very similar to those 
of the Puja-prakarana . Tilakas are to be made on the forehead, 

1 £rDK 66. 2 Kirfel, op. c it., pp. 153-5. 3 ^rDK 23-36. 

4 grDK 57-70. 5 SrDK 71-73. 6 £rDK 74-75. 

7 Piijd-prakarana, 8-10; AU ii. 29-30, 8 Ptlja-pr akarana, 4-6. 

THE PtrjA 223 

chest, neck, and abdomen of the image. Flowers are never to be 
cut in two as papa would be provoked by the severing of leaves or 
flowers, there being a special objection to splitting the buds of 
campaka flowers. 1 A sevenfold purity — of mind, body, speech, 
dress, ground, utensils, and ritual — is to be observed before the 
puja can be made. 3 

Whilst the 3vetambaras tend to augment continually the lists of 
possible forms of puja the later Digambaras develop the puja in 
other directions. Vamadeva, 3 for example, mentions as a requisite 
a triple ablution: vrata-snana (purification by observance of 
the vows) and mantra-snana (purification by recitation of mantras) 
as well as the ritual bathing of the body ( haya-snana ). Again, after 
asperging the image the votary is to pour the remains of the 
scented abhiseka water on his own head. 

Dharmaklrti, in his Sanghacara commentary on the Caitya-van - 
dana-bhasya , 4 explains the anga-piija as comprising the picking up 
and sweeping away of the remains of the offerings and the faded 
garlands, the washing of the body of the image, the garlanding, 
bathing, and inunction, the marking of the tilaka , the adorning 
with jewels, the burning of incense, and the placing in the hand of 
the image of a coconut, betel nut, nagavalli leaf, or similar offering. 

The agra-piijdy the putting before the image of ami§a — literally 
‘meat’ but defined in the dictionaries as ‘anything comestible’— 
includes naivedya, betel, fruits, leaves, sugar-cane, and lamps. 

Another late writer, Ratnasekhara, is interesting for his develop- 
ment of the details of the puja. He too insists that the worshipper 
should, in the inner sanctuary, meditate on the Jina seated in the 
samavasarana and should also visualize the whole temple as the 
samamsarana J He is particularly concerned with the disposal of 
the nirmalya by which is meant anything put on or before a Jina 
image — aksata , fruits, sweet cakes, flowers, clothes— -that has be- 
come devoid of lustre, perfume, or freshness. As in the rainy 
season the nirmalya will contain insects it is to be discarded, 
together with the water that has been used for bathing the image, 
in a spot where people do not tread. 

As already explained the anga-puja commences by the removal 
of the nirmalya, the wiping and washing of the limbs, and the 
brushing of the hair. After the offering of flowers the image is 

1 AU ii. 29-31. 4 AU ii. i2. 3 BhS (V) 470. 

4 CVBh 10. 6 Sraddha-vidhi , p. 53 «- 


bathed with the pancamrta 1 — ghee, curds, milk, water, and sugar- 
cane juice — and then with sterile (prasuka) water. The limbs are 
next to be rubbed with a scented cloth which must be soft in 
texture and red in colour and then anointed with go-sir sa sandal. 
In using sandal paste flowers or other forms of anga-piijd, care is to 
be taken that the eyes and mouth of the Jina are not covered. The 
image is now clothed and adorned with ornaments of gold, pearls, 
and gems and with gold and silver flower designs. Garlands, 
crowns, and flower-houses are fashioned with flowers of campaka , 
ketaka , satapattra y sahasrapattra , and jati and in the Jina’s hand 
is placed a citron, coconut, betel nut, nagamlli leaf, sweetmeat, or 
coin (nanaka ). 1 2 

The agra-piija includes the designing of the eight mangalas with 
grains of rice or mustard seed or, better still, with grains of gold 
or silver, the disposing of little heaps of food (the caturvidhahara) in 
groups of three, the waving of lamps before the image, the offering 
of nosegays of flowers (puspa-prakara). The aratrika lamps may 
be alimented with ghee, sugar, camphor, and other perfumed sub- 
stances . 3 

It is stressed that piijd must first be made to the mula-bimba 
(principal image) within the inner sanctuary just as when making 
guru-vandana the first salutation is for the deary a and not for those 
munis who may happen to be nearest. It would be very undesirable, 
for example, if puja were first made to the image at the door ( dmra - 
bimbo) only to find that there were not sufficient flowers to make 
puja to the principal image. But within the limits of one’s means 
the same ritual is to be followed for all images including those in 
one’s private chapel (grha-cailya). The image is to be well rubbed 
dry each day to prevent the formation of mould ( syamikd ). 

In all the texts there is a clear insistence that the variety and 
richness of the puja depend on one’s financial means. A poor man 
will content himself with the simple meditation of the bhdva - 
puja though he may assist others in making offerings by threading 
garlands of flowers. 

1 Compare with this the panca-ratna (gold, silver, copper, coral, and pearls) 
and the panca-gavya, both of which enter into the later ritual. 

2 Sraddha-vidhiy pp. 53 ff. 3 Ibid., pp. 56 if. 

(22 5) 


The term as employed in the canonical texts covers any act on the 
part of a younger monk implying a lack of respect to an older monk. 
Thirty-three such asatanas of the vandanaka ritual, listed in the 
Avasyaka texts, are described by Hemacandra 1 and Devendra 2 but 
are with difficulty applicables to the layman performing this rite. 
Others are devised to cater for the replacement of the guru by the 
sthapanacarya; and at some stage the concept of aMtana is trans- 
ferred to the caitya-vandana ritual and developed to a point where 
the word comes virtually to signify a sacrilege or profanation of the 
temple. Though the designation seems never to be used by them 
some Digambara writers* note a number of acts which should be 
avoided in the presence of an ascetic (no special category is devised 
for the temple). These, though more general and less ritualistic in 
character, are in effect identical with the gwv-asatanUs. 

They are given below, together with the ten devasatanas of 
Nemicandra , 5 which becomes the standard later list, and the ten 
mentioned by Hemacandra 6 and repeated by Asadhara . 7 

Digambara Nemicandra Hemacandra 

(1) yawning (jrmbhana) 

(2) laughter (hdsya) 

(3) jesting (narma) 

(4) gesticulation ( vikara ) 

(5) spitting (nitfhivana) 

(6) making one’s toilet ( anga - 


(7) lying (asatya) 

(8) calumniating (abhyakhyana) 

(9) leaning ( avastambha ) 

(10) clapping the hands ( kora - 


sleeping (svapna) sleeping (nidrft) 

laughter (hasri) laughter (hasa) 

wearing sandals sporting ( vilasa ) 

( upanah ) 

micturating (mutra) quarrelling ( kalaha ) 
defecating ( uccara ) spitting (nitfhyuta) 

copulation (stri-bhoga) evil gossip ( du?kathd ) 

eating (bhojanci) 
drinking ( pana ) 
betel {tambola) 
dicing ( dyuta ) 



aliments J 

( p&na ) 

( svadima ) 



(13) stretching the body ( gatra-bhanjana) 

Reference is made to profanations of the temple ( vajjeyavvam tu 
taya dehammi vi kanduyana-m-ai) as early as the Piija-vidhana- 
pancasaka : 8 though the term asatana is not there used. Abhayadeva 

1 Y& iii. 130 (pp. 676-7). 2 £rDK 79 (pp. 224-5). 

3 Hemacandra ’s remark that ‘in the descriptions of the vandanaka the cele- 
brant is a monk not a layman’ (p. 679) suggests that he was aware of this. 

4 3r (A) xiii. 40-41. 5 PS 432. 6 Y6 iii. 8t. 

? SDhA vi. 14. 8 P (Puja). 


explains the phrase quoted as referring not only to scratching an 
itching sore, but to spitting, stretching the limbs, and talking idly. 
Nemicandra, who gives the ten devasatanas enumerated above, 
also sets out a longer list of eighty-four. 1 This embraces some very 
disparate elements of which one or two may perhaps be the result 
of textual corruptions for the Prakrit text is, as so often in such 
enumerations, very unsatisfactory; in any event it includes the ten 
mentioned above together with a number which are based on 
infringements of the five abhigamas of the catty a-vandana ritual. As 
a curiosity rather than for its practical importance it is given below: 

(1) khela — spitting 

(2) keli — pastimes 

(3) kali—' wrangling 

(4) kala — practising arts such as bowmanship 

(5) kidalaya — rinsing the mouth (comm, gandusa) 

(6) tambola — chewing betel 

(7) udgalana — spitting out betel 

(8) gall — vulgar abuse 

(9) kangulika — micturation and defecation 

(10) sarira-dhavana — cleansing the body 
(n) kesa — arranging the hair 

(12) nakha — paring the nails 

(13) lohita — letting blood drip from cuts or sores 

(14) bhaktosa — eating at one’s ease 

(15) tvac — picking off the scab from a sore 

(16) pitta — vomiting bile 

(17) vanta — vomiting 

(18) dasana — cleaning the teeth 

(19) visramana — massaging the body 

(20) damana — tethering of animals (another explanation is 
‘breaking in of horses’) 

(21) danta — ' 

(22) aksi — 

(23) nakha — 

(24) ganda— 

(25) nasika — 

(26) Ur as — 

(27) srotra — 

(28) chavi — j 

letting discharges or secretions 
of these organs or excrescences 
fall on the floor of the temple 









1 PS 433-6. 


(29) mantra — use of mantras 

(30) milana — meeting old men to discuss marriage contracts 

(3 1) lekhyaka — business transactions 

(32) vibhajana — settlement of inheritances 

(33) bhandara — storing of property 

(34) dustasana — sitting with one leg crossed over the other 

(35) chant — making pats of cowdung 

(36) karpata- 

concealing these and other 
* commodities in the temple 
to escape taxation 

(37) dali- 

(38) parpata — 

(39) vatika- 

f cloth 
cakes of rice 
cakes of 

(40) nasana — taking refuge in the temple to evade justice 

(41) akranda — wailing, lamentation 

(42) vi-katha — idle gossip (or perhaps more specifically the 
vi-kathds ) 

(43) sara-ghatana — fabrication of bows and arrows 

(44) tiryak-samsthapana — stabling of animals 

(45) agnisevana — kindling fires 

(46) randhana — cooking 

(47) panksana — testing of coins 

(48) naisedhiki-bhaiijana — failure to observe the naisedhiki 

(49) chattra- 

(50) npanah — 

(51) sastra — 

(52) camara — 

failure to leave such objects 
outside the temple 

' parasol 

yak’s tail fly- 

(53) mano-nekatva — failure to concentrate one’s mind 

(54) abhyahgana — inunction of the body with oil 

(55) sacittanam atyaga — failure to remove sentient objects such 
as flowers 

(56) ajtve tyaga — removal of non-sentient objects such as neck- 

(57) dr stau no-anjali — failure to make the afijali on sight of the 
Jina image 

(5 8) eka-satottarasanga-bhanga — failureto put on an outer garment 

(59) mukuta — wearing a diadem on one’s head 

(60) mauli — wearing a tiara on one’s head 

(61) sirah-hkhara — wearing a wreath of flowers on one’s head 

(62) hadda — making wagers 


(63) kanduka-geddikadi-ramana — playing with a ball and stick 

(64) jyotkara — burning lamps for the spirits of the ancestors 

(65) bhanda-kriya — making indecent remarks 

(66) re-kara — making contemptuous remarks 

(67) dharana— restraining wrongdoers 

(68) rana — fighting 

(69) mlanarn vivarana — combing one’s hair 

(70) paryastika — spreading one’s bed 

(71) paduka — keeping on one’s sandals 

(72) pada-prasarana — stretching out one’s feet 

(73) puta-puti — whistling 

(74) panka— making the floor muddy by washing one’s body 

(75) ra j as — making the floor dusty by shaking one’s feet 

(76) maithuna — copulation 

(77) yuka — removing lice from the head 

(78) jemana — eating 

(79) guhya — not covering the sexual organs (there is a v.l. yuddha 
— wrestling) 

(80) vaidya — practising medicine 

(81) variijya — buying and selling 

(82) sayya — sleeping on a bed 

(83) jala — drinking water or letting it drop 

(84) majjana — bathing 

The sanskritizations given above are those of Siddhasena Suri 
and represent in themselves an interpretation of the original Pra- 
krit. There are slight divergencies in the list given by Devendra 1 
but that of the fifteenth-century Ratnagekhara 2 tallies completely 
with the Pravacana-saroddhara. 

It is to Ratna^ekhara 3 that we must turn for the full picture of 
the asatanas as a category of Jainism. They are classified as follows: 

1. In respect of jnana: 

(i) jaghanya , e.g. letting a drop of spittle fall on a manuscript 
or rosary; pronouncing a syllable too little or too much; 

(ii) madhyama , e.g. reciting at the wrong time ; touching a book 
with one’s foot out of pramada ; dropping a book on the 
ground; eating when the j iianopakaranci is close at hand; 

v 1 &rDK 123 (p. 270). 

3 Ibid., pp. 71a ff. 

3 Sraddhci-vidhi , p. 736. 


(iii) utkrsta , e.g. wiping the characters on manuscripts with 
spittle; sitting or lying on a manuscript; defecating when 
the j iianop akar ana is close at hand; expressing reprobation 
of the sacred knowledge and its repositories. 

2. In respect of deva : 

(i) jaghanya — the list of ten already given; 

(ii) madhyama — a list of forty, which is clearly less original than 
either the ten or the eighty-four asatanas and seems to have 
been constructed from them: in any event it contains no 
new elements ; 

(iii) utkrsta — the list of eighty-four given above. 

3. In respect of the guru: 

(i) jaghanya — concerned with touching the guru’s feet; 

(ii) madhyama — concerned with contact with mucus, spittle, or 
other impurities ; 

(iii) utkrsta — concerned with acting contrary to the guru’s 

All these are taken from the conventional enumeration of thirty- 
three asatanas of the mndanaka. 

4. In respect of the sthdpandcarya : 

(i) jaghanya , e.g. moving it about, touching it with the feet; 

(ii) madhyama, e.g. letting it fall on the ground, dropping it in 

(iii) utkrsta , e.g. destroying it, smashing it to pieces. 

The destruction of temple property is said to be also a very serious 
as at ana. 


Pram ad a (carelessness) or pramatta-yoga (careless activity) is a 
primary cause of himsa. Amrtacandra dwells on this fundamental 
concept laid down in the Tattvartha-sutra 1 and finds pramatta-yoga , 
and therefore himsa , in asatya and all other transgressions of the 
moral law. 2 The anartha-danda-vrata, which is largely a reinforce- 
ment of the ahimsa-vrata , contains a special section devoted to 

1 T (P) vii. r 3. 

2 e.g. PASU 99-100. 


abstinence from activities resulting from pramadacarita. In that 
connexion pramada is fivefold : 

(i) drinking alcohol (madya), which is also condemned as an 
infringement of the mula-gunas ; 

(ii) sensual pleasures ( visaya ) ; 

(iii) the passions ( kasdya ) ; 

(iv) sleep (iiidra ) ; 

Sleep as a form of pramada is often mentioned. Like food it 
should always be enjoyed only in moderation, and according to 
many texts from the Pancasaka 1 onwards one should always in any 
interval of sleep meditate on the foulness of the human body, for 
if one realizes that the bodies of women are only outwardly attrac- 
tive, Kama's arrows will be but empty feathers. In any event sleep 
during daytime is to be rigorously eschewed, and at night it is to be 
restricted to the minimum. 

(v) unprofitable conversation ( vi-katha ). 

Four (or sometimes seven) types of vi-katha or asabha-katha are 
generally listed: 

(i) Talk of women (stri-katha ) — this is understood to mean 
talking about women’s dresses, ornaments, looks, or gait, as, for 
example, saying that a woman is slender or full-breasted or skilled 
in love-making or else that she squawks like a crow and waddles 
like a buffalo. It may also cover comparisons between women of 
different countries. 

(ii) Talk of food ( bhakta-katha ) — this applies to descriptions of 
various kinds of dishes or of what one plans to eat at one’s next 
meal such as saying how delicious are cakes made with ghee and 

(iii) Talk of places ( desa-hatha ) — as examples of this are cited 
the statements that in the south there is abundant food and desir- 
able women, or in the east wine and sugar and rice and cloth, or 
that in the north there are brave men, swift horses, abundant 
saffron, and sweet grapes and pomegranates, wheat being the main 
crop, whilst in the west there are sugar-cane and cool waters and 
cloth of fine texture. &anti Suri suggests rather similar examples : 
that Gurjara is a land difficult of access, the people of Lata are 
great warriors, or that it is pleasant to live in Kashmir. 

I P (SrDh) 46, 



(iv) Talk of kings ( rat~katha ) — this would refer to statements 
such as these: our ruler is very heroic or the king of Gauda has 
many elephants ; or again, that there was a terrible battle between 
two neighbouring kings. 

(v) Sentimental talk (mrdu-karuniki katha) — this is defined as 
tales calculated to soften the hearts of the auditors such as descrip- 
tions of persons in misfortune separated from their loved ones. 

(vi) Irreligious talk ( darsana-bhedini katha) — this term would 
apply to discourses destructive of right belief such as praise of, 
for example, Buddhist doctrines by people who imagine themselves 
to be very knowledgeable. It is practically equivalent to the para- 
pasandi-prasainsa aticara of samyaktva. 

(vii) Unethical talk ( caritra-bhedim katha) — by this is meant 
stories in which the repeated transgressions of moral precepts can 
offer a bad example to those who listen to them. 

These seven vi-kathas are listed by $anti Suri 1 in the Dharma- 
ratna-prakarana but in general, as, for example, by Hemacandra 2 
only the first four are taken into account. 

Just as pramada finds expression in idle speech so can it be 
avoided by silence. Amitagafis recommends the undertaking of 
a vow of silence (mauna-vrata) which may be either for a limited 
period or for one’s life long. In the former case its completion will 
be marked by a festival in the temple with the dedication of a bell 
( ghantika ), any such offering made in celebration of a successfully 
accomplished vow, being styled an uddyotana or, more commonly, 
an udyapana. 

The maintenance of silence is regarded as essential for auspicious 
meditation ( sukla-dhyana ) and for the avasyakas as the list of the 
mannas or occasions for silence shows. Amitagati notes four of 
these: eating, excretion, papa-karya , and avaiyaka , but at least 
from A^adhara onwards a figure of seven is fixed, the actual enumer- 
ation varying slightly from author to author. Here are some ex- 
amples : 

CAritrasundara 6 

- 2 Y ^ “i. 79 (P* S 00 )* 

3 to) xFi*. 108-10. A&dhara here dearly borrowed from Amitagati (SDhA 
iv. 36-37). 4 SDhA iv. 38. s Sr (M) vi. 44. 6 AU 5*. 

ASadhara 4 
(1) bhojana 
(a) maithuna 
(3) snana 

Medhavin 5 




23 » 


(4) mala-ksepa 

(5) vamana 

(6) papa-karya 1 

(7) ava^yaka 












The term nirodha is a little unclear: if it means the ‘stoppage of 
breath’ in yogic exercises conducing to meditation the 3 vetambara 
list of Caritrasundara will be parallel with the Digambara lists: 
in both cases the Jaina notion of religious rites will have been 
appended to an enumeration of physical activities — eating, copula- 
tion, bathing, vomiting, excretion, tooth- cleaning — regarded by 
the primitive mind as exposing the individual to danger from the 


Devendra, in the Sraddha-dina-krtya , 2 classifies the yatra into 
three types representing in fact different concepts, the last of which 
has little in common with the others but the name : 

(1) astahnika-yatra — the festival of the Nandtsvara-parvan ; 

(2) ratha-yatra — the processions in which the sacred images are 
carried through the streets ; 

(3) tirtha-yatra — pilgrimages to holy places. 

This threefold division is not, it would seem, found earlier — 
Hemacandra, for example, does not deal with the subject in the 
Yoga-tdstra, though he describes a ratha-yatra in detail in the 
Pariiista-parvan — but it is repeated by Ratna^ekhara in the &rad- 
dha-vidhi. 3 

1. The astahnika-yatra takes place in Nandisvara-parmn from 
astatni to paurnima in the bright fortnights of the months of 
Karttika, Phalguna, and Asadha. This act of worship — one of the 
forms of puja listed by Jinasena 4 — is a surrogate for the adoration 
of the Jina images by the gods in the temples of the Nandisvara - 
dvipa , which is inaccessible to mortals. It would appear to be the 
only festival of the Jaina calendar to which the older sravakacdras 
devote any attention. 

1 Papa-karya is explained by A^adhara himself as actions involving drambha, 

1 £rDK29a(pt. ii, pp. 206-8). 

3 Sraddha-vidhi , p. 1636. ♦ MP xxxviii. 26. 


2. The ratha-yatra , in Devendra’s 1 brief description, is essentially 
a chariot festival: the Jina images are paraded through the streets 
on a flower-decorated chariot with white chattras , camaras , and 
pennants to the accompaniment of musical instruments and the 
dancing of men and women. It is not clear from the texts whether 
there is any essential difference between this and the preceding 
yatra. Both probably combine the same elements and the Yatra- 
pahcasaka 2 3 in fact speaks only of a Jina-yatra — Jaina, that is, and 
not Hindu — though Abhayadeva, commenting the Stava-vidhi- 
pahcasakap defines the word yatra as asj.ahnika-mahima puja ca. 
Probably the astahnika festival offered a model for other popular 
celebrations in which profane spectacles like dancing and drama 
could, like folk-tales, be given a nihil obstat when adapted to 
religious ends. It is the kalyanas of the Jinas, particularly of the last 
Jina, Mahavlra, that are held to be the most suitable times for the 
carrying out of yatras. 

These kalyanas , 4 * so-called, according to the Pancasaka, 5 because 
they bring benefit ( kalyana ) to living beings, are generally four or 
five in number, though there are some divergencies in the listing of 
them : 

(1) garbhadhana 
(3) janma 

(3) ni§kramana 

(4) jfiana 

(5) nirvana 













Jinaprabha 7 






About birth, renunciation of the world, attainment of illumination, 
and final release there is little dispute; but the notation of the 
garbhapahara (removal from the womb), which mirrors faithfully 
the Kalpa-sutra story, seems to be rather unusual; of course 
cyavana corresponds to garbhadhana (conception). 

The early date of th tPahcasaka makes its description of a yatra 8 
of great value and worth quoting in extenso. 

1 £rDK, pt. ii, p. 206. 

* P (Yatra) 3. 

3 Stava-vidhi-pancasaka, 3. 

4 Asadhara wrote a short work, the I£alycitia~tnalct ) in which the calendar of 

these festivals for the twenty-four tirthaykaras is versified. Hemacandra lists the 
kalyand-sthanas : Y£s iii. 150 (pp. 758-9)* t ^ (Yatra) 30. 

6 P (Yatra) 31. 7 Sr (V) 452* 8 p ( Yatr5 ) G" 11 - 


C 737 

234 JA 1 NA YOGA 

The yatra , as an external manifestation of the importance and 
material prosperity of those who profess the Jaina religion, is a 
form of prabhavana which again is one of the constituent elements 
or angas of samyaktva or right belief. Its proper accomplishment is 
achieved by the combination of the following factors : 

(i) dana— the distribution of largesse. This includes not only 
almsgiving to monks but charity to the needy without distinction 
of creed or calling — even ‘killers’ such as fishermen are to share in 
it. It should mark the commencement of the yatra. 

(ii) tapas — austerities which in practice mean food restrictions 
(ekasana-prcityakhyana is cited as an example). The purpose is to 
emphasize the solemnity of the occasion and to induce a proper 
frame of mind in the participants. 

(iii) sarira-satkara — bodily adornment. People are to wear their 
best clothes and to use the best unguents and garlands. 

(iv) gita-vaditra — music and song. These should be pleasing, 
fitting for the occasion, and calculated to inspire a religious frame of 

(v) stuti-stotra — hymns of praise. These should not be merely 
sonorous but of deep significance and should tend to generate a 
desire to seek release from the world. They are also to be sama 
(the commentator explains either this as ‘not harsh in sound’ or as 
‘easily understandable’). 

(vi) preksanaka — spectacles. These are to be understood as 
religious dramas ( dharma-nataka ) dealing with such themes as the 
Jina’s birth, life, and renunciation of the world and accompanied 
by displays of dancing. They are to be performed preferably at 
the beginning of the, yatra. 

The culmination of the festival occurs when the Jina image is 
taken out of the temple and borne in procession on a chariot 
through the city together with religious pictures ; this is the ratha- 
yatra properly so-called, 1 All expenditure and efforts for this end 
are praiseworthy because the moral effect of the yatra contributes 
to the avoidance of himsa and enables some people to attain to 
enlightenment. 3 

3. The tirtha-yatra seems to be a later development. 3 There is 

1 P (Yatra) 26-28. z Ibid. 18. 

3 For a study of Digambara and Svetambara places of pilgrimage see Premi, 
op. cit., pp. 185-250. 


no indication of its being known to the author of the Pancasaka but 
the custom must have existed in Abhayadeva’s time for in his com- 
mentary 1 he is careful to explain that the treatise deals with a 
festival and not with journeying to another country. 

For a description of the tirtha-yatra as a well-established custom 
it is necessary to turn to a writer who is later than the limits set for 
the study. Ratnasekhara 2 defines the expression as meaning the 
visiting of such places as Satrunjaya and Raivata where the atmo- 
sphere is hallowed by association with the birth, initiation, enligh- 
tenment, or nirvana of tirthahkaras. 

The would-be pilgrim to these holy places must observe certain 
interdictions : he must not take more than one meal a day, he must 
not wear garlands or other sacitta objects, he must abstain from 
sexual relations, he must sleep on the ground, and he should travel 
on foot even if he possesses horses and carriages or other means of 
transport. The pilgrimage is naturally envisaged as a communal 
effort. A man of substance will first seek the authorization of the 
local ruler, get together a party from among his own household 
and kinsfolk and co-religionists rather as if he were organizing a 
merchant caravan, and invite suitable religious preceptors. Then, 
assembling provisions and baggage animals as well as vehicles for 
those unable to travel afoot and hiring armed guards for the 
expedition, he will set out at an auspicious astrological conjuncture 
after festal piijds in the temples. On the journey he will look after 
the welfare of the members of the convoy, providing food, betel, 
and clothes and encouraging the faint-hearted. En route he will 
hold puja services and provide for the restoration of ruined temples 
in towns and villages. When the place of pilgrimages comes into 
sight he will distribute alms to his co-religionists. The actual cele- 
brations at the tirtha will include the full eightfold puja, a major 
piija with a puspa-grha and kadali-grha , a night wake, a festival of 
music and dance, and a period of fasting. The party will then 
return home. 

Ratnasekhara’s description, by its very completeness, attests a 
long tradition for the tirtha-yatra by his day; and in fact A^adhara 
advises rich men to organize them in order to spread right beliefs 
in the world , 3 and refers to their beneficial effect in counteracting 
the spurious attractions of the Kali age . 4 

1 P (Yatra) 4. 2 Srdddha-vidhi , pp. 1646 ff. 

3 SDhA ii. 84. 4 SDhA ii. 37. 




The term is used to designate both the image and, equivalent to 
caityalaya , the temple. In the former sense there is an old classi- 
fication into five types noted by Nemicandra: 1 

(i) bhakti-caitya — an image set up in the home for devotional 
purposes and used at the three sandhyas ; 

(ii) mahgala-caitya — an image set in the middle of the door 
lintel as an auspicious symbol; 

(iii) nisra-krta-caitya — an image used by a particular gaccha ; 

(iv) anisra-krta-caitya — an image common to all gacchas ; 

(v) sasvata-caitya — an uncreate image existing since all eternity 
in some temple in the three worlds. 

Hemacandra 2 notes the first, second, and fifth types of these. He 
also advocates the construction of temples, the restoration of dere- 
lict ones, and the rebuilding of ruined ones. As in similar activities 
of a pious nature any injury to living beings caused by the work 
of excavation and construction is outweighed by the good done 
in promoting the cause of religion. 

Devendra 3 has a slightly different classification : 

(i) bhakti-caitya — an image or temple for devotional purposes; 

(a) anisra-krta — without lodging for monks as at Astapada; 

(b) nisra-krta — with lodging for monks ; 

(ii) mangala-caitya — as at Mathura ; 

(iii) sahata-caitya — as in Nandisvara-dvipa ; 

(iv) sadharmika-caitya — an image for the use of co-religionists. 

The temple, says A^adhara, destroys the spurious attraction of 
the present age and provides an asrama for ascetics where the laity 
can rid themselves of the worldly life through contact with religious 
ceremonies.* Attached to the temple there should be a garden 
with a water-supply and a lotus pool to provide offerings for the 
piija. Food-distribution centres ( sattra ) and medical-treatment 
centres ( cikitsa-salti ) should also be set up.s 

Devendra has a series of verses in praise of those who rebuild 
or restore ruined Jaina temples : they will enjoy the esteem of their 
fellow men and will be reborn, if not as devas at least in an exalted 
family on earth. Knowledge and artistic skill and intelligence, if 

1 PS 659. 

3 &-DK 151. 

2 YS iii. 120 (p. 585). 
5 Ibid, 40. 

SDhA ii. 37, 


they are to be worth while, must be used in the service of the Jina . 1 
If, on the other hand, any man appropriates or allows others to 
appropriate religious property ( Jina-dravya ) he will experience 
misfortunes of every kind in the cycle of transmigration, so he 
should take a vow never to touch it. Temple property comprises 
valuables such as gold and silver and also the actual construction 
material — bricks, stone, and timber . 2 Grouped together within the 
same aura of untouchability are the monastic property, i.e. the 
clothes, begging bowls, and other objects used by monks (guru- 
dr avy a); the learned property or books (jnmia-dravya) ; and all that 
has been bequeathed to the community ‘to sow on the seven fields 
or ksetras 5 ( sadharana-drcmya or prabhasvd). 


Svadhya ya (study), regarded as one of the six forms of internal 
tapas and by the Digambaras as one of the six daily karmans 3 of the 
householder, is a feature of the lay life that has been transferred 
directly from the textbooks of monastic discipline. It is tradition- 
ally divided into live elements : 4 

(i) vacana — reciting of the sacred texts; 

(ii) prasna — asking the guru questions about them; 

(iii) parivartana — repetition of the texts in order not to forget 
those previously learned; 

(iv) anupreksd 5 — imbuing oneself with the meaning; 

(v) dharma-katha — listening to the exposition of religious 

Without the light that comes from study it is impossible, says 
Amitagati , 6 to rid oneself of the darkness of ignorance. For Vama- 
deva 7 svadhyaya is one of the four anuyogas propounded by the 
Jina. Asadhara 8 recommends the construction of svadhyaya-salas 
since ‘where there is no opportunity of study the minds of monks, 
tossed about by an inconstant wind, walk not in primacy in the 
doctrines of religion’. 

1 £rDK 99-110. 2 JsrDK 136-39. 3 CS, p. zi. 

4 Sr (A) xiii. 81; T (P) ix. 35. See Schubring, DieLehre der Jainas, p. 169. 

5 Here the word anupreksd has a rather special meaning. See A. N, Upadhye, 

Introduction to KA, pp. 7-8. The other four elements of svadhyaya are some- 
times considered as supports (alambana) of dhamtya-dhyana to which four 
anapreksas are then assigned. 6 £>r (A) xiii. 83. 7 BhS(V)s99. 

8 SDhA ii. 39. 




This term would seem to embrace any form of self-discipline or 
training for the spiritual life. By the Digambaras it is accounted the 
sixth of the daily karmans and by both Digambaras and &vetam- 
baras is held to be either external ( bahya ) or internal (abhyantara). 
The six varieties of the latter are : l 

(1) Confession to a guru ( prayascitta ); this includes prati- 
kramana and alocana. 

(2) Expression of respect to ascetics {vinaya). 

(3) Rendering of personal services to ascetic ( vaiyavrttya ). 

(4) Studying, memorizing and expounding, the sacred lore 

(5) Abandonment of the body (utsarga, vyavasarga). 

(6) Meditation ( dhyana ), i.e. concentration on one thought for 
up to a maximum time of one muhurta. 

There is some confusion in this list. Smdhydya is also of its own 
right the fourth of the six daily karmans ; and vinaya and vaiyavrttya 
together make up bhakti ) which is one of the five bhusanas of samya - 
ktva . 2 The term vaiyavrttya-vrata is also used by some writers 
as a synonym of dana-vrata. 

The six varieties of bahya-tapas are : 3 

(1) Fasting {anasana). 

(2) Taking only part of a full meal ( unaudarya y avamaudarya ). 

(3) Limiting of food according to the range of choice or accord- 
ing to the time, place, and posture in which it is offered 
(vrtti-samksepa, vrtteh sahkhya). 

(4) Abstention from luxury foods (rasa-parityagd). 

(5) Avoidance of all that can lead to temptation (samlinata, 
vivikta-sayyasana) . 

(6) Mortification of the flesh (kaya-klesa), e.g. by heat, cold, 
insect bites. The first four of these are variants of fasting and go 
together with others mentioned in the sections on pratyakhydna ' 
and posadhopavasa-vrata. Bahya-tapas is virtually synonymous 
with fasting, even the expression kaya-klesa being used in that 

1 PASU igg; DK, pt. ii, p. 76. See Schubring, op. cit, pp. 196-7. 

2 YS ii. 16. 

3 PASU 198; SrDK, pt. ii, p. 76. Sec Schubring, op. cit., p. 196. 



sense by Vasunandin. 1 In fact asceticism for the Jaina lies first and 
foremost in depriving oneself of food, its extreme expression being 
found in sallekhana. 


Du YANA, one of the forms of abhyantara-tapas is defined in the 
Tattvartha-sutra 2 as ‘the concentration of thought on a single 
object for up to one muhurta ’. It may be of four types, the first 
and second being inauspicious ( aprasasta ) and the third and fourth 
auspicious (prasastaf and each type is again subdivided to cover 
four possible themes : 4 

x. Painful (arta ) : 

(a) contact with what is unpleasant (amanoj na-samprayoga) and 
desire for its removal. ‘What is unpleasant’ would cover 
hostile persons, material discomforts, hurtful words, and 
disagreeable emotions ; 

(b) separation from what is pleasant (; manojna-viyoga ), for ex- 
ample, through losing one’s loved ones or one’s wealth, and 
desire to get them back again; 

(c) the sensation of suffering (< vedana ) as from an illness and the 
desire to rid oneself of it; 

(d) hankering for sensual pleasures (nidana). The same term of 
course recurs as one of the three salyas and as an aticara of 
the sallekhana-vrata . 

2 . PI armful (ran dr a) : 

(a) the infliction of hurt (himsa) ; 

(b) falsehood ( anrta ) ; 

(c) theft ( steya ) ; 

(d) the hoarding of wealth (t dhana-samraksana)* 

i. Moral (dharmya): 

(а) discerning the command of the Jina ( ajna-vicaya ); 

(б) discerning the nature of what is calamitous (< apaya-vicaya); 

1 &r (V) 351. *T(P)ix. 2 7 . 3 CS, p. 74. 

+ Sr (A) xv. 9-15; T(P)ix. 38-39. . .. 

s Hemacandra (YS iii. 73) covers arta- and raudra-dhyana only, in discussing 
the sravakacara. 


(c) discerning the consequences of karma ( vipaka-vicaya ) ; 

(d) discerning the structure of the universe (samsthana-vicaya) . 1 

4, Refulgent (sukla) : 

(a) consideration of diversity (prthaktva-vitarka) ; 

(b) consideration of unity ( ekatva-vitarka ) ; 

(c) maintenance of subtle activity (suksma-kriya-pratipati ) ; 

(d) complete destruction of activity ( vyuparata-kriya-nivar - 

Together arta-dhymia and randra-dhyana constitute apadhyana, 
which is one of the manifestations of anartha-danda. Strictly they 
should apply only to the lay life since a monk who gives way, for 
example, to raudr a- dhyana has already lapsed from his vocation. 1 2 
The other forms of dhyana are proper for an ascetic and sukla- 
dhyana is in fact only possible for one who has reached a very 
high stage of spiritual development. For this reason doubtless 
some writers such as Camundaraya 3 and Asadhara treat the whole 
subject as belonging to the yaty-dcdra . 

Amitagati 4 gives to the topic of dhyana a theoretical treatment 
parallel to that of dana. Four aspects are considered: 

(i) the meditator ( dhydtr ), who must be pure in heart; 

(ii) the object of meditation (dhyeya) ; 

(iii) the technique ( vidhi ) ; 

(iv) the result obtained ( phala) y which is svarga or moksa. 

Camundaraya 5 has a rather similar classification. 

It is only the second of these aspects that is of any practical 
significance, four objects of dhyana being distinguished under this 
head: 6 

(i) meditation on the syllables of the sacred mantras ( pada - 
stha ) ; 

(ii) meditation on the group of magic powers possessed by the 
Jina (pinda-stha) ; 

(iii) meditation on the form of the Jina materialized in the statue 
(rupa-stha ) ; 

(iv) meditation on the Jina as a disembodied arhat (rupatita). 

1 There is a special association of svddhyaya with the dharmya-dhyand , See 
P- 237. 

2 T (P) ix. 35. 3 CS, pp. 74-95* 4 (A) xv. 23 . 

3 CS, p. 74. 6 Sr (A) xv. 30-56. 


Reduced to a triad by the omission of the third type of meditation, 
this enumeration finds a place in the conventional cctitya-vandana 
ritual of the 3vetambaras under the designation of the avastha- 
trika and again in the Digambara ritual with Somadeva 1 and Vasu- 
nandin. 2 


Both of these are classed as forms of abhyantara-tapas , and both 
relate initially to the monastic life. They may also be viewed as the 
twin manifestations of that devotion ( bhakti ) to the sacred doctrine 
which is listed by Hemacandra as one of the bhusanas of samyaktva * 
Vinaya , originally the outward expression of respect for a hier- 
archical superior, is divided by Vasunandin 4 — and, in his section 
on yaty-acara , by Camundaraya 5 — into five categories following 
the Tattvartha-sutrcfi (which has four): 

(i) respect for right belief ( darsana-vinaya ) expressed by ful- 
filling the gunas of samyaktva ; 

(ii) respect for right knowledge (jnana-vinaya) and for those who 
are its repositories ; 

(iii) respect for right conduct (caritra-vmaya) ; 

(iv) respect for ascetic practices (tapo-vinaya ) ; 

(v) respect expressed, for example, to a guru by considerate atten- 
tions (upacara- vinaya), which may take the form of a favour- 
able mental attitude, of courteous words, or of appropriate 
actions. This last aspect — the kaya-vinaya — includes a num- 
ber of features which have been given a numerical classifica- 
tion by Hemacandra 7 as the eightfold upacara-vidhi; for the 
most part these are also mentioned by Vasunandin and Camun- 

(a) rising from one’s place ( abhyutthana ) ; 

(b) going towards him ( abhiyana ); 

(c) making the anjali (anjali-karana) ; 

(d) oneself offering him a seat ( svayam asana-dhaukana ) ; 

(e) acceptance by him of the seat ( dsanabhigraha ) ; 

1 Handiqui, pp. 373-83. 2 (V), 458-76. 

3 YS ii. 16. + £r (V) 330. 5 CS, pp. 65-66. 

6 T (P) ix. 33. 7 YS ii. 16 (p. 185). 


(/) reverent salutation (vandana ) ; 

(g) waiting upon him (p ary upas ana ) ; 

(h) accompanying him as he leaves (anngamana). 

Yasunandin 1 also here includes some actions which might more 
properly be described as forms of vaiyavrttya , such as massaging 
the limbs and preparing a bed. The upacara-vinaya just described 
(another form of which is to be found in the nine puny as 2 pre- 
scribed for welcoming an atithi to whom dana is given) is applicable 
when a gum is present, but similar respect may be shown when 
he is absent by mental reverence and words of praise. 

Like the vandanaka ritual (itself an expression of vinaya) vinaya 
is envisaged as rendered by monk to monk or by layman to monk. 
Vasunandin, 3 however, goes a step further by laying down that 
laymen may fittingly make kaya-vinaya both to ascetics and to 

A similar development, far more important in its implications, 
has also occurred with the practice of vaiyavrttya, which is the term 
used in the canonical texts for bodily services rendered to monks, in 
particular attendance on the sick. The traditional enumeration 4 of 
the objects of vaiyavrttya. is worth noting : 

(1) acarya — the head of a community; 

(2) upadhyaya — a preceptor; 

(3) tapasvin — monk engaged in fasting or other austerities; 

(4) saiksa , Hksaka — neophyte; 

(5) gfana — a sick monk; 

(6) gana — a group of monks senior not in age but in religious 

(7) kida — a group of monks with the same acarya; 

(8) sangha — the community of monks ; 

(9) sadhu — a monk of long standing; 

(10) samanojna — a distinguished or highly respected monk. 

Amitagati 5 has introduced certain variations into this list: the 
sadhu figures as a vrddha (aged monk) and kula and samanojna dis- 
appear to make way for pravartaka and gana-raksa, which appear 
to indicate special types of acarya. He particularly enjoins the 
practice of vaiyavrttya in times of famine or epidemic disease or 
when the monks are harassed by parisahas or by thieves or rulers. 

1 Sr (V) 328. 2 Sr (V) 225. 

* T (P) ix. 24. 

3 Sr (V) 330. 

5 Sr (A) xiii. 62-64. 


From this list it is clear that the scope of vaiyavrttya covers all 
reciprocal assistance within the community of monks and is not 
confined to services rendered by an inferior to a superior. It also 
includes services rendered by laymen (for whom this represents a 
privilege) to individual ascetics or to the community of monks : the 
concept is that expressed by the word yati-vibamana. 1 * It is prob- 
ably the term sangha interpreted already by Siddhasena Ganin z as 
the catur-varna-sangha (the fourfold community of monks, nuns, 
laymen, and laywomen) that is at the origin of a further extension 
of the meaning which is fully manifest in Vasunandin’s description. 

For all those, he says , 3 within the fourfold community who are 
very young or very old or afflicted by disease or physically ex- 
hausted vaiyavrttya is to be performed : this will include the massag- 
ing of arms, legs, back, and head, asperging, anointing with oil, 
and application of cooling pastes; if they are dirty the filth will 
be removed and whilst their bodies are washed their beds will be 
cleaned and made ready ; and food and drink and medicines will 
be provided for them. Such actions bring their own reward both in 
this life and in succeeding lives. 

The mention of providing food recalls another aspect of vaiya- 
vrttya that comes to the fore in the Cantra-sara . 4 When monks are 
assailed by diseases, pansahas , or false beliefs ( mithyatva ) prasuka 
medicaments and food and drink, shelter and bedding, blankets 
and religious accessories (dharmopakarana) are to be given them 
to help to strengthen them in the faith; these amount in fact to 
almsgiving. With this in mind it is not difficult to understand 
that in the Ratna-karanda 5 vaiyavrttya is used as a synonym of 

The idea of community self-help, implicit in Vasunandin’s con- 
cept of vaiyavrttya , more often finds expression with the Svetam- 
baras in the discussion of vatsalya , one of the gunas or angas of 
samyaktva. All co-religionists, says Devendra , 6 are to be regarded 
as dear friends with whom disputes and quarrels are unthinkable. 
He who strikes a fellow Jaina in anger is guilty of an asatam — 
a sacrilege. Money or effort expended in the interests of one’s co- 
religionists is always well spent whether they belong to one’s own 
country and caste or whether they have come from afar. 

At the same time the individual has a duty to look to the moral 

1 grDK 243. 2 T (S) ix. 24 (p. 237). 3 f r ( v ) 337-4°- 

4 CS, p. 67. 5 RK iv. 2i. 6 SrDK 198-206. 


welfare of his fellows. Those who are lukewarm in their zeal for the 
performance of religious duties should be stimulated in every 
possible way, even if encouragements or admonitions meet with a 
testy answer from the person to whom they are addressed. They 
are to be prodded with questions such as: ‘Why, my friend, did I 
not see you yesterday in the temple or in th e posadha-sala or at the 
feet of the sadhuV in order to save them from the grip of pramadad 


The subject of the twelve anupreksas 2 or themes of meditation has 
already been treated in many works on Jainism and it would be 
otiose to discuss it here, 3 though certain writers on sravakacara 
cover the topic. These are mainly Digambaras — Kundakunda, 
Karttikeya, Somadeva, Amitagati, 4 Asadhara, s Camundaraya 5 — but 
Svetambara works dealing with the subject as an aspect of monastic 
discipline include the Yoga-sastra . 6 These apply to the anupreksas 
the designation bhavana (not to be confused with the twenty-five 
bhavanas of the mahd-matas nor with the sixteen Digambara 
bhavanas). Here, for the purpose of comparison, are the twelve 
anupreksas : 

(1) on impermanence (unity a) ; 

(2) on helplessness ( asarana ) ; 

(3) on the cycle of transmigration (samsara) ; 

(4) on solitariness ( ekatva ) ; 

(5) on the separateness of the self and the body (a?iyatva); 

(6) on the foulness of the body (asucya); 

(7) on the influx of karma (dsrava) ; 

(8) on the checking of karma (samvara) ; 

(9) on the elimination of karma (nirjara) ; 

(10) on the universe (loka)\ 

(n) on the difficulty of enlightenment (bodhi-durlabha) ; 

(12) on the preaching of the sacred law (dharma-smkhyatatvd). 

1 3 rDK 307-19. 

3 For the canonical origins of the anupreksas see Schubring, op. cit. 

3 For a comprehensive treatment of the meditations see K. IC. Handiqui, 
Yasastilaka and Indian Culture (chap, xi: ‘The anupreksas and Jaina religious 
poetry’), and A. N. Upadhye, Introduction to KA, pp. 6-43. 4 £jr (A) xiv. 

5 The anupreksas are treated both by Camundaraya (CS, pp. 78-93) and 
Asadhara (Anagdra-dharmdmrta, vi. 57-82) as a feature of yaty-acara. 

6 YS iv. 55-110. 

( 345 ) 


B HAVANA — ‘meditation' or ‘contemplation' — is the designation 
more commonly used by the ^vetambaras for the anupreksas. Some 
Digambaras, however, apply this name to another series of mental 
attitudes, sixteen, not twelve, in number. Here is the list of their 
themes as given by Camundaraya: 1 

(1) purity of belief ( darsana-suddhi ); 

(2) perfection of vinaya ivinaya-sampannata) ; 

(3) faultless observance of the mat as and the kilos ' 1 ( Hla - 
vratesv anaticara). Sila here signifies the avoidance of anger 
and similar virtues; 

(4) continuous cultivation of knowledge ( abhiksna-jiianopa - 

y°s a ) ; „ . . , . .... 

(5) fear of the cycle of reincarnation and its vicissitudes 
(samvega ) ; 

(6) the practice of the fourfold dana within the limits of one's 
power ( saktitas tyaga ) ; 

(7) the practice of austerities within the limit of one’s power 
{saktitas tapas). The body is vile but may yet be used as a 
vehicle for spiritual progress; 

(8) removing impediments to the practice of austerities by 
monks {sadhu-sattiadhi) . This is compared to the extinguish- 
ing of a fire that threatens a storehouse; 

(9) the tending of ascetics in misfortune (vaiyavrttya-karana); 

(10) devotion to the Jinas {arhad-bhakti)\ 

( 1 1) devotion to the gurus {guru-bhakti); 

{12) devotion to those learned in holy writ ( bahu-sruta-ohakti ); 

(13) devotion to the sacred doctrine (pravacana-bhakti)\ , 

(14) zealous performance of the six necessary duties (avasyaka- 

(15) glorification of the sacred doctrine ( marga-prabhSvaw ) by 
tapas Jnana, and ptija; 

(16) affection towards the expounders, i.e. exemplary ascetics 

« One wotdd Expect the word Hla here to mean 
vratas but Camundaraya himself explains it as ‘the avoidance of anger, &c. in 
order to keep the vratas' (CS, p. 25). 


and laymen 1 2 ( ' pravacana-vatsalya ). (The alternative ex- 
planation of this bhavana : ‘affection for the sacred doc- 
trine* seems too nearly a repetition of pravacana-bhakti 
to be tenable.) 

These bhavanas though they are mentioned both by Asadhara* 
and by Medhavin 3 as types of meditation are in fact totally distinct 
from the anupreksas . 4 5 They have rather the nature of those bhavanas 
which are designed to fortify the maha-matas , that is they are 
observances to be followed in order to achieve progress in the 
spiritual life. 

They represent in fact a transcription of the passage of the 
Tattvartha-sutra 5 which lists the asravas which bring about the 
auspicious tirthankara-nama~karman, and which Pujyapada, in 
his commentary, terms the sixteen bhavanas. 


The seventy-two arts or accomplishments of men belong to the 
canonical literature and scarcely survive, save as an archaism, in the 
medieval sravakacaras. Devendra 6 seems to be alone in listing them 
in full, though Vasunandin 7 ascribes to the inhabitants of the 
bhoga-bhumis the knowledge of the seventy-two kalas and to their 
womenfolk the acquaintance with the sixty-four gunas. 

In view of the abundant literature on the subject it is pointless to 
detail them here . 8 

1 Pujyapada explains as ‘co-religionists’. 

2 SDhAvii. 55. 

3 &r (M) x. ioo. 

4 The anupreksas are treated by Camundaraya under the head of yaty-acara 
(CS, pp. 78-92) and considered to be an aspect of dharmya-dhydna. 

5 T (P) vi. 24. 

6 £rDK 106 (pt. i, pp. 265-6). 

7 Sr (V) 263. 

8 For a full description of the seventy- two kalas and a comparison with the 
list of sixty-four in the Kama-sutra, see, for example, the article byAmulyachandra 
Sen in the Calcutta Review, March 1933, pp. 364 ff. 

( 247 ) 


These are listed as: 

(1) dicing, gambling (dyuta) ; 

(2) boozing, drinking alcohol (5 madya , surd ) ; 

(3) meat-eating (mamsa ) ; 

(4) whoring (veiya) ; 

(5) hunting ( kheta , paparddhi , mrgaya) ; 

(6) thieving (caurya, stena) ; 

(7) adultery ( para-dara ). 

By definition these vices are specific forms of papa which entail 
an evil reincarnation (durgati), generally in hell. 1 In fact some later 
writers assign each to a special naraka. 2 Amitagati 3 opposes 

the seven vices to an integral concept of sila^ (the maintenance of all 
vows assumed) to which they form an impediment. 

As a category the vyasanas are treated only in the Digambara 
sravakdcaras , being expressly mentioned by Vasunandin, 5 Aiadhara, 6 
and Padmanandin (and by Medhavin, Sakalakirti, and Sivakoti). 
Without employing this designation, Amitagati 7 covers the same 
subject in detail. The oldest discussion, of the topic is therefore not 
earlier than the eleventh century though reference is made to the 
vyasanas in kaihas , both Svetambara and Digambara, before that 
date. There is considerable irregularity of treatment in the litera- 
ture because thieving is already condemned by the third anu- 
vrata and adultery by the fourth, while eating meat, drinking 
alcohol, and hunting can all be regarded as violations of ahimsa . 
Furthermore the Digambara category of the mula-gunas covers the 
abstention from eating and drinking alcohol and, according to some 
writers, from gambling. 8 

It is on the theme of the vyasanas that the moral teaching of 
Jainism is most clearly sited in a social context; and this morality 

1 Sr (V) 59. 

3 Prainottara-sravakacara, xii; Padtnanandi-sravakacara , 12. 

3 &r (A) xii. 41-5 3. 

4 In Digambara texts the word is of course used as a collective name for the 

guna-vratas and siksa-vratas but it can also be synonymous with brahmacarya 
chastity. ' * Sr (V) 60-124. 6 SDhAiii. 16-23. 

7 (A) xii. 54-100 and v. 1-26. 

8 Hiralal Jain would like to regard the mention by Jinasena of dyuta in his list 
of the mula-guiias as an upalaksana for the vyasanas , but this view seems hardly 


is that of the common man who adheres to the conventions of the 
world, avoiding anything that can evoke obloquy or derision from 
his neighbours. Even ahimsa is relegated to the background, as, for 
example, when alcohol is condemned not, as in the earlier texts, 
because its preparation involves the destruction of life but because 
intoxication causes a man to act in an indecorous and ridiculous 
fashion. In some spheres this newer, worldly, morality can lead 
to contradictions with the older doctrines. Admitting, however 
reluctantly, a dispensation from perfect chastity for the lay ad- 
herent, primitive Jainism forbade him intercourse with all women 
who where the property of others but allowed him to frequent the 
woman who was common property — the village prostitute. The 
inclusion of vesya under the seven vyasanas represents in effect, 
therefore, the revocation of an older dispensation. 

The conventional description of the seven vices is given by 
Amitagati, Vasunandin, Aiadhara, Gunabhusana, Sivakoti, and 
Medhavin in terms so nearly identical that they must be taken from 
a common source. Dicing, for example, is said to engender anger, 
delusion, pride, and greed in their most intense forms. Blinded by 
his infatuation the gambler loses all sense of shame, takes false 
oaths, and lies so inveterately that even his own mother will not 
believe him. In a fit of anger he is ready to kill even those nearest 
to him. So absorbed is he by his vice that he will not heed 
parents or teachers and will even neglect food and sleep . 1 

Meat and alcohol are vikrtis and are given a more extensive 
treatment from another angle under the heading of the mula-gunas. 
As a vyasana meat-eating is condemned mainly because it is a 
concomitant to other vices: in particular it is said to produce an 
addiction to alcohol, which in itself makes the pursuit of the 
religious life impossible . 2 

The consequences of drunkenness are realistically portrayed. 
Under the influence of madya a drinker’s intelligence runs away 
like the wife of a man who has fallen into misfortune. His alcoholic 
state is manifested in giddiness, lassitude, nausea, trembling fits, 
red eyes, and unsteadiness of gait. He tries to commit incest with 
mother or sister or daughter, and treats his servant as if he were 
a ruler and his ruler as if he were a servant. He falls down in a 
drunken stupor in the highroad or in his courtyard and when the 
dogs lick his face and urinate in his mouth he imagines in his 
1 &r (V) 60-69; & (A) xi. 54-62. 2 $r(V) 86. 


delusion that he is drinking sweet wine. Thieves remove his clothes 
as he lies there and when he recovers consciousness he stumbles 
around drunkenly threatening to kill the man who has robbed him. 
Then, going home in a daze, he takes his own kin for enemies and 
smashes his own chattels with a stick. By turns he sings, screams, 
talks slurringly, vomits, tries to dance, gesticulates, uses obscene 
language, is hilarious, or is plunged in gloom . 1 

The vices of meat-eating and drinking are said to be always 
found in a harlot whilst her body is polluted by the embraces of the 
base-born. A man who spends even one night with a prostitute 
eats the leavings of ordinary workpeople and of outcastes and aliens. 
And if he becomes infatuated with her she will wheedle everything 
out of him and leave him but skin and bones. To every lover she 
tells the same story — that he is the only man for her. The love of 
a harlot means only humiliation for a man however high his birth 
and talents . 2 

When the vice of hunting is considered, the accent shifts back 
to ahimsa, for this vyasana is said to destroy all compassion. Since 
a righteous man will not even kill an evildoer if he comes seeking 
asylum with trna grass between his teeth why should he kill an 
innocent deer that pastures on grass ? If there is sin in the killing of 
cows and brahmins, there is sin, too, in the killing of other living 
beings, and as much of it incurred in one day from hunting as in 
a long period of time from eating meat and drinking alcohol . 3 

The last two vyasanas differ from the other five in being punish- 
able in a non-Jaina society as crimes, so that they not infrequently 
bring retribution in the present life. Thus the thief who has taken 
another man’s property is presented as apprehensively quitting his 
home, trembling in every limb, and pursuing a circuitous path, 
always anxious lest he has been seen. His heart patters and his feet 
stumble. He is obsessed by fear to the point of being unable to 
sleep because he has taken away either by force or by deceit the 
property of others, perhaps even of parents, teachers, and friends, 
unheedful of his good repute in this world or of what awaits him 
in the next life. If he is caught by the constables he is at once 
bound with ropes by a low-caste jailer and promenaded around the 
streets on the back of an ass with the placard: ‘This is a thief, and 
any other caught like him will receive the same retribution. Then 

1 Jar (V) 70-79 ; Jar (A) v. i-ia. z Sr (V) 88-93 5 Sr (A) xi. 63 - 76 . 

3 Sr (V) 94-100; 3 r (A) xi. 92-100. 

C 737 s 


he is quickly carried outside the city where the executioners tear 
out his eyes or amputate his limbs or impale him alive , 1 * 

Adultery leads to a similar fate, A man who lusts after another’s 
wife and cannot resist his own desires will sigh, weep, sing, beat 
his head, fall on the ground, and utter incoherent speech.* Tor- 
mented by uncertainty whether the woman will accept his advances 
he cannot sleep or eat and abandoning family traditions gives way 
to drink. Sometimes he makes advances and is rebuffed and put out 
of countenance. If he succeeds in waylaying the woman of his 
choice and taking her by force against her will what pleasure can 
he derive ? Or if again the woman herself is so lost to shame that she 
gives herself to him under the impulse of lust what enjoyment will 
there be in a hurried, furtive union in an empty house or ruined 
temple ? At the slightest sound he will run away and crouch down, 
looking in all directions, terrified. And if he is discovered and 
brought before the royal tribunal he will be castrated and then, 
like a thief, mounted on an ass and paraded through the city before 
being executed. He can have no reliance even on the woman with 
whom he is infatuated, for she who betrays her husband will also 
betray her lover just as a cat that eats its kittens will certainly eat 
mice . 3 

The cautionary tales related in connexion with the seven 
vyasanas are as stereotyped as the descriptions and for that reason 
are worth a mention. They are amongst the best known in Indian 
literature. For dyuta the example is Yudhisthira; for madya the 
Yadavas; for mamsa Bakaraksa; for vesya Carudatta; for paparddhi 
Brahmadatta; for caurya Srlbhuti ; and for para-dara Ravana; 
while addiction to all seven vices at the same time is personified 
by Rudradatta. 

A^adhara 4 (and following him Medhavin ) 5 has conceived of a 
sub-category of ancillary (sodard) vices, adumbrated rather than 
systematically set forth under each vyasana : 

(i) dyiita 6 — gambling for the- sake of amusement (presumably 
for purely nominal stakes) because this can still provoke 
raga and dvesa ; 

1 £r (V) ioi-ii. 

* This concurs with the description of love unfulfilled, ranged into a numeri- 
cal ' ‘ ' ' Y $odeva(P(Y)). 

3 1 * 77-91. 

4 Sr(V) 125-33. 5 Sr (M) v. 164-8. 6 SDhA iii. 19- 



(2) madya 1 — eating or drinking anything at all which is the pro- 
duct of fermentation, selling alcohol, sleeping with women 
who drink alcohol; 

(3) mamsa 2 — consuming anything which has been kept in leather 
containers ; 

(4) vesya 3 — enjoyment of the taurya-trika (vocal and instru- 
mental music and dancing), idle strolling around, associating 
with pimps and other disreputable company; 

(5) paparddhi 4 — making representations of hunting scenes 
whether on coins or in books or on cloth; 

(6) caurya 5 — exploiting the favour of a ruler to take property 
from a rightful heir, concealing anything which forms part 
of a joint family property; 

(7) para-dara 6 — seducing an unmarried girl : this specifically in- 
cludes a condemnation of the gandharva-vivaha. 

As has been noted the &vetambara sravakacaras do not treat of 
the vyasanas as a category though these are mentioned casually at 
times as in the commentary of the Dharma-ratna-prakaranad How- 
ever, the same condemnations are of course implicit in their teach- 
ing and sometimes Hemacandra’s 8 verses, for example, parallel 
very closely those of Amitagati or Vasunandin. 


If the ultimate aim of escape from the samsara—mok§a is some- 
times called the fifth gati — is not attained when this life is ex- 
tinguished there are four possibilities of reincarnation: as a human 
being again (rnanusya-gati), as an animal (tiryag-gati)> as a celestial 
being ( deva-gati), or as a denizen of hell (naraka-gati). There is 
also what might be called a sub-category of the manusya-gati: 
reincarnation in a bhoga-bhumi, ‘a land of ease’, as distinguished 
from normal human life, which is passed in a karma-bhumi , aland 0 
toil’ 9 ; but in most respects such a fairy-tale world is nearer to life 
in the deva-loka. The tiryag-gati also includes the possibility of 
reincarnation in the vegetable kingdom as a vanaspati-kaya. This 

2 Ibid. 12. 3 Ibid. ao. 

s ibid. 21. 6 Ibid. 23. 

e.g. on madya Y>S iii» 8-12. 9 T (P) ill. 37* 

1 SDhA iii. 9-1 1. 
«■ Ibid. 22. 

7 DhRP 7. 


complicated edifice of continuing existence can, it is obvious, 
respond to the most subtle gradations of merit and demerit, but 
no lasting bliss is possible except through release from it since life, 
even in the most exalted realms of the deva-loka , will still be tinged 
with some sadness. 

All Jaina writers of course stress the retribution that evil acts 
bring upon themselves either in this life — sometimes directly 
through the action of the law when they are of a criminal character, 
sometimes through supernatural intervention, and sometimes 
through visitation by disease and other calamities — or through the 
automatic operation of karma in another incarnation. The Svetam- 
baras have never apparently felt that the discussion of a future life 
belonged to the sphere of a sravakacara , but the Digambaras, parti- 
cularly the popular writers, deal at considerable length with the 
subject, giving a standardized, but still vivid, picture of hell and of 
the bhoga-bhumis. While Amrtacandra finds in the ideal of moksa 
the only incentive to a righteous life Vasunandin 1 expressly states 
that the masses must be coerced by the fear of punishment and the 
hope of material reward. 

Hell 2 is conceived of as a region immeasurably spacious, divided 
into seven mansions, each of which, it is sometimes said , 3 provides 
the fitting retribution for one of the seven vy asanas. Mention again 
is sometimes made of four entries into hell (naraka-dvara) each 
wide open to receive the perpetrators of specified evil actions. 
It is a place of mental as well as physical suffering the capacity for 
which is never exhausted until the appointed incarnation reaches 
its close for the body of a hell- dweller even when cut to pieces by 
tortures will always be re-created to suffer anew and the mind will 
always be open to fear . 4 

In hell a jiva becomes spontaneously existent on a surface of 
ground so rough that he at once gets up only to fall again , 5 Then 
the demons, whose enmity towards their victims is like that of 
snake and mongoose, attack him with spears, clubs, tridents, arrows, 
and swords. The Dharma-rasayana? mentions — but the concept is 
rather an aberrant one — that those who first strike the, jiva are the 
beasts that were aforetime slain by him in offerings to the ancestors 

1 5 r (V) 239. 

55 The Jaina picture of hell is of course very close to the descriptions given in 
Buddhist and Hindu texts. See Kane, History of Dharma-iastra, iv. 167, 

3 Padmanandi-irdvahacara, 12. 4 £r (V) 176; Dharma-rasayana , 71. 

5 &r(V) 137. ^ Dharma-rasayana , 25. 



and to bloodthirsty divinities. He is put in a flaming pot and as he 
emerges he is prodded with pikes so that he gnaws his own fingers 
with the pain; nor do appeals for mercy bring any response from 
his tormentors . 1 This, according to Vasunandin, is the reward that 
awaits the gambler . 3 

Escaping from this torture he rushes into a mountain ravine 
imagining that he will find a refuge there but now rocks begin to 
fall on him, smashing his body into tiny fragments. Yet the 
severed parts at once reunite like drops of quicksilver. If he has 
consumed honey and alcohol in a former life he is made to drink 
molten iron 3 and if has eaten udumbara fruits he must swallow live 

Next he rushes terrified into a forest only to find that the leaves 
which fall on him are sharp as swordsh With blood streaming from 
the gashes he seeks to escape but is seized again by the demons, 
who hold him down and, cutting off lumps of his flesh, force him to 
swallow them, jeering as they tell him that this meat will be as 
sweet as that which he ate in his human life . 5 

A red-hot ploughshare is forced into his mouth, and to seek relief 
from the pain he crawls into a river flowing near by, but its waters 
are corrosive and at the same time full of putrefaction and blood . 6 
When he emerges from it he is pounded like sugar-cane in a press 
and acid is then applied to his wounds and needles forced under 
his finger-nails . 7 Then the demons constrain him, if he has com- 
mitted adultery or fornication, to embrace a statue of red-hot iron ; 8 
if he has been guilty of acquisitiveness he must bear a heavy 
stone on his back, if he has lied his tongue is torn out.® Whatever 
karma a jiva has bound on himself laughing, that he will not 
escape by weeping . 10 

Next the demons take the forms of vultures or cocks or crows 
and tear at his flesh with their beaks, whilst others gouge out his 
eyes or smash in his teeth . 11 Monstrous beasts such as eight-footed 
jackals come to devour him and he is stung by insects and serpents . 13 
Nor is this all: the demons stir up in the minds of the hell-dwellers 
the memory of former enmities and they fight, tearing each other to 

pieces . 13 

* £r(V) 141-5°. 3 § r ( V ) *43- 

* Dharma-rasayana , 57. 5 Sr (V) 156-9. 

7 Dharma-rasayana, 47-49. 

9 Dharma-rasayana , 51-56. 10 Sr (V) 165. 

12 Dharma-rasayana, 61-62, 

^ gr (V) 151-5. 
6 gr (V) 160-2. 
8 gr(V) 164-5. 
” gr (V) 166-9. 
*3 gr (V) 170. 



Evil-doing may also be expiated in the tiryag-gati, A jiva may 
wander through countless incarnations in the most primitive 
forms of life before attaining to rebirth as a pahcendriya animal 
which will suffer from mutilations, heavy burdens, lack of food and 
drink, and separation from its offspring, and which may be killed 
and eaten . 1 

In the mamisya-gati it may happen that a child is abandoned at 
birth only to die from exposure or starvation, or if it is abandoned 
later during childhood it will live miserably as a servant in another’s 
household. Again a man who has given generously to others when 
he was rich may fall on evil days and not obtain even a plate of 
gruel when he begs for it. Another may be smitten by a loathsome 
disease ( papa-roga ) such as leprosy and obliged to live outside the 
city cut off from friends and kin . 2 

But the manusya-gati includes also rebirth in the bhoga-bhumis. 
The descriptions of these fairy-tale worlds are doubtless an inheri- 
tance from popular folk-lore but they have been incorporated into 
the Jaina cosmography and find mention even in the necessarily 
brief epitome of the Tattvartha-sutra* The Digambara sravak- 
acara texts are notable for the way in which they link rebirth in 
the bhoga-bhumis with the performance of dona. No interest is 
shown in the geographical location of these regions but their 
classification is linked with that of the patras or recipients of alms 
so that, for example, giving to an uttama-patra entails rebirth in an 
uttama-bhoga-bhumi or giving to a hu-patra rebirth in a ku-bhoga- 

The inhabitants of the uttama-, madhyama -, and jaghanya- 
bhoga-bhumis are differentiated only by the lustre of their bodies, 
their height, and their life-span , 5 both of these being expressed 
with the licence of numerical fantasy. All alike are exempt from the 
sufferings of disease, untimely accidents, and old age, they feel no 
pain, mental or physical, and there is no strife among them . 6 Born 
always together in couples, they attain maturity in forty-nine days 7 
and they die a painless death when their children are born, the 
men expiring with a sneeze, the women with a yawn . 8 The former 
are endowed with the seventy-two arts and the latter with the 
sixty-four gunas and both have the thirty-two laksanas 9 and show 

1 Sr (V) 177-82. 

2 Sr 

(V) 183-90. 

3 T (P) iii. 37- 


a very slight development of the kasayas. For this reason when they 
die they are reborn at once in the deva~loka (whilst the devas of 
course have only to expect a human or animal incarnation). 1 2 
Throughout their long lives all their wants are supplied from ten 
wish-fulfilling trees ( kalpa-drumas ) : a 

(1) madyanga — supplying tasty and nutritive drinks; 

(2) turyanga — supplying musical instruments; 

(3) bhusananga — supplying ornaments such as ear-rings and 
diadems ; 

(4) jyotir-anga—i supplying light more radiant than that of sun 
or moon; 

(5) grhanga — supplying houses ; 

(6) bhdjananga — supplying plates and dishes; 

(7) dipanga — supplying illumination indoors; 

(8) vastranga — supplying clothes of silk or fine cloth; 

(9) malanga — supplying garlands of the finest flowers with the 
choicest perfumes; 

(10) bhojananga — supplying the fourfold aliments of the best 
quality. 3 

An incarnation in a ku-bhoga-bhumi resulting from almsgiving 
to a ku-patra is less desirable. The inhabitants of these regions have 
no clothes or ornaments or houses and live underneath the trees 
feeding on their leaves and flowers and sometimes eating an earth 
which resembles jaggery. 4 Instead of human heads they may have 
those of lions or elephants or other beasts ; some have horns, some 
tails, some only one leg, and some again are devoid of speech. 5 Yet 
they, too, because they are lacking in kasayas , are reborn in the deva - 
loka> becoming vyantara gods ; as a sequel to this, however, they 
have a bad human incarnation. 6 

The estate of a deva which has been attained by long practice of 
asceticism and self-control in the human incarnation may yet, 
through the ripening of karma, bring no abiding happiness. The 
dwellers in heaven like those on earth are divided into castes 
separated by even more rigid barriers than among men. Rebirth in 
one of the categories of servile devas even though human afflictions 

1 &r (A) xi. 73-73. 

2 Hindu mythology recognizes normally five kalpa-drtwuis. Cf. A.nuxrci-ko$a t 

, 1, 50. 3 £r (V) 250-7- 4 BhS (°) 537- 

s Ibid. 542. 6 Ibid. 544- 


are absent will bring sorrow and vexation from envy at the sight of 
the more fortunate devas . 1 

A jtva who goes to the deva-loka comes into existence spontane- 
ously in a perfumed upapada-grha. He has a perfumed breath, a 
flawless body, and unaging youth. As he is thus bom he cannot at 
first realize where he is, and like one awakened from sleep he ima- 
gines himself to be dreaming. Then as the apsarases welcome him 
he comprehends by avadhi-jnana what has occurred. Having 
bathed and adorned himself he goes at once to the Jaina temple 
to make puja to the Jina in the same way as this is done on earth 
but with greater splendour. So he pursues the life of untram- 
melled pleasure that is the lot of the divine beings, pausing always 
to make the Jina-puja at the five kalyanas and in the Nandisvara - 
parvan . 2 

It is when six months only of life as a deva remain to him that 
his great sadness comes. As he sees his clothes and ornaments 
becoming tarnished he realizes that the time to fall from his lofty 
estate has come; and he weeps to think that he must pass nine 
months in an abode of pus and blood — the human womb. Aware 
that he has no means of escape, that not even the lord of the devas 
can save him, he formulates the wish in his mind that he may be 
reborn as an ekendriya . And so even this miserable destiny may 
come to pass . 3 


This treatment of the duties of the ideal layman on the basis of a 
varying number of qualities characterizing the person apt to receive 
the Jaina creed and fulfil its teaching enjoyed considerable popu- 
larity with the later Svetambaras as a means of exposition. A list 
of thirty-five such qualities or sravaka-gunas universally ascribed 
to Hemacandra came to be preferred to all others : it is that given 
in a kulaka of ten verses at the end of the first prakasa of the Yoga- 
sastraS However, at least two centuries earlier an enumeration of 
twenty-one sravaka-gunas had figured in the Dharma-ratna- 

1 191-4* 2 £r (V) 495-508. 3 &r(V) 195-303. 

4 YS x.' 47-56. Windisch, in his editio princeps of the first four prakdsas of the 

Yoga-idstra , surmised that these verses were an interpolation. 


prakarana 1 by 5 anti Suri and may indeed belong to an earlier 
writer. Vague lists of the virtues which a layman ought to possess 
must have long been current; they are in fact to be found in the 
katha literature wherever the excellences of a hero are described. 
The canonical texts contain enumerations of abstract qualities, 
good or bad, which perhaps provided the original basis. It seems, 
however, to have been Haribhadra who first — in the Dharma- 
bindu z — attempted to lay down in a clear and precise fashion in 
sutra style the principles of conduct in everyday life which would, 
if properly observed, make of a man a model sravaka. In his famous 
kidaka Hemacandra has versified Iiaribhadra’s sutras — or at least 
those which he found most apt — adding to them almost by way of 
afterthought a half-dozen epithets from the already current list of 
Santi Suri. 

In view of the importance of numerology in Jaina writings it is 
perhaps worth noting that all the lists of sravaka-gunas (except that 
of eleven given by the Digambara Amitagati, which will be discussed 
separately) are couched in multiples of seven. Thus, beside the 
thirty-five of Hemacandra and the twenty-one of Santi Suri, there 
are the fourteen sravaka-gunas of A^adhara, 3 against which it would 
not be unfitting to set the seven virtues of the giver ( datr-guna ) and 
the seven vy as anas and seven silas.* 

Though he does not use the term sravaka-guna Haribhadra 
devotes the whole of the second adhyaya of the Dharma-bindu to 
a detailed consideration of this subject, which he qualifies as the 
general ( samanya ) aspect of the householder’s religion, the specific 
(visesa) aspect being the observance of the mat as and of ritual 
practices such as puja. Hemacandra expounds his own kidaka in 
a very extensive prose commentary which serves as a quarry for 
later writers. The most important of these, Jinamandana belongs to 
the fifteenth century, but his work, a compilation from earlier 
sources, will be drawn on for illustration in this study. 

1 DhRP 5-7. 1 2 DhB i. 3 SDhAi. 11. 

4 It is curious that Mrs. Stevenson, in The Heart of Jainism, failed to realize 
that the lists of twenty-one and thirty-five both referred to the bavaka-gunas. 

On p. 244 she offers a translation of Hemacandra’s kulaka under the title: 
‘Thirty-five rules of conduct’, and on p. 224 a rather inaccurate rendering of 
ganti Suri’s list, which she calls ‘those twenty-one qualities which distinguish the 
Jaina gentleman’. 


1. Possessed of honestly earned wealth (nyaya-sam- 

Haribhadra 1 lays down that a pious layman should exercise a 
profession which is beyond reproach and in accordance with family 
tradition, with due regard for his own substance; for wealth 
acquired by honest means brings absence from anxiety in this 
world and leads to a happy reincarnation whilst wrongly acquired 
wealth has dire consequences like the hook that lodges in the fish’s 
gullet. Rectitude is the sovereign specific for amassing wealth 
( arthapty-upanisad ) because it helps to eliminate evil karma; 
though fortune may in certain circumstances be amassed by dis- 
honesty it will only be transient. For Hemacandra 2 honestly 
earned wealth is money that has not been made by recourse to 
treason, betrayal of friends, breach of trust, theft, false witness, 
false weights and measures, or deceitful speech. One can enjoy it 
without apprehension in one’s own person and give it to one’s 
friends and kin. Jinamandana 3 says roundly that honest poverty is 
better than ill-gotten riches, which, according to a popular saying, 
will last for ten years and then vanish entirely in the eleventh. 
The practice of this guna excludes the pursuit of the fifteen for- 
bidden trades and of gambling and alchemy, and implies a high 
ethical code in business dealings, and generosity in almsgiving and 
in charity to those in need. 

2. Eulogistic of the conduct of the virtuous (sista- 

By sista Hemacandra 4 understands ‘men of outstanding qualities 
who have been schooled by intercourse with the virtuous and the 
learned’. The qualities to be admired in others are courtesy, grati- 
tude, cheerfulness in misfortune, modesty in prosperity, fidelity to 
tradition, and care to avoid ill repute. The essence of this guna is 
not to be envious of the virtues of others. 

3. Wedded to a spouse of the same caste and tradi- 
tions but not of the same gotra (kula-sila-samaih 
sarddham anya-gotra-jaih krtodvaha) 

Hemacandra* understands by sila a common observance of such 
interdictions as those on drinking wine or eating meat. Jinaman- 

1 DhB. i. 7. 2 Yg, p. 145. 3 grGuV, p. 7 <2. 

4 Yg, p. 146. 5 Yg, p. 147. 


dana 1 offers also an alternative explanation: worship of the same 
devas and guru and performance of the same ceremonies. Muni- 
candra, the commentator of the Dharma-bindtt , 2 infers from identity 
of caste and tradition that the parties to a marriage will have the 
same material situation, mode of dress, and language. If there are 
differences on these points they will not be happy together and 
there will be clashes between them. Where a wife, for example, 
belongs to a family much richer than that of her husband she will 
tend to be contemptuous of him. Hemacandra, Municandra, and 
Jinamandana all find occasion to list here the eight forms of mar- 
riage recognized in the Manu-smrti , with the comment that even the 
four adharmya forms may be held to be dharmya when there is 
mutual affection between man and wife. According to Hemacandra 3 
there are four ways of guarding women: having wives of good 
character like one’s mother, not allowing them independence, 
assigning to them household tasks, and restricting their material 
possessions. If women are well guarded there will be a properly 
regulated home, pujd and dana will be rightly performed, and 
children will be well brought up. 

4. Apprehensive of sin (papa-bhiru) 

This epithet is common even in the oldest Jaina texts and cor- 
responds to a fundamental concept of the religion. Haribhadra* 
understands by it the fear of committing offences whether overt or 
hidden. The former, according to Hemacandra, s would mean 
adultery, theft, whoring, dicing, and similar disastrous acts and the 
latter meat-eating and wine-drinking and other such vices, all of 
which lead to reincarnation in hell. Jinamandana 6 associates with 
these occasions of stumbling the twenty-two abhaksyas and 
thirty-two ananta-kayas. This guna figures also in Santi Suri s 
list. 7 

5. Following the reputable custom of the coun- 
try (prasiddham desacaram samacaran ) 

Hemacandra 3 understands by desacara the customs prevailing in 
a particular area in regard to food, clothes, and other aspects of 
everyday life ; if these were not observed unfortunate consequences 

1 SrGuV, P . 13 b . 

* DhB i. 16. 

7 DhRP 13. 

2 DhB i. 17. 

s y£, p. 148. 

3 Yg, p. 148. 

6 6GuV, p. 19c. 


might result from public hostility in the area. Jinamandana 1 goes 
further : he holds that whilst pursuing the dharmacara , the path of 
religion, one should also fall in with the lokacara , the usages of the 
world. Since the secular life must of necessity be the basis for all 
who, living in the world, yet obey the precepts of religion, infrac- 
tions of the lokacara are to be avoided. 

6. Not denigrating other people, particularly 
rulers (a-varna-vadi na hvapi rajadisu visesatah) 

Municandra z explains that the word ‘rulers’ is intended to in- 
clude ministers, court chaplains, and other officials. Hemacandra 3 
quotes averse to show that nicair-gotra karma is incurred by express- 
ing contempt for others and glorifying oneself. Overt denigration, 
always reprehensible, is dangerous when applied to the great ones 
of the earth as it may result in loss of life and possessions. Relating 
this guna to the satya-vrata , Jinamandana 4 sees in it a condemna- 
tion of envy, calumny, and false accusations. It would seem to cor- 
respond to the sat-katha of Santi Surf> (in Asadhara sad-gir). A 
sat-katha is defined as a story which glows with truth and narrates 
the life of a tirthankara or saint. 

7. Dwelling in a place which is not too exposed 

FEW exits ( anativyakte gupte sthane $u-prativesmike aneka- 
nirgama-dvara-mvarjita-niketana ) 

Haribhadra 6 lays down that a house should be built in a suitable 
spot, an unsuitable site being any place where the houses are too 
close together or too isolated or where there are undesirable 
neighbours. The construction of the house should be determined 
by favourable omens and it should not have many exits. If there 
were many doors ill-disposed people would be able to go in or 
out unobserved, so jeopardizing the security of goods and chattels 
and womenfolk. In other words a householder’s home should be 
well guarded. There should be durva and kusa grass, untainted 
soil, and a supply of fresh water on the site chosen. In too exposed 
a position it would be easy for thieves to burgle, whilst in too en- 
closed a position air and light could not reach it and in the event 
of fire it could not escape. If the neighbours were undesirable, 

1 £rGuV, p. zoa . 2 DhB i. 31. 3 y&, p. 148. 

4 3 rGuV, p. 21 b. 5 DhRP 20. 6 DhB i. 22-24. 


such as gamblers, actors, or prostitutes, one’s household would be 
corrupted by listening to their conversations and seeing their 
actions. 1 

8 . Attached to good moral standards (sad-acaraih 

This guna appears to imply no more than the avoidance of evil 
company. In A^adhara’s list it appears as arya-samiti. 

9. Honouring father and mother (mata-pitroh pujaka) 
Noting that the word ‘mother’ is placed first in the compound 

because of the very great respect to which she is entitled, Hema- 
candra 2 explains that respect is to be shown to them by making 
obeisance at dawn, noon, and dusk, by offering them a puja of 
flowers and fruit of the finest colour and perfume, by giving them 
the best of food, clothes, and other material needs, and by seeking 
their consent for all affairs of importance in life. Jinamandana* 
extends the concept ‘parents’ to include all persons who by their 
age or position merit reverence. Asadhara uses the designation 
yajan guna-gurun for this guna. 

10. Eschewing a place of calamity (upaplutam sthdnam 

Hemacandra 2 explains that in a place of calamity, in other 
words a town or village where famine or disease are endemic, 
or where there is war between one’s own sovereign and a foreign 
ruler, the attainment of the tri-varga is impossible; in fact the fund 
of kdma , artha, and dharma already acquired would be soon dissi- 
pated. As an upapluta-sthdna Jinamandana 4 cites also a country 
where there are two rulers or no ruler or where government is 
carried on in the name of a woman or a child. 

11. Not engaging in a reprehensible occupation 
(garhite ’ pravrtta ) 

Hemacandra* explains that a practice may be deemed especially 
reprehensible in one country, such as agriculture in Sauvira, or 
drinking alcohol in Lata, or among one caste, such as the con- 
sumption of wine or the sale of sesamum or salt by brahmins, or m 

I Yg, p. 149. a YS, P. ISO. 3 p. 30&. 

4 grGuY, p. 3 Ifl - S Y£, P- IS** 


one family, such as drinking alcohol in the Caulukya family. Jina- 
mandana 1 states with more precision that caste, country, and 
family tradition and the age in which one lives are the criteria by 
which an occupation is to be judged. If, for example, a known Jaina 
were to take food by night he would make a mockery of his religion. 

12. Spending in proportion to one’s income ( vyayam 
ayocitani kurvari) 

Spending, says Hemacandra , 2 means the apportioning of one’s 
substance for the maintenance of one’s dependants, for one’s own 
comfort and for almsgiving, deva-puja and other purposes, and in- 
come means what one earns by trading, tilling the soil, or rearing 
livestock. Jinamandana 3 goes so far as to fix proportions for this 
division: a man of limited means should divide his income into 
four shares : one to form a reserve capital, one to be put back into 
his business, one to be spent for religious purposes and for his own 
luxuries, and one to be used to provide for his dependants. A rich 
man, however, could well set aside more than half his income for 
the dharma and lead a life of frugality on earth . 4 In any event the 
layman’s duty is fulfilled by wise spending since miserliness merely 
results in the accumulation of wealth to the detriment of one’s 
dependants and one’s own self. As Hemacandra 2 points out, if 
a man is unwilling to spend enough to maintain himself in good 
health he may be incapacited by sickness from conducting his 

13. Dressing in accordance with one’s income (vesam 
vittanusaratah kurvan) 

Hemacandra 3 explains that the scope here is in fact rather 
wider than the appellation suggests. If a man does not wear clothes 
and ornaments suitable to his income, age, social condition, coun- 
try, and caste, he is liable to become a laughing-stock. This guna is 
closely linked with the preceding one, as a man who out of miserli- 
ness will not spend his money will also dress in rags, and so, failing 
to obtain the esteem of his fellow citizens, will be no credit to the 

1 fsrGuV, p. 32a, z YS, p. 151. 3 JarGuV, p. 34 b. 

4 A division of property in rather different percentages is suggested by 

Devasena (see BhS(D) 578-80). 

s Yg, p. 152. 


Jaina creed. Jinamandana 1 adds that people should not wear torn 
or soiled clothes ; for going to the temple they should choose their 
best apparel whilst avoiding all ostentation. 

14. Endowed with the eight kinds of intelligence 
( astabhir dhi-gunair yukta ) 

These are generally in Jaina works enumerated as follows: 

( 1 ) desire to listen ( susrusa ) ; 

(2) listening (sravana ) ; 

( 3 ) grasping (grahana ) ; 

(4) memorizing (dharana ) ; 

(5) general knowledge (uhd) ; 2 

(6) specialized knowledge ( apoha ) ; 2 

(7) knowledge of the substance (artha-vijnana) ; 

(8) knowledge of the essence (tattva-vijnana). 

To this guna corresponds presumably th tprajna of A&idhara. 

15. Listening every day to the sacred doctrine 
( dharmam anvaham srnvana) 

Weariness of spirit is removed, says Hemacandra, 3 by listening 
every day to the sacred doctrine. It is because of its importance to 
the religious life that mere listening ( sravana ) is classed as one of 
the dhi-gunas. 

16. Not eating on a full stomach (ajirne bhojana-tyagin) 

All diseases, according to Hemacandra, 3 have their origin in an 
accumulation of undigested matter in the intestines resulting from 
eating on a full stomach. This habit is therefore to be avoided in 
order to maintain the body in health and fitness for the duties of 
the religious life. 

17. Eating at the right time according to a diet- 
ary regime (kale bhokta satmyatah) 

Food is to be eaten when one is hungry — in moderation and 
without gluttony — for an excess of food only provokes vomiting 

1 &rGuV, p. 366. . 

2 tJha and apoha are, of course, terms of logic and Hemacandra admits another 

interpretation of them in this sense. For a discussion of their meaning see 
Stcherbatskoi in Museon , v. 165-7. 3 P* I S3* 

0 787 



and diarrhoea. On the other hand to go without food when one is 
hungry only results in lassitude and aversion to nourishment. The 
food and drink consumed should be those to which one’s organism 
is accustomed since childhood and the view should never be taken 
that a healthy man can digest anything. Gluttony is senseless since 
the pleasure of taste is only momentary and all food is the same in 
flavour once it has passed down the throat . 1 The right time for 
eating is neither the night, the early morning, nor the late evening. 
A pious man should first ensure that his dependants, servants, and 
livestock have been fed and then dine himself according to the re- 
sources of his kitchen. 

18. Fulfilling the threefold aim of life without 
EXCLUDING any OF its elements {anyonya-pratibandhena 
trimrgam sadhayari) 

Hemacandra 2 comments at considerable length on the trivarga 
without which life is no more real than that of the smelter’s bellows 
which breathes but does not live. To live only for the pleasures of 
the senses to the exclusion of artha and dharma or to live only for 
money to the exclusion of kama and dharma lead to endless mis- 
fortunes whilst the practice of dharma to the complete neglect of 
artha and hdma is proper for ascetics but not for householders. 
Artha and kama devoid of dharma lead to great miseries in the 
cycle of transmigration, dharma and kama without artha result in 
a heavy burden of debt, and dharma and artha without kama are 
tantamount to a rejection of the layman’s estate. 

19. Diligent in succouring the ascetics, the right- 
eous, and the needy (yathavad atithau sadhan dine ca prati- 

This implies the offering with due courtesy of food and drink 
and other gifts in almsgiving to monks ( patra-dana ) and in charity 
to those in affliction ( karuna-dana ). 

20. Always devoid of evil motives (sadanabhinwista) 

An abhinimsa is characteristic only of the mean-minded and its 
absence is one of the five gunas of the third bhava-sravakaJ 

1 Yg, p. 154. 

2 YS, p . 155. 

3 DhRP 45. 


21. Favourably inclined to virtues (gunesu paksa-patin) 

By guna here Hemacandra 1 understands benevolence, generosity, 
readiness to help, patience, and the habit of using courteous and 
friendly language as well as acts of kindness, as the seed of religious 
merit is thereby nurtured into growth. This entry on Hemacandra’s 
list has clearly been borrowed from the guna-ragin of Santi Suri . 2 

22. Avoiding action which is inappropriate to time 
and place (adesakalayos caryam tyajan) 

Hemacandra 1 explains that anyone who engages in an action at 
a forbidden time or place will certainly be the victim of some 
calamity from kings, thieves, or others. 

23. Aware of one’s own strength and weaknesses 
( balabalam jancin) 

No undertaking can succeed unless one knows the strength and 
weakness both of oneself and of others as far as these depend 
on time and place and circumstances. Like the preceding guna this 
belongs to the realm of mti. 1 

24. Venerating persons of high morality and dis- 
cernment ( vrtta-stha-j nana-vrddhamm pujaka ) 

According to Hemacandra 1 vrddha is here to be understood in 
the sense of old, not in years, but in the faculty of discerning be- 
tween what should be avoided and what should be approved and in 
the practice of virtue. Respect expressed by making the anjali, 
rising and offering a seat should be accorded them because they 
abound in good counsel. The sam zguna figures in Santi Suri’s list 
as mddhanuga . 3 

25. Supporting one’s dependants (posya-posaka) 

Municandra 4 explains that the dependants include father and 
mother, wife and children, and, when the head of the household 
is rich, any childless sister or aged relative and any friend who 
has fallen into poverty. It is clear that Haribhadra was here think- 
ing also of servants and retainers for in succeeding siitras 5 e 

1 Yg, P . 157. 

4 DhB 37. 

3 DhRP 19. 3 DhRP 24 ‘ 

s DhB 38-41. 


prescribes that a servant should be given suitable work, carefully- 
supervised in his occupations, and protected from misfortune; if 
he has to be admonished, care should be had for his self-respect. 
Jinamandana 1 elaborates a fourfold division of posya: relatives, 
divinities, preceptors, and oneself; the relatives must be main- 
tained because otherwise they might be reduced to thieving or 
vagabondage, thereby bringing discredit on the family. 

26. Far-sighted (dirgha-darsiri) 

The activities of a far-sighted man are described as leading to 
much profit with little effort, and are widely lauded. This gana 
belongs also to £anti Suri. 2 

27. Discriminating ( visesa-jna ) 

This for Hemacandra 3 means knowing the difference between 
what belongs to others and what belongs to oneself, between what 
is to be done and what is not to be done : a man without discrimina- 
tion would be indistinguishable from an animal. With this guna , 
says 3 anti Suri, 4 a man is exempt from the prejudices that stem 
from love and hate. 

28. Grateful (krta-jna) 

&anti Suri,* too, gives this guna\ he insists particularly on grati- 
tude to the preceptor for the supreme benefit of the sacred doctrine. 
Jinamandana 6 classifies all human beings into those very many 
who are devoid of gratitude ( krta-ghna ), those, still numerous, 
who are grateful for kindness received {krta-jna), those few who are 
ready to do a favour in return for a favour ( pratyupakaraka ), and 
those very few who are ready to do a kindness ( niskaranopakdraka ) 
without receiving anything in return. 

29. Well-liked {loka-vallabha) 

For Hemacandra 3 this means a man who is well-liked by re- 
spectable people : if his character and behaviour do not make him 
popular he may arouse antipathies which will prevent others from 
finding the path of enlightenment. Santi Suri 7 holds that he should 
be conspicuous for almsgiving and virtuous conduct and should 
avoid everything that is contrary to this world or to the next. 

1 SrGuV, p. 58 a. 2 DhRP 22. 3 Y$, p. 158. 

4 DhRP 23. « DhRP 26. * SrGuV, p. 6a 6. 

7 DhRP 11. 


30. Actuated by a sense of shame (sa-lajja) 

This guna again belongs also to Santi Suri. 1 It implies that a 
man’s sense of shame forbids him to commit sinful acts: he will 
abide by the dhartna cost what it may. 

31. Compassionate ( sa-daya ) 

This guna , again common to Santi Suri,* is of the very essence of 
Jainism and needs no comment. 

32. Gentle in disposition (saumya) 

This evidently implies that because of his gentle disposition a 
man may be easily propitiated whilst a man of a different disposi- 
tion will alienate friends and relations. Because of his gentleness, 
too, he will eschew cruel occupations. Santi Suri 3 gives this guna as 

33. Ready to render service to others ( paropakrti - 

This guna seems to correspond to two entries in Santi Suri’s 
list : para-hita-karin and su-daksinyaA 

34. Intent on avoiding the six adversaries of the 
soul ( antarangari-sad-varga-parihara-pamyana ) 

The six enemies are lust ( kama ), anger {krodha), greed ( lobha) } 
pride (mana), vainglory (mada) i and malicious pleasure (har$a), s 
Pride means the rejection of salutary advice through arrogance, 
particularly the refusal to hear the sacred doctrine; vainglory im- 
plies pride in one’s own family, or personal beauty, or strength, 
or knowledge ; and malicious pleasure lies in causing unnecessary 
pain to others or in addiction to such vices as hunting, 6 

35. Victorious over the organs of sense (■ vasi-krte - 

Victory over the senses is described as nobler than victory in 
battle. This guna figures in Asadhara’s list as vasin. 

Some of the sravaka-gunas of Santi Suri were shown against 

1 DhRP 16. 4 DhRP 17. 3 DhRP 10. 4 DhRP 15, *7- 

5 With the omission of mada these correspond to the 'five fires’ paitcdgni 
mentioned by Somadeva (Handiqui, p. 288), 

6 Yf§, p, 160. 


those of Hemacandra, to which they correspond. Here is the 
full list : 

(1) aksudra — not mean-minded or concerned with trivialities; 

(2) riipavat — physically well-proportioned. This is under- 
stood to mean ‘not defective in any of the five senses, of 
stout bodily constitution, and of sound angas and upangas\ 
(The angas are eight in number : the head, chest, back, belly, 
arms and legs, the upangas being the fingers, toes, &c.). The 
explanation of this guna has caused some difficulty 1 to the 
commentators, who point out that there have also been good 
Jainas of misshapen body. It has doubtless been included 
in the list in imitation of the conventional descriptions of 
the Tirthankara , who is of surpassing beauty of form. A good 
physical build is also linked with the capacity to perform 
feats of asceticism; 

(3) prakrti-saumya — naturally gentle in disposition and there- 
fore not apt to bear rancour; 

(4) loka-priya — well-liked because one is generous, courteous, 
and well-behaved; 

(5) akrura — not cruel or evilly disposed ; 

(6) bhiru — apprehensive of sin; 

(7) asatha — not deceitful, but reliable; 

(8) su-daksinya — ready to lay aside one’s own business in order 
to render service to others ; 

(9) lajjalu — actuated by a sense of shame so that one avoids 
evil actions ; 

(10) dayahi — compassionate ; 

(ti) madhyastha-saumya-drsti — of serene and unprejudiced out- 

(12) guna-ragin — favourably inclined to virtues; 

(13) saUkatha — avoiding unprofitable speech, or, more speci- 
fically, the vi-kathas. The word sat is to be understood as 
having the significance which attaches to the word satya in 
the interpretation of the satya-vrata ; 

(14) su-paksa-yukta — having a proper ambience. In other words 
one’s family and household should be favourably disposed 
towards the dharma ; otherwise it will not be properly car- 
ried out; 

1 DhRP 9. 


(15) su-dvrgha-darsin — far-sighted so that one undertakes actions 
which result in good, not harm; 

(16) visesa-jna — discriminating ; 

(17) vrddhanuga — following the decisions of men with ripened 
minds, because old men do not engage in sinful activity; 

(18) vinita — possessed of vinaya , i.e. offering respect to all 
those to whom it is due; 

(19) krta-jna — grateful; 

(20) para-hitdrtha-karin — devoted to the welfare of others. The 
possessor of this guna is to be distinguished from the su- 
daksinya , who helps when his help is sought, by his readi- 
ness to go out of his way to assist others, and to put them 
on the right path even if he is not asked; 

(21) Icibdha-laksa — having achieved one’s goal, i.e. understand- 
ing the whole dharma. 

As has been mentioned elsewhere the srnvaka is classified by the 
categories of nama , sthapana , dravya , and bhava. Now Santi Suri 
does not confine himself to the discussion of the twenty-one gums 
but deals more extensively with the bhava-sravaka , who is said 
to be of six types, each of these being distinguished by various 
qualities which in fact amount to additional sravaka-gunas, though 
the term guna is only assigned to a few of them. Here is the full 
classification : 

1, krta-vrata-karman — who carries out the vows: 1 

(i) listening with vinaya to the exposition of the vratas by an 
authoritative teacher; 

(ii) comprehending the vratas with their bhangas and aticaras ; 

(iii) accepting the vratas \ 

(iv) zealously observing the vratas even in adversity. 

2. silavat — who is possessed of virtues (sila) : z 

(i) frequenting the temple ; 

(ii) avoiding entry into other buildings or houses without due 

(iii) always soberly dressed; 

(iv) not speaking under the stress of emotion; 

* DhRP 34-36. » 

2 DhRP 37-1. 


(v) avoiding foolish amusements, which are a form of anartha - 
danda ; 

(vi) conducting one’s business in a polite fashion (not using 
harsh words such as dasi-putra ‘son of a bitch’). 

3. gunavat — who is possessed of good qualities ( guna ): x 

(i) always zealous in svadhyaya; 

(ii) always zealous in the performance of the daily duties ; 

(iii) always zealous in vinaya ; 

(vi) devoid of evil prejudices (abhinivesd) in all activities ; 

(v) having faith in the Jaina doctrine. 

4. rju-vyavaharin — who acts uprightly : 1 2 

(i) speaking in accordance with the facts ; 

(ii) acting without guile ; 

(iii) pointing out misfortunes which may ensue from a course 
of action. (There is some uncertainty here: this is also ex- 
plained as ‘pointing out proper ways of acting, i.e. those 
taken from textbooks of artha and dharma but not of kama’.) 

(iv) being genuinely friendly. 

5. guru-iuirma — who is obedient to the guru : 3 

(i) serving the guru by making pratikramana and preventing 
hindrance to meditation; 

(ii) stimulating others to do likewise by praising the guru ; 

(iii) providing herbs and medicaments for the guru ; 

(iv) revering the guru. 

6. pravacana-kusala — who is expert in the sacred lore : 4 

(i) proficient in the recitation of the sutras ; 

(ii) proficient in the meaning of the sutras ; 

(iii) proficient in the general rules ( utsarga ) ; 

(iv) proficient in the special rules ( apavada ) ; 

(v) proficient in intention ; 

(vi) proficient in practical application. 

Santi Suri further describes seventeen 
ganas or laksanas 5 ) of the bhava-sravaka 

1 DhRP 42-46. 2 DhRP 47-48. 

4 DhRP 52-55. 

characteristics (styled 
which again may be 

3 DhRP 49-51. 

5 DhRP 56-77. 



assimilated to the sravaka-gimas. They are classified under the 
following heads : 

(1) stri — he knows the wiles of women; 

(2) indriya — he keeps a tight rein on the horses of the senses; 

(3) artha — he realizes that material wealth is transient; 

(4) samara — he comprehends the insubstantial nature of the 
visible world, a place of woe; 

(5) visaya — he is averse to the poison of the senses; 

(6) arambha — he seeks to avoid harmful activity; 

(7) gth a — he esteems the household life a bondage; 

(8) darsana — he maintains right belief; 

(9) gaddarika-pravaha— he avoids the unreflecting, sheep-like 
actions of the vulgar herd ; 

(10) agama-pravrtti — he carries out the amsyakas and other 
Jaina duties; 

(1 1) danadi-pravartana— he practises the fourfold dhama to the 
best of his ability; 

(12) vihrika— he is not ashamed of performing religious duties; 

(13) arakta-drsti — he is devoid of desire or of distaste for material 
things ; 

(14) madhyastha — he always takes an objective view; 

(1 5) asambaddha— he is not fettered by the spirit of acquisitive- 

( 16 ) pardrtha-kamopabhogin — he continues to enjoy the pleasures 
of the world only out of consideration for others ; 

(17) grha-vasa—he remains in the lay estate but with the idea 
always in mind ‘Today or tomorrow I will abandon it\ like 
a harlot who is thinking of changing her lover; it is as if he 
already belonged somewhere else. 

The enumerations of Santi Suri add nothing new to the content 
of the srdmkacdra ; they are made up of vague moral qualities inter- 
spersed with reaffirmations of certain basic precepts of Jainism and 
are only detailed here for the sake of completeness and because ot 
the confusing character of certain terms employed. 

It remains to see to what extent the srSvaka-gunas have 1 
a place in the Digambara setting. As has already been noted th 
fourteen listed by Asadhara represent an u ^.sguised borrowmg 
from Hemacandra, but a century or so earlier Amitagati had 

1 &r (A) vi. 9-1 1. 


described the parama-sravaka in eleven epithets which he himself 
designated as gunas . His enumeration runs as follows : 

(1) devoid of lust, envy, deceit, anger, backbiting, meanness, 
and vainglory (kamamya-inaya-matsara-paihmya-dainya- 
mada-hina ) ; 

(2) steadfast (dhira) ; 

(3) of contented mind ( prasanna-citta ) ; 

(4) fair-spoken (priyammda) ; 

(5) tender-hearted ( vatsala ) ; 

(6) competent ( kusala ) ; 

(7) skilled in discerning what is to be accepted and what 
eschewed ( heyddeya-patista ) ; 

(8) ready in mind to adore the guru’s feet (guru- car anaradhano- 
dyata-manisa ) ; 

(9) having the taints on one’s heart washed clean by the Jina’s 
words (Jina-vacana-toya-dhanta-svanta-kalarika) ; 

(10) apprehensive of the samara (bhava-vibhiru) ; 

(11) having one’s lust for sensual objects diminished (?nandi- 
krta-sakala- msaya-krta-grddhi) . 

There is a chance mention of the sravaka~gunas in Vasunandin 1 
but whether this refers to those listed by Amitagati or to some 
totally different concept it is impossible to say. 


The word kriya is vague and ambiguous and is applied in Jaina 
texts to practices of various kinds. Here it will be restricted to the 
rites which have been modelled on, and to some extent correspond 
to, the Hindu samskaras. 2 It is in the Adi-purana? that the first de- 
scription of these is to be found though whether Jinasena himself 
conceived the idea of giving to his co-religionists a framework of 
ceremonies similar to that which ruled the lives of their Hindu 
neighbours or whether he merely gave form to concepts which were 
already current is uncertain. The starting-point for the elaboration 

1 &r (V) 389. 

* Glasenapp (op. cit., pp. 408-19), in discussing the kriyas , treated Jinasena's 
list rather summarily and concentrated on the Acara-dinakara, for which he 
accepted too early a date. 3 MP xxxviii. 50-311. 


of the kriyas may well have lain in the narratives of the lives of the 
Jinas and in the custom of commemorating the five kalyanas asso- 
ciated with each of them but Hindu or pan-Indian elements 
dominate those rites which deal with the lay life. 1 

Jinasena enumerates for the whole of a man’s life— both as a 
layman and after taking the vows— a total of fifty-three kriyas. 
Now this figure has a quite special importance. The Ratna-sara , an 
early work ascribed to Kundakunda but, probably considerably 
later, includes the following verse: 

guna-vaya-tava-sama-padima danam jala-galanam ca anatthamiyam 

damsana-ndna-carittam kiriya tevanna sdvaya bhaniya 2 

This is understood to mean that the 53 kriyas are made up of the 
8 mula-ganas, 12 mat as, 12 tapas , samata, 1 1 pratimas, 4 dartas,jala- 
galana, a-rdtri-bhojana , and the ratna-traya. If this figure of fifty- 
three kriyas , already current, was familiar to Jinasena a deliberate 
or unconscious misconstruction of its meaning may have led him 
to give it a totally different field of application. At the same time 
the original sense must have been maintained in certain milieux as 
the verse from the Ratna-sara is quoted, as late as the sixteenth 
century, by Rajamalla in the Ldti-samhita . 3 

Like so many similar blueprints for living, the diagrammatic 
representation of man’s progress from the cradle to the grave out- 
lined in the kriyas is, of course, idealized, as the emphasis on the 
monkish life and on the individual’s gradual rise in the spiritual 
hierarchy bear witness. Diksa — the acceptance of the monk’s 
vows — is, by a convenient fiction that goes back to the ^vetambara 
canon, assumed to be an inevitable stage in the normal human 
destiny. But the unreality of the overall picture does not impair the 
validity of Jinasena’s achievement. For the first time in Jaina 
history the rites de passage are incorporated in the religious frame- 
work instead of being thrust aside as proper only for the desacara\ 
the outline of existence is more complete, more rounded, than that 
offered by any previous Jaina writer. 

But the price to be paid for this is a considerable one. Hindu 
ideas and Hindu customs make deep inroads in those Jaina circles 
where Jinasena is an accepted authority, that is in the tradition 
represented by Jinasena, Camundaraya, and to some extent by 

1 SeeP.V. Kane, op. cit.,vol.ii,pt.i,pp. 188-267- , . .. 

* Ratna-sara , 153. 3 m^arnhita, inserted after u. 5. 


Asadhara. But it is not the elaborate pattern of the Adi-purana 
which is to survive when the Jainas as a community finally lose 
access to the sources of power. It is rather in the fifteenth-century 
^vetambara work, the Acara-dinakara , that we find a picture of 
the samskaras that is still recognizable, whilst the seventeenth- 
century Digambara Traivarnikacara , which has retained the names 
of Jinasena’s kriyas (at least of those which relate to the lay life), 
describes in fact virtually the same rites as those given in the Acara- 

Of the fifty-three kriyas the majority record stages in the ascetic’s 
progress and only the first twenty-two are germane to the present 
study: they are listed below together with those noted by Vard- 
hamana and those in fact described by Somasena: 




(i) garbhadhana 


(3) priti 


(3) supriti 


(4) dhyti 


(5) moda 


(6) priyodbhava (jata- 




(7) nama-karman 


(8) bahir-yana 




(9) nisadya 



(10) anna-prasana 



(ij) vyu?fi 


(12) kesa-vapa (caula- 




(13) lipi-samkhyana 

a d hy ay anarambha 

lipi-sainkhyana (and 

(14) upaniti 



(15) vrata-carya 


(16) vratavatarana 



(17) vivaha 



(18) varpa-labha 


(19) ltula-carya 


(20) grhisita 


(21) praSanti 


(23) grha-tyaga 


(23) dik$a 



1. Garbhadhana 

This, as described by Jinasena, 1 is in effect a ritual coitus for the 

sake of begetting a son. 

It must take place at the rtu , that is when 
1 MPxxxviii. 69-76. 


the woman has taken her purifying bath after the cessation of the 
catamenia. Three cakras are placed on the right of the Jina image, 
three chattras on the left, and three holy fires in front. Husband 
and wife, reciting mantras , carry out the Jina-piija and then make 
oblations to the three fires as was done, says Jinasena , 1 * at the 
nirvana of the Jina. They are then to copulate without passion for 
the sake of procreation. 

The details furnished by the Traivarnikacara z are worth noting 
if only as evidence of the inroads of Hinduism during the seven 
centuries which separate Somasena from Jinasena. The garbha- 
dhana is envisaged — as was no doubt Jinasena’s intention— as an 
act of religious preparation by day followed by a ritual coitus by 
night. Before intercourse the woman is to bathe her pudenda with 
the panca-gavya and the man to say a prayer to the goddess of the 
yoni\ and during the act he is to think on the Jina and recite the 
namaskara. Amongst the beliefs noted are the need to light a candle 
— copulation in the dark causes poverty — to wear green, and to chew 
betel. Sexual congress during the period immediately after men- 
struation described as the kama-yajna for laymen is not only sug- 
gested but made obligatory, since— and here the Hindu influence 
shows itself at its strongest— if the couple fail to approach each 
other during the rtu they will be submerged with the pitrs in a ter- 
rible hell. 

In the Acara-dinakara 3 the garbhadhana is given quite a different 
meaning : it is a ceremony performed in the fifth month after con- 
ception to strengthen the foetus in the womb. Vardhamana lays 
down that like all other kriyds up to and including vivaha it may 
be performed either by a Jaina brahmin or by a k$nllaka (here 
used in its modern sense of a layman in the eleventh pratima) and 
does not require the presence of a sadhu. 

2. Priti 

This ceremony is performed in the third month of pregnancy 
by brahmins who are prtta . The Jina-puja is to be made with 
mantras , an arch (torana) being erected over the door and two full 
water vessels (kalasa) placed alongside it. If the householder has 
the means he should arrange for the playing of drums and the 
sounding of bells . 4 

1 MPxxxviii. 72. 

3 ADK, pp. sb-6a. 

2 TrA viii. 29-51. 

4 MP xxxviii. 77~79- 


The Traivarnikacara mentions the names only of this and the 
two following kriyas without giving details. 

3. Supriti 

This is carried out in the fifth month by good laymen paramo- 
pasaka ) who are su-prita. Like the garbhadhana it is to take place in 
the presence of the fires kindled before the Jina image . 1 

4. Dhrti 

This is to be performed in the seventh month and once again by 
layman and in accordance with the same ritual. Its purpose is to 
strengthen the foetus in the womb . 2 

5. Moda 

Jinasena prescribes that this ceremony is to take place a little 
before the completion of the ninth month, being performed by 
brahmins in order to fatten the foetus (garbha-pustyai). The woman 
is decked in her ornaments and made to wear a gatrika-bandha 
(apparently a girdle on which mantras have been written) as well as 
a bracelet to serve as a phylactery . 3 

The moda described by Somasena 4 would seem more properly 
to correspond to the priti of Jinasena since it is performed in the 
third month. The woman rubs her body with oil, bathes with water, 
takes a fruit in her hand, and makes the Jina-puja . Then together 
with her husband she goes to the temple to make the eightfold piija 
to the arhats, and to the yaks as and yaksims. The man touches her 
and ties a yantra to her neck. 

The ceremony, which really in time sequence corresponds to the 
moda , is, in the Acara-dinakaraf the pumsavana, a direct borrow- 
ing from Hinduism designed essentially to ensure the birth of a son. 
Vardhamana lays down that this is to be carried out in the eighth 
month from conception when all the pregnancy longings ( dohala ) 
have been fulfilled and the breasts are full of milk. The woman is 
clad in new clothes and taken outdoors by night whilst mantras 
intended to ensure an easy delivery are recited. Gifts of money 
and sweetmeats are distributed. On this occasion the presence of 
the husband is not essential. That Vardhamana’ s description of this 

1 MP xxxviii. 80-8 1. 2 Ibid. 8a. 

3 Ibid. 83-84. 4 TrA viii. 5-62. 

5 ADK, pp. 86-Q&. 


kriya has a connexion with the moda seems suggested by the 
epithet tac-charira-purm-bham-pramoda-mpam ‘expressing the joy 
that her body is full* used in the opening sentence. 

6. Priyodbhava or Jata-karman 

The details of this, the birth ceremony are, according to 
Jinasena, 1 too extensive to be given in his Adi-purana and may 
be found in the Upasakadhyayana . The essential features are the 
reciting of mantras and meditation on the birth of the Jina. 

In the Acara-dinakara 2 the main preoccupation at birth is the 
horoscope. Whilst the woman is in labour in the sutika-grha the 
guru should wait with the astrologer near at hand praying to 
the paramesthins. The astrologer must be informed of the exact 
moment of birth in order to cast the horoscope. A prayer is made 
to the goddess Ambika to guard the child. No largesse is to be dis- 
tributed on this occasion because of the birth impurity. 

Vardhamana describes a number of ceremonies following upon 
the birth for which there are no parallels in the Adi-purana . These 
include the ksirasana 3 or putting of the infant to suck, the suryendu- 
darsana + or solemn showing of the sun and moon to the mother 
and newly born child, and the sasti-samkara? or adoration of the 
eight goddesses who are called ‘the mothers'. When the birth 
pollution is at an end — its duration varies with a person’s caste — 
mother and child and all the members of the family bathe and the 
purification ceremony or hci-kaman 6 is celebrated. 

7. Nama-karman 

Twelve days after the birth at an auspicious time for parents and 
child a name that will prosper the family is to be conferred on the 
child. This is to be chosen from among the 1,008 names of the 
Jina by the ghata-pattra method, that is, by drawing from a pot 
filled with scraps of paper on which names have been written, one 
name at hazard. 7 

The Trawarnikdcara 8 says that this is to be performed on the 
twelfth, sixteenth, twentieth, or thirty-second day after birth or 
at the first anniversary. The father writes down the name praying 
to the lord of a 1,008 names and then makes an offering to the 

1 MP xxxviii. 85-86. 

4 ADK, pp. 

7 MP xxxviii. 87-89. 

z ADK, pp. 9&-10&. 3 ADK, p. 120. 

5 ADK 126-136. 6 ADK 140-14*. 

8 TrAviii. 1 11-25. 


In the Acara-dinakara 1 the family has to assemble with the guru 
and astrologer on the same day as the suci-karman or a day or so 
later. After the horoscope has been exhibited the guru whispers 
to an aunt the name agreed on by the family. Then after a Jina- 
piija at home or in the temple she makes known this name. 

8. Bahir-yana 

This ceremony takes place from two to four months after birth 
when for the first time the child is taken outdoors by the mother 
or the nurse. The gifts he receives on that occasion from his kins- 
folk are kept and only handed over to him when he assumes the 
administration of his father’s estate . 2 

Somasena 3 understands by the bahir-yana (performed in the first, 
third, or fourth month of life) the child’s first visit to the temple 
with his parents and kinsfolk. In honour of the occasion gifts of 
clothing are made to the sangha and there is a general distribution 
of betel. 

9. Nisadya 

In this ceremony the child is seated on a specially adorned couch 
whilst puja is made to the Jina . 4 The name only is mentioned by 

10. Anna-pra^ana 

This is the weaning ceremony placed by Jinasena 5 in the seventh 
or eighth month and again accompanied by a puja. Somasena 6 gives 
the additional detail that after the puja the child is put on the 
father’s lap and given some rice mixed with sugar, milk, and ghee 
to eat. 

The Acara-dmakara 7 places this ceremony in the sixth month 
for a boy and in the fifth month for a girl. Various types of grain 
and fruits belonging to the region are offered in puja to the Jina. 
The image is then bathed with the pancamrta , some of which is 
given to the child. Offerings are then set before the family divinity 
and the mother puts some of this consecrated food in the child’s 

1 ADR 14&-15&. 

3 TrA viii. 126-30. 

5 Ibid. 95. 

7 ADR i6a-i66. 

z MP xxx viii. 90-92. 
4 MP xxxviii. 93-94. 
6 TrA viii. 136-9. 




This ceremony, which takes place a year later, comprises puja, 
distribution of largesse, and the feasting of kinsfolk . 1 It, too, 
receives only a bare mention in the Traivarnikacara. 

12 . Ke6a-vapa or Caula-karman 

After the child has been sprinkled with scented water his head 
is shaved : whether or not a top-knot is left depends on his caste. 
When he has been bathed and anointed and his best ornaments put 
on he is made to reverence the munis and is given a benediction by 
his kinsfolk . 2 

Somasena 3 says that this kriya should be performed in the first, 
third, fifth, or seventh year of age. If the previous kriyas have been 
neglected a penance should first be carried out. It should not be 
done at a time when the mother is pregnant again or else she will 
have a miscarriage or bring forth a still-born child. 

The same limits of age are prescribed by the Acara-dinakara 4 * 
for the karna-vedha or ear-piercing ceremony which symbolically 
renders the child receptive to the Jaina teaching. The caula - 
karman 5 is to follow at an unspecified date after this, a complete 
tonsure being prescribed for siidras , and the top-knot being left in 
the case of the higher castes. Food, clothes, and begging-bowls are 
to be distributed to the monks and clothes and ornaments given 
to the barber. 

13. Lipi-samkhyana 

At the age of five the child is to begin to learn to read and write 
and a learned layman is to be engaged as teacher . 6 Somasena? 
divides this kriya into two : lipi-samkhydna and pustaka-grahana. 
The accompanying puja is directed to Sarasvati. 

14. UPANlTI 8 

This, the initiation or investiture, coincides with the conferment 
of the vows by which a boy is dedicated to the life of a student (all 
he has learned hitherto is to read and write). These he must assume 

1 MP xxxviii. 96-97. 

3 TrAviii. 147-62. 

s ADK, pp. i8a-i8&. 

7 TrAviii. 163-81. 

8 Asadhara describes this kriya in 

similar details (SDhA vii. 20). 

2 Ibid. 98-roi. 

4 ADK, pp. lya-ijb. 

6 MP xxxviii. 102-3- 

the Sagdra-dharmdmftay giving exactly 

0 737 



in the Jaina temple after making piija at the same time that he puts on 
the girdle of munja grass (maimji-bandha). He will be wearing a 
top-knot, will be clad in a white loincloth and a white outer cloth, and 
will have no ornaments but will be given the sacred thread which is 
symbolic of his vows. He may take a new name suitable for this 
way of life. He must live by begging his food: a boy of princely 
family may, however, satisfy this requirement by begging food from 
the women’s apartments of the palace; but in any event the best 
of what he obtains in this way must be first offered in puja to the 
Jina, The recommended age for this ceremony is the eighth year 
from conception. 1 

The Acara- din akara 2 makes it clear that the upaniti is only for 
the higher castes ; for brahmins study begins at eight, for ksatriyas 
at ten, for vaisyas at twelve, terminating in all cases at sixteen. 

15. Vrata-carya 

During the period passed in study the maimji-bandha in three 
coils about the loins stands for the ratna-traya , the white loincloth 
symbolizes the purity of the arhats , the yajhopavita on the chest 
signifies the seven parama-sthanas , and the perfect tonsure rein- 
forces the tonsure of mind, speech, and body. The brahmacarin 
must keep the five anu-vratas . Toothpicks, betel, and collyrium are 
forbidden to him and he must bathe only with water without using 
perfumes. He must not lie on a bed but directly on the ground, and 
his body must not have contact with other bodies. He must study 
first of all the duties of a layman and then philosophy, grammar, 
metrics, artha-sastra, astrology, divination, and mathematics. 3 

16. Vratavatarana 

On the conclusion of his studies he drops the special vows but 
abides by the ordinary vows, observing for his life long the mula- 
gunas. With the permission of his guru he assumes clothes, orna- 
ments, and garlands. Though he may abandon the vow of absti- 
nence from luxuries he should continue to keep the vow of sexual 
continence until the next kriya. If he belongs to a caste which lives 
by weapons he may retain them either for the sake of his livelihood 
or for outward show. 4 

1 MP xxxviii. 104-8. 

3 MP xxxviii. 109-20. 

2 ADK, p. 186. 
4 Ibid. 121-6. 



17. VlVAHA 

With his guru’s permission the young man is now able to marry 
a girl from a suitable family. Members of the higher castes must 
mak Qpuja to the Jina and perform the marriage ceremony in a holy 
spot before fire. For seven days after the wedding the couple 
should have no sexual relations ; they should go away to another 
region, if possible to a place of pilgrimage and then return home 
with great pomp. At the proper time, i.e, at the rtu , they should 
copulate for the procreation of children. 1 

As has already been noted the oldest texts avoid all mention 
of marriage, and both Digambaras and Svetambaras take over 
Hindu customs, often following local usages. In general from 
Hemacandra’s time onwards the eight forms of marriage recog- 
nized by the Hindu dharma-sastras are listed, despite the fact that 
some of them run counter to Jaina ethics: Asadhara 2 in fact has 
bluntly characterized the gandharm-vivaha as a secondary mani- 
festation of the vyasana of whoring. In the sphere of number 
magic it might not be inappropriate here to point out the signifi- 
cance of the number 4, or more often 8, in connexion with 
marriage. The ideal age of marriage is sixteen for a man, twelve 
for a girl, or else twenty for a man and sixteen for a girl. In the 
popular tales a young man, if a merchant, is usually married to 
eight girls at the same time, whilst kings have a harem of 16,000 
wives. The Sraddha-guna-vivarana? records sixteen desirable cha- 
racteristics in a potential wife and sixteen undesirable ones. 

Certain aspects of marriage, at least from the Svetambara angle, 
have already been noted in discussing the sravaka-gunas. Vard- 
hamana adds little to these rather general considerations though he 
would appear to advocate pre-puberty marriage, 4 but gives a 
picture of the pomp of the ceremonies involved. He would regard 
the prajapatya-vivaha as the only form of marriage both desirable 
and possible in the present age. . 

The Traivarnikacara 5 recognizes five phases m the marriage: 

(i) the formal undertaking ( vag-dana ): the bride’s father says: 

T will give my daughter’. The bridegroom’s father replies: 

‘I accept’; 

1 MP xxxviii. 127-34- 
3 grGuV i 7 < 3 -i 8 <i. 
s TrA xi. 41-64. 

2 SDhA iii. 33 - 
+ ADK, p. 31b. 


(ii) the giving away (pradana) : the bride is given with her silken 
dress and ornaments after benediction by brahmins ; 

(iii) the choosing (varana): the bridegroom’s father tells the 
brahmins: ‘Choose a girl for me 1 , and they reply: ‘we 
choose her’; 

(iv) the hand-clasping ( pani-pidana ) : the bride takes the bride- 
groom’s hands in hers ; 

(v) the scattering of buds (ankuraropana). 

The problem of monogamy or polygamy has, as noted in discuss- 
ing the brahma-vrata, more than once preoccupied the acaryas 
and theoretically at least any second marriage has been held to be 
a form of the para-vivaha-karana aticara of this vow. Usages 
differ with locality but in general remarriage is admitted after 
varying intervals of time if a woman proves sterile or gives birth 
only to still-born children or to female children . 1 The later Digam- 
bara writers recognize the custom of the dharma-patni and the 
bhoga-patni , of which Rajamalla 2 gives a very clear explanation, 

A wife, he says, is a woman wedded in the presence of one’s 
kinsfolk after making puja to Jina, sastra , and gurus ; any other 
woman is only a concubine. The wife may be either a dharma- 
patni, a woman of one’s own caste who collaborates in one’s re- 
ligious duties, or a bhoga-patni belonging to another caste who, 
apart from the fact that she is legally wedded, is indistinguishable 
from a concubine. It is only the former who can carry out the 
religious duties of the home and it is her son who will take his 
father’s place when he retires from the world. The term bhoga- 
patni does not seem to be recorded before the Lati-samhitd but the 
dharma-patni figures already in Medhavin’s srdvakacara , 3 Soma- 
sena 4 would recognize the first wife as the dharma-patni and the 
second as the bhoga-patni but following a local usage of the Kan- 
nada country would require a symbolic wedding to a plant (the 
arka-vivahay before any third marriage can be contracted. 

18. Varna-labha 

In Jinasena’s 6 picture the young man who has completed the 
kriyd of marriage is still dependent on his father and still living in 

1 TrA xi. 197-8. z Lati-samhita, ii. 179-86. 

3 Dhar?na-samgraha-sravakacdra , ix. 207. 4 TrA xi. 200-5. 

5 For this custom see, inter alia, M. N. Srinivas, Marriage and Family in 
Mysore , p. 108. 6 MP xxxviii. 135-41. 



his house. The father now, after making the Jina-puja , transfers 
property to his son in the presence of leading laymen as witnesses, 
bidding him set up house on his own. 

19. Kula-carya 

This is nothing other than the family duty ( kula-dharma ) of a 
householder, it amounts to leading a blameless life, making piija to 
the Jina, and carrying out the six daily duties , 1 

20 . Grhi^ita 

If a man carries out his duties as a householder and holds firmly 
to the dharma he may attain the status of a grhasthacarya which 
might perhaps be translated as ‘elder’, and seems to imply that he 
is the object of special respect and that his advice is listened to. 
Jinasena 2 * calls him a dvija-sattama (an excellent man of good caste), 
a grama-yati (one who within the village enjoys the esteem given 
to an ascetic), or a nistaraka (one who helps across the ocean of the 
samara). This last term appears also in the Sdgdra-dharmamrta? 

21. PraSanti 

The layman will now have reached the summit of the lay life and 
it is time for him to think of withdrawing from the world. He is 
gradually to transfer the burdens of active life to his son and to seek 
tranquillity, attaching less and less value to material things and 
devoting himself to meditation and fasting . 4 

22. Grha-tyaga 

This is the effective renunciation of worldly life corresponding to 
the attainment of the eleventh pratima and expressing itself in 
sakala-datti. According to Asadhara 5 the layman is to summon a 
worthy son or other person from his gotra and in the presence or 

witnesses, who must be co-religionists belonging to his caste, say: 

‘My dear friend, up till now we have kept the household dispensa- 
tion, but now we desire to abandon it, it is for you to take our post. 
A good son is ready to aid his father when he sets out to devote 
himself to the cultivation of his soul, any other son is but an enemy 
in the guise of a son. You must assume control of this property 

1 MP xxxviii. I 4 Z ~ 3 ‘ 

3 SDhA ii. 56. 

5 SDhA vii, 34 - 37 * 

2 Ibid. 144-7* 

4 MP xxxviii. 148-9. 


and the religious duties and the dependants.’ Jinasena 1 prescribes 
for the occasion a solemn piija after which the layman in the pre- 
sence of his loved ones entrusts everything he possesses to his son, 
saying: ‘This is our ancestral tradition which you must preserve. 
Our property is to be divided into three parts, one-third to be 
allocated for religious purposes, one-third for the upkeep of your 
household, and one-third for distribution among your brothers 
and sisters, who are to have equal shares. You, as the eldest, must be 
the protector of my children. Mak e piija to gurus and Jinas.’ 

23. Diksa 

The reception into the monastic life closes the first phase of a 
man’s existence on earth. It should follow a period spent in the 
eleventh pratima. 

Almost all the lay kriyas that have been discussed are accom- 
panied by a Jina-puja and by the recitation of appropriate mantras. 
Jinasena insists on their use and in fact the whole course of later 
Digambara Jainism is characterized by the importance given to the 
magic word. Jinasena also stresses that his descriptions represent 
only a brief summary of the most important features of each cere- 
mony for which varying details have been given by writers of old. 
The kriyas continue to hold an important place in the main current 
of the Mula Sangha for at least several centuries, for Asadhara in 
the Sdgara-dharmamrta makes a casual reference to them (‘ garbha - 
dhana, priti , supriti ,’ &c.) implying that they are too well known 
to need description and, even much later, Medhavin mentions 
them with the same familiarity. Yet in the end the Digambaras — 
like the Svetambaras, as we have seen — virtually borrow the 
samskaras of their Hindu neighbours. 

Jinasena offers another, more general pattern for dividing 
all existence into seven stages to which he also applies the designation 
kriya. Of these three apply to the human incarnation : 2 

(i) Saj-jati. This implies birth in a good family, covering purity 
of lineage on the father’s side (kula) and on the mother’s side ( jati ). 
With this advantage of birth it is easy to obtain the ratna-traya — 
right belief, right knowledge, and right conduct — symbolized by 
the three threads of the yajnopavita conferred on the boy in the 
upaniti ceremony. The remains of the piija offering placed on him 

1 MP xxxviii. 150-6. 

z MP xxxix. 8 i-aoo. 



at the same time indicate his confirmation (sthiri-karana) in the 
faith. He is thereby given a new birth, not from a human womb, but 
from the womb of divine knowledge and is considered to be 
possessed of saj-jati. 

(ii) Sad-grhitva . In this stage he keeps to the household life and 
follows a licit profession. The four Jaina asramas and the division 
into paksa (the disposition towards ahimsa ), carya (the undertaking 
not to commit himsa for the sake of propitiating a deity or achieving 
a mantra , or in order to procure food or medicine) and sadhana (the 
purification of the soul by sallekhana ) J are described. 

(iii) Parivrajya. The life as a monk. 

1 Cf. SDhA i. 19-20. 


ATICARAS of the ahimsA-vrata 

(a) Siddhasena’s commentary on the Tattvartha-sutra 
tatra bandhanam bandhah samyamanam rajju-damakadibhih. 
hananam vadhah — tadanam kas&dibhih. 

chavih — sarlram tvag va tac-chedah patanam dvidha-karanam. 
bharanam bharah — puranam atlva badham susthu bharo ’tibharas 
tasyaropanam — skandha-prsthadi-sthapanam atibhararopanam. 
annam a^anadi, panam peyam udakadi tayor adanam nirodhah. 

abhimata-de£a-gati-nirodha-hetur bandhah. 

danda-kasa-vetradibhir abhighatah praninam vadhah, naprana-vyaparo- 
panam, tatah prag evasya vinivrttatvat. 
karna-nasikadinam avayavanam apanayanam chedah. 
nyayya-bharad atirikta-vahanam atibhararopanam. 
gav-adinam ksut-pipasa-badha-karaiiam anna-pana-nirodhah. 

bandhanam bandhah — samyamanam rajju-damanakadibhih. 
hananam vadhah — tadanam ka^adibhih. 

chavih — Sarlram tasya chedah — patanam karapattradibhih. 
bharanam bharah — atlva bharanam atibharah prabhutasya puga-phala- 
deh skandha-prsthy — adisv aropanam ity arthah. 
bhaktam adanam odanadi, panam peyam udakadi tasya ca vyavacchedah- 
nirodho ’danam. 


bandhah — rajju-damanakadibhih samyamanam. 
vadhah — ka^adibhir hananam . . . 

chavih — tvak tad-yogac charlram api chavis tasya cchedah — asi-putrika- 
dibhih patanam chavicchedah, 

bharanam bharah — atlva bharo ’tibharah — prabhutasya puga-phalader 
gav-adi-prsthadav arohanam. 

bhakta-panayor bhojanodakayor vyavacchedo nirodho bhakta-pana- 
vyavacchedah evam avisesena bandhadinam akaraniyatayopade^e 
sati priya-putrader vinaya-grahana-roga-cikitsady-arthanam api tesam 



vrata-malinya-nimittata prasajyate, tatas tat-pariharartham aha 
‘krodhadi-dusita-manah’ — kopa-lobhadi-kasaya-kalankitantahkaranah, 
prani-prana-prahana-nirapeksa ity arthah . . . 
desasya bhanjanad desasyaiva ca palanad aticara-vyapaddah pravartate 
tad uktam. 

‘na marayamiti-krta-vratasya . . 

bandhadi-grahanasya copalaksanatvan mantra-tan tra-prayogadayo ’nye 
’py evam atraticarataya drsyah. 

(e) Abhayadeya’s commentary on the Upasaka-da§ah 
bandho dvipadadlnam rajjv-adina samyamanam. 
vadho yasty-adibhis tadanam. 
chavicchedah — ^arTravayava-cchedah. 

atibhararopanam — tathavidha-sakti-vikalanam maha-bhararopanam. 
bhakta-pana-vyavacchedah — a&na-paniy apra d anam . 
ihayam vibhagah pujyair uktam. 

‘bandha-vaham chavi-chedam . . .’ ( verse 10 of Sravaka-dharma - 
pancaiaka quoted) tatha. 

‘na marayamiti-krta-vratasya 

(/) Hemacandra’s commentary on the Yoga-sastra 
bandho rajjv-adina go-mahisy-adinam niyantranam, sva-putradlnam 
api vinaya-grahanartham kriyate, atah ‘krodhad’ ity uktam, krodhat 
prabala-kasayodayad yo bandhah sa prathamo ’ticarah. 
chavih dariram tvag va tasyah chedo dvaidhl-karanam, sa ca pada- 
‘ valmikopahata-padasya putrader api kriyate . . . 
adhikasya vodhum a&kyasya bharasyaropanam go-karabha-rasabha- 
manusyadeh skandhe prsthe sirasiva vahanayadhiropanam . . . 
praharo lagudadina tadanam krodhad eva . . . 
annadi-rodho bhojana-panader nisedhah krodhad eva . . . 

(g) Devendra’s commentary on the Sraddha-dina- 

bandho rajjv-adibhih samyamanam. 
vadho dvipadadlnam nirdaya-tadanam. 
chavi-cchedah karnadi-karttanam. 
atibharah gakty-anapeksam guru-bhararopanam. 


(h) A^adhara’s commentary on the Sagara-dharmAmrta 
bandho rajjv-adina go-manusyadlnam niyantranam, sa ca putradinam 
api vinaya-grahanartham vidhiyate. 


vadho danda-ka^ady-abhighatah. 
chedah karna-nasikadlnam avayavanam apanayanam. 
atibharadhiropanam nyayya-bharad atiriktasya vodhum a^akyasya bhara- 
syaropanam vrsabhadinam prstha-skandhadau vahanopadhiropanam. 
bhukti-nirodho ’nna-panadi-nisedhah, tikspa-ksudhadi-piditah prani 
mriyata ity annadi-nirodho na kasyapi kartavyah. 


{a) Siddhasena’s commentary on the Tattvartha-sGtra 
nyasyate — niksipyata iti nyasah — rupakady-arpanam tasyapaharah — 
apalapah yo ’tra dravyapaharah parasva-svlkarana-laksanah sana viva- 
ksitah, tasyadattadana-visayatvat, yat tatra vacanam apalapakam yena 
karana-bhutena nyaso ’pahriyate apalapyate tad vacanam nyasapa- 
harah . . . 

rahah — ekantas tatra bhavam rahasyam rahasyenabhyakhyanam abhi- 
samsanam asad-adhyaropanam rahasyabhyakhyanam . . . 
rahasyena karmana ’bhyakhyanam stii-pumsayoh paraspareneti prata- 
rana-dvarena — yadi vrddha strx tatas tasyai kathayati f ayam tava 
bharta kumaryam ati-prasaktah’ atha tarunlm tata evam aha ‘ayam te 
bharta praudha-cestitayam madhyama-vayasi yositi prasaktas’ tatha 
’yam khara-kamo mrdu-kama’ iti va parihasati . . . 
akaro ’nguli-hasta-bhru-netra-kriya-sirah-kampadir aneka-rupah para- 
sarira-vartl, tena tadrda akarena sahavina-bhuto yo mantro gudhah 
parabhiprayas tam upalabhya sahakaram mantram asiiyayaviskaroty 
esa sakara-mantra-bhedah prakasanam . . . 
etad uktam bhavati — anadhikrta-sannidhau cesta-vi^esaih svakuta-pra- 
kasanam akarah tam eva spastataram udaharati — paisimyam guhya- 
mantra-bhedal ceti . . . mantranam mantro gupta-bhasanam rajadi- 
karya-sambandhas tasya bhedah prakhyapanam . . . 
kutam asad-bhutam likhyata iti lekhah karanam kriya kuta-lekha-kriya 
anya-mudraksara-bimba-svarupa-lekha-karanam . . . 
mithyopadesah — asad-upade^ah parenanyasyatisandhanam svayam va 
’tisandhanam anyasya . . . 

pramattasya vacanam. para-pida-jananam ‘vahyantam kharostrah, 
hanyantam dasyava’ iti. 

( c ) Haribhadra’s commentary on the AvaSyaka 
sahasa — analocya abhyakhyanam sahasabhyakhyanam abhi^amsanam 
asad-adhyaropanam tad yatha ‘cauras tvam paradariko’ vety-adi. 
rahah — ekantas tatra bhavam rahasyam tena tasmin va abhyakhyanam, 
etad uktam bhavati — ekante mantrayamanan vakti — ete hldam cedam 
ca rajapakaritvadi mantrayanti. 


sva-dare mantra-bhedah sva-dara-mantra-bhedah— sva-dara-mantra- 
prakasanamsva-kalatra-vi^rabdha-visistavastha-mantritanya kathanam 

ity arthah. 

kutam asad-bhutam likhyata iti lekhah tasya karanam kriya kuta-lekha- 
kriya— kuta-lekha-karanam, anya-mudraksara-bimba-svarupa-lekha- 
karanam ity arthah ... 

nyasyate— niksipyata iti nyasah— rupyakady-arpanarri tasyapaharanam 

(d) Abhayadeva’s commentary on the ^ rav aka- d harm a- 


sahasa analocyabhyakhyanam asad-dosadhyaropanam yatha ‘cauras 
tvam paradariko’ vcty-adi rahasa ekantena hetimabhyakhyanam, etad 
uktam bhavati — rahasi mantrayamanan abhidhatte— ete hidam cedam 
ca raja-viruddhadikam mantrayate. 
sva-dara-mantra-bhedam — sva-kalatra-visrabdha-bhasitanya-kathanam, 
dara-grahanam ceha mitrady-upalaksanartham , . . 
mrsa — allka-vadana-visaya upadeso yasya sa tatha tad bhavas tatta tam 
mrsopade^atam athava mrsopade^a eva mrsopade&kah, idam evam 
caivam ca bruhlty-adikam asatyabhidhana-siksanam atas tam. 
kuta-lekhasya — asad-bhutartha-sucakaksara-lekhanasya karanam— vi- 
dhanam kuta-lekha-karanam. 

‘sahas’-abbhakkhan’-ai jananto jai karejja to bhango 
jai puna ’nabhog’-aihimto to hoi aiyaro’. 

(e) Abhayadeva’s commentary on the Upasaka-da£a# 
sahasa analocyabhyakhyanam asad-dosadhyaropanam sahasabhya- 

khyanam yatha ‘cauras tvam’ ity-adi . . . raha ekantas tena hetunabhy- 
akhyanam raho ’bhyakhyanam, etad uktam bhavati rahasi mantra- 
yamananam, vakti ‘ete hidam cedam ca rajapakaradi mantrayante’ 
iti . . . 

sva-dara-sambandhino mantrasya visrambha-jalpasya bhedah praka^a- 
nam sva-dara-mantra-bhedah . . . mrsopadeSah paresam asatyopa- 
desah . . . 

kuta-lekha-karanam asad-bhutarthasya lekhasya vidhanam. 

(/) Hemacandra’s commentary on the Yoga-Sastra 
sahasa analocyabhyakhyanam asad-dosadhyaropanam yatha ‘cauras 
tvam paradariko’ vety-adi. 

anye tu sahasabhyakhyana-sthane rahasyabhyakhyanam pathanti, 
vyacaksate ca— raha ekantas tatra bhavam rahasyam rahasyenabhya- 
khyanam abhi&msanam asad-adhyaropanam rahasyabhyakhyanam 
y at ha— yadi vrddha-strl tatas tasyai kathayati ‘ayam tava bharta 


tarunyam atiprasaktah’ atha taruni tata evam aha ‘ayam te bharta 
praudha-cestitayam madhyama-vayasi yositi prasaktah’, tatha ’yam 
khara-kamo mrdu-kama’ iti va parihasati . . . 

‘sahas’-abbhakkhan’-ai . . . ’ (verse as above quoted) 
guhyam guhaniyam na sarvasmai yat kathamyam rajadi-karya-sambad- 

tasyanadhikrtenaivakarehgitadibhir jhatvanyasmai prakasanam guhya- 
bhasanam yatha ‘ete hldam idam ca raj a-viruddhadikam mantrayante, 
athava guhya-bhasanam paiSunyam . . . 
viSvasta visvasam upagata ye mitra-kalatradayas tesam mantro man- 
tranam tasya bhedah prakasanam, guhya-bhasane guhyam akaradina 
vijnayanadhikrta eva guhyam iha tu svayam mantrayitvaiva mantram 
bhinattlty anayor bhedah . . . 

mithyopadeso ’sad-upadeSah, pratipanna-satya-vratasya hi para-pida- 
karam yacanam asatyam eva tatah pramadat para-plda-karane 
upadeSe aticaro yatha ‘vahyantam kharostradayo hanyantam dasyava’ 
iti . . . 

kutam asad-bhutam tasya lekho lekhanam kuta-lekhah-anya-svarupak- 
sara-mudra-karanam . . . 

(g) Devendra’s commentary on the Sraddha-dina- 


sahasa — analocyabhyakhyanam asad-dosadhiropanam ‘cauro ’yam’ ity- 
ady-abhidhanam sahasabhyakhyanam. 
rahasi — ekante mantrayamanan vlksya idam cedam raja-viruddhadikam 
ete mantrayante ity-ady-abhyakhyanan raho ’bhyakhyanam. 
sva-daranam visuddha-bhasitasyanyasmai kathanam sva-dara-mantra- 

ajnata-mantrausadhady-upadeSanam mrsopadesah. 
anya-mudraksara-bimbadina kutasyarthasya lekhanam kuta-lekhah. 

(h) ASadhara’s commentary on the Sagara-dharmamrta 

mithyadik — mithyopadesah, abhyudaya-nihsreyasarthesu kriya-viSesesv 
anyasyanyatha pravartanam parena sandehapannena prsthe ’jnana- 
dinanyatha kathanam ity arthah, athava pratipanna-satya-vratasya 
para-pida-karam vacanam asatyam eva tatah pramadat para-plda- 
karane upadese aticaro yatha ‘vahyantam kharostradayo hanyantam 
dasyava iti nisprayojanam vacanam. 

raho-’bhyakhya rahasy ekante strl-pumbhyam anusthitasya kriya- 
visesasyabhyakhya prakaSanam yaya dampatyor anyasya va pumsah 
striya va raga-prakarsa utpadyate. 



mantra-bhedah — anga-vikara-bhruksepadibhih parabhiprayam jnatva- 
suyadina tat-prakatanam vigvasita-mitradibhir va atmana saha mantri- 
tasya lajj adi-karasyarthasya prakasanam. 
kuta-lekha-kriya — anycnanuktam anusthitam ca yet ldmcit tasya para- 
prayoga-vasad evam tenoktam anusthitam ceti vahcana-nimittam 
lekhanam, anya-sarupaksara-mudra-karanam ity anye. 
nyasapaharah — nyastasya niksiptasya hiranyadi-dravyasya am^am ekam 
amiam vismartur vismarana-£lasya nikseptur anujna. 


(a) Siddhasena’s commentary on the Tattvartha-sOtra 
cittam cetano samjnanam upayogo ’vadhanam iti paryayah . . , 
sacitta ahSro va yasya sacittam aharayatlti va sacittaharah, mula-kandall- 
kandardrakadi-sadharana-vanaspati-pratyeka-taru-garirani tad abhya- 
vaharah, prthvy-adi-kayanam va sacittanam . . . 
sacittena sambaddham karkatika-blja-kaulika-kulasya pakva-badaro- 
dumbaramra-phaladi bhaksayatah sacitta-sambaddhaharatvam . . . 
sacittena sammisraharah puspa-phala-vrihi-tilanam vyatimisra-moda- 
lcadi-khadyasya va kunthu-pipilikadi-suksma-jantu-vyatimisirasya- 
bhyavaharah— abhisavahara iti, sura-sauviraka-mam-saprakara-par- 
naky-ady-aneka-dravya-sahghata-nispannah sura-sldhu-madhu-vara- 
dir abhivrsya-vrkba-dravyopayogo va. 
duspakvaharah — duspakvam manda-pakvam abhinna-tandula-phala- 

losta-yava-godhuma-sthula-mandaka-kandukadi tasyabhyavahara 

aihika-pratyavaya-kari yavata vamsena sacetanas tavata para-lokam 
apy upahanti. 

(c) Haribhadra’s commentary on the AvaSyaka 
sacittam cetana samjnanam upayogo ’padhanam iti paryayaJ?. 
sacitto va aharo yasya sacittam aharayati iti va, mula-kandall-kandaka- 

rdrakadi-sadharana-pratyeka-taru-^arirani sacittani sacittam prtnvy- 
ady aharayatlti bhavana. 

sacitta-pratibaddhahiiro yatha vfkse pratibaddho gundadi pakva- 

apakvausadha-bhaksanatvam idam pradtam (sacitta-samm&ahara iti 
va pathantaram sacittena sammisra aharah sacitta-sammiSraharah, 
vally-Sdi puspadi va sammi&am). . , - , , , 

duspakvausadhi-bhaksanata duspakvah-asvinna ity arthah tad-bhak- 

tucchau?adhi-bhaksapata tuccha hi asara mudga-phaii-pfabh^y^, 
atra hi mahati viradhana alpa ca tustih, bahv.bhir apy athiko py 
apayah sambhavyate. 



sacittam sacetanam kandadi iha ca sarvatra nivrtti-visayi-krta-pravrttav 
apy aticarabhidhanam vrata-sapeksasyanabhogatikramadi-nibandha- 
na-pravrttya drastavyam, anyatha bhanga eva syat, atas tan- 
nivrtti-visayl-krtam bhaksayataya varjayatiti yogah. 
pratibaddham — sambaddham sacitta-vrksesu gundadi pakva-phaladi va, 
tad-bhaksanam hi savadyahara-varjakasya savadyahara-pravrtti- 
rupatvad anabhogadinaticarah, anyathasthikam tyaksyami, tasyaiva 
sacetanatvat, kataham tu bhaksayisyami tasyacetanatvat, iti buddhya 
pakvam kharjuradi-phalam mukhe praksipatah sacitta-varjakasya 
sacitta-pratibaddhaharo ’ticarah. 

‘apaula 5 — apakvam agnina asamskrtam. 

‘dupaola’ — duspakvam ardha-svinnam. 
tuccliam — nihsaram . . . 

adyav aticarau sacetana-kanda-phaladi-visayau itare tu saly-osadhi- 

(<?) Abhayadeva’s commentary on the Upasaka-daSah 

sacittaharah prthvy-ap-kaya-vanaspati-jlya-saiiranam sacetananam ab- 
hyavaharanam . . . 

sacitta-pratibaddhaharah — sacitte vrksadau pratibaddhasya gundader 

athava sacitte ’sthike pratibaddham yat pakvam acetanam Icharjura- 
phaladi tasya ‘sasthikasya kataham acetanam bhaksayisyamltarat pari- 
harisyami 5 iti bhavanaya mukha-ksepanam . . . 
apakvausadhih — apakvaya agninasamskrtaya osadheh 3aly-adi-kaya 
bhaksanata bhojanam . . , 

duspakvausadhih — duhpakva asvinna osadhayas tad bhaksanata, atica- 
rata casya pakva-buddhya bhaksayatah . . . 
tucchausadhih — tuccha asara osadhayo ’nispanna-mudga-phall-prabhr- 
tayah, tad-bhaksane hi mahatl viradhana svalpa ca tat-karya-trptih. 

(/) Hemacandra’s commentary on the Yoga-sastra 

sacittah kanda-mula-phaladih pfthivi-kayadir va. 
iha ca nivrtti-visayl-krta-pravrttau bhahga-sad-bhave ’py aticarabhi- 
dhanam vrata-sapeksasyanabhogatikramadina pravrttau drastavyam. 
tena sacittena sambaddhah pratibaddhah sacitta-sambaddhah, sace- 
tana-vrksadina sambaddho gundadih pakva-phaladir va, sacitta- 
ntarbljah kharjuramradih, tad-aharo hi sacittahara-varjakasyanabho- 
gadina savadyahara-pravrtti-rupatvad aticarah, athava bijam tyaksya- 
mi tasyaiva sacetanatvat kataham tu bhaksayisyami tasyacetanatvad 



iti buddhya pakvam kharjuradi-phalam mukhe praksipatah sacitta- 
varjakasya sacitta-pratibaddhaharah. 
sacittena misrah sabalah, aharah samm&raharah, yatha ardraka- 
dadima-bija-kulika-cirbhatikadi-mi^rah puranadih, tila-mkko yava- 
dhanadir va . . . 

abhisavo ’neka-dravya-sandhana-nispannah sura-sauvlrakadih, mamsa- 
prakara-khan.da.dir va sura-madhv-ady-abhisyandi-vfsya-dravyo- 
payogo va . . . 

duspakvo manda-pakvah sa casav aharas ca duspakvaharah, sa cardha- 
svinna-prthuka-tandula-yava-godhuma - sthula - mandaka - karkataka- 
phaladir aihika-pratyavaya-karl yavata camsena sacctanas tavata para- 
lokam apy upahanti . . . 

kecit tv apakvaharam apy aticaratvena varnayanti, apakvam cagnina yad 
asamskrtam tucchausadhi-bhaksanam api kecid aticaram ahuh, 
tucchausadhayas ca mudgadi-komala-simbi-rupfih . . . 

(g) Devendra’s commentary on the 3raddha-dina- 


krta-sacitta-pratyakhyanasya krta-tat-parinamasya va sacittam atiriktam 
anabhogadina abhyavaharatah sacittaharo ’ticarah. 
evam vrksa-stha-gundadi rajadanadi va sasthikam phalam mukhe 
praksipatah sacitta-pratibadhaharah. 
evam apakvasya — agnina asamskrtasyaparinata-kanikkader bhaksayato 

evam duspakvasya—prthukader duspakvausadhi-bhaksanata. 
tuccha — atrpti-hetutvad asara osadhyah komala-mudga-sinjadika bha- 
ksayatas tucchausadhi-bhaksanata. 

( h ) A^adhara’s commentary on the Sagara-diiarmA- 


tatra sacittam cetanavad dravyam harita-kayam, apakvam karvaty-adi, 
trasa-bahu-ghatety-adina nisiddhe ’py atra pravyttau bhanga 
sadbhave ’py aticarabhidhanam vrata-sapeksasyapranidhanatikra- 
madina pravrttau drastavyam. 

tena sambaddham sacittenopadlistam sacetana-vfksadina sambaddham 
gondadikam pakva-phaladikam sacittantarbijam kharjuramradikaip, 
tad-aharo hi sacittahara-varjakasyanabhogadina savadyahara-pravrtti- 
rupatvad aticarah, athava bljatn tyaksyami lasyaiva sacetanatv3t 
kataham tu bhaksayisyami tasyacetanatvad iti buddhya pakvaip. 
kharjuradi-phalam mukhe praksipatah sacitta-varjakasya sacitta- 

sammisram tena sacittena vyatikirnam vibhaktam a^akyam suksma- 
jantukam ity arthah athava sacitta^abalam tat-sammisham yatha 


ardraka-dadima-blja-cirbhatikadi-m&ram puranadikam, tila-mi^ram 
yava- dhanadikam . 

duspakvam santas tandula-bhavena atikledanena va dustam pakvam 
manda-pakvam va duspakvam tac carddlia-svinnam prthuka-tandula- 

abhisavam sauvlradi-dravam va vrsyam va. 


Central Archaeological Library, 


Call No. V! ^ 





Borrower No. 

Date of lesuo 

Date of Retom 




— v 

<A fg dvta ihck" 

dELHL . 


Please he^jns tO ^% 
clean and rnwnfr